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Title: A Gothic Grammar
       with selections for reading and a glossary

Author: Wilhelm Braune

Translator: Gerhard H. Balg

Release Date: October 29, 2015 [EBook #50336]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Richard Tonsing, Heiko Evermann, Germanic
Lexicon Project (provider of the scans) and the Online
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The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

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Milwaukee, Wis.: THE AUTHOR.

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Electrotyped and Printed by the Germania Pub. Co., Milwaukee, Wis.

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The main object of this Gothic Grammar is to render service to academic instruction, as a basis for lectures and Gothic exercises; it is intended, at the same time, to afford the student sufficient aid in acquiring a practical knowledge of the Gothic language and thus enable him to follow more advantageously the lectures on historical and comparativ grammar. For this purpose the Gothic Fonology and Inflection ar, as far as possibl, set forth by themselves, without resorting to Comparativ Grammar for an explanation of the facts. Occasionally another Germanic dialect, as the Old High German, has rather been referd to. The linguistic elucidation is left to the lectures. To him, however, who lerns Gothic from this book, without any possibility of hearing lectures, wishing at the same time to gain profounder knowledge, there may be especially recommended the following helps: K. Brugmann's 'Grundriss der vergleichenden grammatik' and Fr. Kluge's 'Vorgeschichte der altgermanischen dialekte' (in Paul's 'Grundriss der germ. philologie', I, 300-406).

The references to literary works containd in the Grammar itself ar not intended to act as linguistic explanations, but refer to works and treatises which present much of profit concerning the establishment and conception of facts from a purely Gothic point of view; several references to Brugmann's 'Grundriss' ar perhaps the only exceptions.

The Reading Exercises ar intended to offer sufficient material for Gothic exercises; they giv students working independently of a teacher an opportunity to apply what they hav lernd from the Grammar. The beginner may be[Pg iv] advized at first simply to read over the chapters on Fonology, but to giv more attention to those on Inflection (for the beginning without the notes) and then to commence reading a text. This exercise ought to be accumpanied by a more extended lerning of the Grammar, just as a thuro analysis of the text wil require a constant reference to the Grammar.

The Glossary contains not only the vocabulary of the Reading Exercises, but also all words occurring in the Grammar. The citations from the Inflection hav been givn in ful, those from the Fonology in every case where a word is not givn merely as an arbitrary chozen exampl. Thus the Glossary may at the same time serv as an Index to the Grammar.

Sinse its first appearance in 1880, this book has not undergone essential changes; the success seemd to me to garantee the appropriateness of the plan, so that also in the present edition I hav not complied with several wishes for a farther scope. I stil hold that an admixture of elements from Comparativ Filology would be opposed to the object of the book. The question could rather arize as to whether there ought not to be added any chapters on Word-Formation and Syntax as main parts to the Fonology and Inflection. However this also has been disregarded. Such points of word-formation as may promote the practical study of the Gothic language, wil be found interwoven in the Inflection; a systematic presentation of the Gothic alone does not seem to me to prove very beneficial, but only in connection with the other Germanic, resp. Indo-Germanic, languages. And particularly with respect to this, excellent assistance is afforded the student by Kluge's 'Nominale stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen dialekte' (cp. § 223) which has been amply referd to under Inflection, and which is easily accessibl as a supplementary number to the 'Sammlung kurzer grammatiken germanischer dialekte'. The addition of a syntax in harmony with the rest of the grammar would likely hav increast the book to dubl its size, which, as regards its sale, seemd to me a point wurthy of consideration. There are, moreover, easily attainabl summaries of the Gothic language. There[Pg v]fore I hav for the present contented myself with annexing a list of grammatical and lexical helps (§ 224), which may serv as a guide to the inquirer.

For this edition I hav again receivd kind informations from sum that uze the book. Beside the correction of misprints, the contents of the book has been favorably influenced by notes receivd from Mssrs. G. H. Balg, R. Bethge, J. Franck, and M. H. Jellinek. I herewith express my sincerest thanks to all. Mr. Roediger's review has also been thankfully uzed. For assistance renderd me in correcting the proof-sheets, I ow many thanks to my friend E. Sievers.

Heidelberg, May 1st, 1895.


[Pg vi]
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The present edition contains all of the latest (fourth) German edition and such additional matter as has been deemd fit to enable the student to lern Gothic more quickly than he would without it. The addition of the Explanatory Notes and of the comprehensiv amplification of the Glossary has, in a mezure, been suggested and desired by many. At first it was intended to ad explanatory notes only, leaving the glossary intact. But from numerous communications I lernd that the present glossary must be welcum to many, if not all, students of Gothic.

In writing down the Notes I hav taken great pains to place myself in the position of the beginner, and it is hoped that the more advanced student wil pardon what might seem superfluous to him. Sum of the explanations ar due to Bernhardt's critical notes in his 'Wulfila' to which I hav often referd. The Notes wer much more comprehensiv before the glossary was workt out, but many of them hav been transferd to the latter, in a few cases without being deleted in their first place, as I observd in reading the proof-sheets. The Glossary has been prepared upon the following plan: It is strictly alfabetic. The compound verbs ar mentiond with the simpl verbs. Many inflectional forms which the beginner who has not yet fully masterd the declensions and conjugations, is not likely to recognize in the texts, hav been givn as vocabulary words. The inflection of every word is indicated by figures in parentheses. The figures in () immediately after the vocabulary words refer to the paragrafs on Fonology. Proper nouns hav been inflected in full inasmuch as they occur in the Selections. The references to the texts ar complete and may be regarded as the first supplement to my 'Comparativ Glossary of the Gothic Language'. Tho admitting accidental omissions in this respect, I am certain that the references ar more complete than those of any other glossary. This[Pg viii] tiresum work has cost me much time and labor, but I hope soon to be able to continue and complete it for the remaining part of the Gothic texts.

In the square brackets the derivation of the Gothic words is givn first; then follow the correspondences or cognates, both being, with one or two exceptions, Germanic. The cognates ar always preceded by cp. or cf. It is possibl, however, that I hav faild in sum cases to point out the transference of a word from one declension or conjugation to another.

This part of the book makes no claim to completeness. Several articls had been laid aside for further consideration, but professional and other duties as wel as the sudden appearance of the German edition ar the causes of leaving them untucht. As regards derivation and composition, the student wil do wel by reading carefully §§ 79-82 and § 88a together with the notes. To point out the various root-grades from which words are derived, is left to the lecturer.

The translation of the Grammar was made from the advanced plate proofs for which I am obliged to the eminent author, Prof. Wm. Braune, who kindly and promptly forwarded them to me. Altho this part of the work was done as fast as it was demanded by the printer, I feel sure that nothing has been omitted. In this respect I am indetted to my wife and one of my pupils, Miss Matilda Uihlein who, in comparing my translation with the German text, red the latter from the beginning to the end. Another pupil, Miss Ida Uihlein, is to be credited for the translation of Prof. Braune's preface, which could be sent to press with comparativly few emendations.

Beside the books often cited in the square brackets and in the Notes I have thankfully uzed Mayhew and Skeat's Midl English Dictionary, Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, and Mac Lean's Old and Midl English Reader.

Milwaukee, Aug. 15th, 1895.


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Fonology. Page
Chap. I. Alfabet (§§ 1-2) 1
Chap. II. Vowels (§§ 3-27) 3
Chap. III. Table of the Vowels (§§ 28-36) 14
A. Fonetic System (§ 28).
B. Historical System (§§ 29-36).
Chap. IV. Consonants (§§ 37-82) 18
A. Sonorous Consonants (§§ 38-50).
B. Noizd Sounds (§§ 51-78).
Labials (§§ 51-56).
Gutturals (§§ 57-68).
Dentals (§§ 69-78).
Appendix. General Remarks on the Consonants (§§ 79-82).
Chap. I. Declension of Substantivs (§§ 83-120) 37
General Remarks (§§ 83-88).
A. Vowel (Strong) Declension (§§ 89-106).
B. N-Declension (Weak Declension) (§§ 107-113).
C. Minor Declensions (§§ 114-118).
Appendix. Declension of Foren Words (§§ 119-120).
Chap. II. Declension of Adjectivs (§§ 121-139) 51
A. Strong Adjectivs (§§ 122-139).
B. Weak Adjectivs (§ 132).
C. Declension of Participls (§§ 133-134).
D. Comparison of Adjectivs (§§ 135-139).
Chap. III. Numerals (§§ 140-149) 58
Chap. IV. Pronouns (§§ 150-166) 61
Chap. V. Conjugation (§§ 167-209) 66
I. Strong Verbs (§§ 169-182).
II. Weak Verbs (§§ 183-195).
III. Irregular Verbs (§§ 196-209).
Chap. VI. Particls (§§ 210-219) 85
Appendix. The Goths, Sources, Editions, Grammatical and Lexical Helps, Literature of the Goth. Syntax (§§ 220-224) 89
Selections for Reading 97
Explanatory Notes 117
Glossary 135
[Pg x]


Anz. fda., Anzeiger für deutsches alterthum, s. Zs. fda.

Beitr., Beiträge zur geschichte der deutschen sprache und literatur. Halle 1874 ff.

Bezzenb. beitr., Beiträge zur kunde der indogerm. sprachen, hg. v. A. Bezzenberger. Göttingen 1875 ff.

Brugm., Grundriss der vergleichenden grammatik der indog. sprachen von K. Brugmann (Engl. edition). Strassburg 1886-92.

Dietrich, aussprache des got., s. § 2 n. 1.

Germ., Germania, hg. von Pfeiffer-Bartsch-Behaghel (1856-92).

Grundr., Grundriss der germ. philologie, hg. v. H. Paul. Strassburg 1889-93.

IF., Indogerm. forschungen, hg. v. K. Brugmann und W. Streitberg. Strassburg 1892 ff.

Kl. W., Kluge, Wörterbuch.

Kuhns zs., Zeitschrift für vergleichende sprachforschung. Berlin 1852 ff.

Litbl., Literaturblatt für germ. und roman. philologie. Heilbronn 1880 ff.

Sk., Skeat, Etymological Dictionary.

vB., von Bahder, Verbalabstracta.

Wrede, Wand., Sprache der Wandalen, s. § 220 n. 4.

Wrede, Ostg., Sprache der Ostgoten, s. § 221 n. 4.

Zs. fda., Zeitschrift für deutsches alterthum. Berlin 1841 ff. With this sinse vol. 19: Anzeiger für d. alt. Berlin 1876 ff.

Zs. fdph., Zeitschrift für deutsche philologie. Halle 1869 ff.

[Pg 1]



§ 1. The monuments of the Gothic language ar handed down to us in a peculiar alfabet which, according to Greek ecclesiastic writers, was invented by Wulfila (s. § 221). The Gothic alfabet, however, is not entirely a new creation, but Wulfila based it on the Greek alfabet which he accomodated to the Gothic sounds, increasing it by several signs from the Latin alfabet, and, in a few cases, availing himself of the familiar runic alfabet. Of the Greek alfabet he also retaind the order and numerical value. The Gothic alfabet is now sufficiently represented in Roman letters. In the following we giv in the first line the original Gothic characters, in the second their numerical values, in the third the transliteration of the Gothic characters by Roman letters, which latter we shall uze exclusivly in this book.

𐌰 𐌱 𐌲 𐌳 𐌴 𐌵 𐌶 𐌷 𐌸
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
a b g d e q z h þ
𐌹 𐌺 𐌻 𐌼 𐌽 𐌾 𐌿 𐍀 𐍁
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
i k l m n j u p
𐍂 𐍃 𐍄 𐍅 𐍆 𐍇 𐍈 𐍉 𐍊
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
r s t w f χ ƕ o

[Pg 2]

Note 1. Of these signs one (i, 10) is represented by two forms. The i without dots occurs oftener, the i with dots stands at the beginning of a word, and in the midl of a word after a vowel, to show that it forms a syllabl for itself and does not form a difthong with the preceding vowel; e. g., fraïtiþ (= fra-itiþ). In transliteration i is employd thruout.

Note 2. Two characters, the Greek episema 'koppa' (90) and 'sampi' (900), hav no fonetic values, but serv only as numerals. When the symbols denote numerals, they ar markt by a horizontal stroke abuv them, or by dots before and after them: ib or ·ib· = 12.

Note 3. The transliteration of the Gothic symbols is not alike in all cases. Most editors hav hitherto uzed v for w (§ 39, n. 1); for the singl symbols q (§ 39, n. 1) and ƕ (§ 63) we find kv or qu and hv or w, respectivly; for þ, which is borrowd from the Norse-A.-S. alfabet, also th occurs (§ 70, n. 1).

Note 4. The Gothic monuments show but few abbreviations; the holy names, guþ, frauja, iêsus, Χristus, ar always abbreviated. Abbreviations ar denoted by a stroke abuv the word, but in our texts the abbreviated words ar uzually printed in ful; as, = guþ, fa, fins = frauja, fraujins.—For more on this point, s. Gabelentz-Loebe's grammar, p. 19 et seq.

Note 5. The Goths alredy had the Germanic runic letters before Wulfila. The names of these letters wer uzed also for the new characters. The names of the Gothic symbols, together with a few Gothic words and alfabets, ar preservd in a Salzburg-Vienna manuscript of the 9th century: W. Grimm, 'Wiener Jahrbücher der Litteratur 43', p. 4 et seq. Massmann, zs. fda. 1, p. 296 et seq.—The form of the names, however, is very corrupt. As to this, cp. A. Kirchhoff, 'Das Gotische Runenalphabet', 2nd edit., Berlin 1854; J. Zacher, 'Das Gotische Alphabet Vulfilas und das Runenalphabet', Leipzig 1855.—Of special importance is Wimmer's treatis on Wulfila's alfabet, as 'Appendix I' to his book: 'Die Runenschrift', Berlin 1887, pp. 259-274.

§ 2. Of the 27 characters two hav only numerical values, (§ 1, n. 2), a third, the χ, is retaind only in Greek foren words, especially in the name 'Christus', and denotes no Gothic sound. Hense there remain the following 24 characters whose fonetic values ar to be determind:

(a) Consonants:

p b f m w | t d þ s z n l r | k q g h ƕ j.

(b) Vowels:

a e i o u.

(c) Difthongs:

ei iu ai au.

In determining the fonetic values of these characters we ar guided by the following means: (1) The Gothic alfabet is based on the Greek alfabet; hense, the pronunciation of[Pg 3] the Greek letters to be determind for the 4th century, must also be regarded as that of the Gothic letters so long as there is no proof to the contrary. (2) The rendition of the numerous Greek foren words and proper nouns by Wulfila. (3) The transliteration of the Gothic proper nouns in Latin documents and by Latin authors of the 4th-8th centuries. (4) The testimony of the cognate Germanic languages. (5) Fonetic changes and grammatical fenomena in the Gothic language itself permit us to draw conclusions about the nature of the sounds.

Note 1. Concerning the pronunciation of the Gothic letters, cp. Weingärtner, 'Die Aussprache des Gotischen zur Zeit des Ulfilas', Leipzig 1858; Fr. Dietrich, 'Ueber die Aussprache des Gotischen während der Zeit seines Bestehens', Marburg 1862; about the consonants, Paul, 'Zur Lautverschiebung', Beitr. 1, p. 147 et seq.

Note 2. An old testimony for the Gothic pronunciation in the Salzburg-Vienna MS.:

uuortun otan auar euangeliū ther lucam
waurþun uþþan afar aiwaggeljo þairh Lokan
uuorthun auar thuo iachuedant iachuatun
waurþun afar þo jah qeþun.

ubi dicit. genuit .j. ponitur     ubi gabriel .g. ponunt et alia his sim̅ ubi aspiratione . ut dicitur gah libeda jah libaida     diptongon ai pro e longa    p ch q ponunt.—Cp. § 1, n. 5, and, for explanation, especially Kirchhoff, p. 20 et seq.



§ 3. The Gothic a signifies as a rule the short a-sound [as in G. mann].

Note 1. Foren words and names; as, Annas, Ἀννας; Akaja, Ἀχαΐα; barbarus, βάρβαρος; aggilus, ἄγγελος; karkara, carcer; lukarn, lucerna; Kafarnaum, Καπερναούμ.

Note 2. Gothic names: Athanaricus, Ariaricus, Amalafrigda (Ammian.)

§ 4. Short a is very frequent both in stem-syllabls and in inflection. E. g.

(a) Stem-syllabls: agis, aw; aljis, 'alius'; tagr, tear; aƕa, 'aqua'; alan, to grow; hafjan, to heav; saltan, to salt; haldan, to hold; waldan, to rule; fadar, father; staþs, place.—ahtau, 'octo'; gasts, guest; ƕaþar, 'uter'; awistr, sheepfold (OHG. au, 'ovis'; ahd. gr., § 219, n. 3); bandi, band; barn, child; saggws, song; all preterits of the III.-V.[Pg 4] ablaut-series: bar, I bore; hlaf, I stole; band, I bound; gaf, I gave, etc.

(b) Inflections: daga (dat. sg., § 90), waúrda (nom. acc. pl., § 93), giba (nom. acc. sg., § 96), guma (nom. sg., § 107), haírtôna (nom. acc. pl., § 109); —blindamma, blindana, blinda, blindata (str. adj., § 123); —imma, ina, ita, ija, meina (prn.; § 150 et seq.); —nima (1st pers. sg. prs. ind.); nimaima, nimaiwa, nimaina (1st pers. pl. du. and 3d pers. pl. opt., § 170); haitada (medio-passiv, § 170); sôkida (weak prt., § 184); —adverbs: -ba (as, glaggwuba), nêƕa, inna, ana, waíla, etc.

Note 1. Apocope of an unaccented a before enclitics: þat-ist, þat-ei, þan-uh, þamm-uh, þan-ei, þamm-ei, kar-ist.—Also frêt and frêtum (prt. of fra-itan, to devour, § 176, n. 3).

Note 2. For a in the difthongs ai, au, s. §§ 21. 25.

§ 5. In a few cases a is long [as in E. father]. (Comp. Holtzmann, Altd. Gr., I, 3 et seq.).

(a) In foren words: Silbânus (Silvanus), aurâli (orale), spaíkulâtur (speculator), Peilâtus, etc.;

(b) In the following Gothic words: fâhan (OHG. fâhan), to cach; hâhan (OHG. hâhan), to hang; þâhta (prt. of þagkjan, to think); brâhta (prt. of briggan, to bring); gafâhs, a haul; faúrhâh, curtain; gahâhjô, in order; -gâhts, a going; also þâhô (OHG. dâha), clay; unwâhs, blameless (OE. wôh, wrong).

Note. In the words mentiond under (b) âh arose from anh (§ 50, n. 1). Cp. also Litbl. 1886, p. 485.


§ 6. e is always a long, close vowel (ê) approaching very much the sound of i [as in E. they].

Note 1. In Greek words η is regularly represented by ê; e. g., Gabriêl, Kêfas, aíkklêsjô, Krêta; —sumtimes also ι: Naên, Ναίν; Tykêkus, Τυχικός; aíloê, ἐλωί; likewise e: Jarêd, Ἰαρέδ.

Note 2. In Gothic names Latin writers employ e for Gothic ê: Sigismêres, Gelimêr, Reccarêd; besides, as erly as the 6th century, quite regularly also i; as, Theodemir, Valamir. Cp. Beitr., 11, 7 et seq.; Wrede, Wand., 92 et seq.

§ 7. Goth. ê (which regularly corresponds to OHG. and OS. â; ahd. gr., § 34) is found:

(a) in reduplicating verbs, in part with the ablaut ô (§§ 179. 181): grêtan, lêtan, slêpan; (b) in the prt. pl. of[Pg 5] the IV. and V. ablaut-series: sêtum (inf. sitan, to sit), nêmun (inf. niman, to take), têmum (inf. timan, to befit), êtum (inf. itan), and in the prt. sg. frêt; Luc. XV, 30 (§ 176, n. 3); (c) in derivativs from the verbal stems givn under (b); as, andanêms, agreeabl; andanêm, a receiving; gatêmiba, becumingly; uzêta, manger; (d) in other words; as, jêr, year; qêns, wife; mêna, moon; lêkeis, fysician; mêrjan, to preach; manasêþs ('man-seed'), world, etc.; (e) in formativ syllabls: fahêþs, joy; awêþi, flock of sheep (cp. however § 17, n. 1); azêts, easy; 2nd pers. sg. prt. of wvs., -dês (nasidês, § 184); (f) final: in the ending of the gen. pl.; as, dagê; in monosyllabic instrumentals: þê, ƕê (§§ 153. 159); in particls and advs.; as, swê, untê, hidrê, bisunjanê; lastly, in the dativs ƕammêh, ƕarjammêh, ainummê-hun (cp. §§ 163-166).

Note 1. ê before vowels appears as ai; s. § 22.

Note 2. ei occurs quite often for ê, especially in the Gospel of St. Luke; as, qeins (= qêns), faheid (= fahêd), fraleitais (= fralêtais); Lu. II, 5. 10. 29; afleitan; Mt. IX, 6, etc.

Note 3. Sporadically also i for ê; so, frequently, in the Gospel of St. Lu.; as, birusjôs; Lu. II, 41; qiþeina; VIII, 56. IX, 21; tawidideina; VI, 11; duatsniwun; Mk. VI, 53. Only i is found in wriþus, herd; Lu. VIII, 33 (for wrêþus; cp. Bezzenb. Beitr. 3, 114).

Note 4. Reversely, also e occurs for i and ei (§ 10, n. 5; § 17, n. 1).—These deviations (in ns. 2-4) seem due to East Gothic writers; cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 161.

§ 8. From the preceding ê must be separated the ê of sum Gothic words in which it corresponds to OHG. ea, ia (not â): hêr, here; Krêks, Greek; fêra, side, region; mês, table. Cp. ahd. gr., §§ 35. 36; Beitr., 18, 409 et seq.


§ 9. Gothic i, as a rule, denotes the short vowel i [as in E. it], while its corresponding long sound is represented by ei [= ie in E. believ]; s. § 16.

Note 1. The i in Greek words stands for short ι, only exceptionally for η which is generally represented by ê; e. g., Aúnisimus, Ὀνήσιμος; Biþania, Βηθανία.

Note 2. i in Gothic words is long, when it is incorrectly employd for ê (cp. § 7, n. 3).

§ 10. The Gothic i, from an historical point of view, is of two kinds: It represents two originally distinct sounds[Pg 6] which, from a purely Gothic standpoint, can not be separated.

(a) Goth. i = proethnic Germanic e (OHG. ë or i; cp. ahd. gr., §§ 28-30), as in the prs. tense of verbs of the III.-V. ablaut-series (§§ 32-34): niman, OHG. nëman; giban, OHG. gëban; giba, OHG. gëba; bindan, OHG. bintan; itan, to eat; midjis, 'medius'; hlifan, to steal; swistar, OHG. swëster; fidwôr, four; gifts, gift; -qiss, speech; the pps. of the V. ablaut-series: gibans, itans, lisans, wigans, qiþans.

(b) Goth. i = proethnic Germanic i (OHG. i; ahd. gr., § 31); e. g., lists, stratagem; fisks, fish; is, he; wissa, I knew; skritnan, to rend (intr.); prt. pl. and pp. of the verbs of the I. ablaut-series (§ 30): bitun, bitans (inf. beitan); stigun, stigans (inf. steigan); liþun, liþans (inf. leiþan).

Note 1. Final i occurs in ni, bi, si, hiri; in the nominativs of feminin and neuter j-stems: bandi (§ 96), kuni (§ 93); in the acc. and voc. sg. of the masculin j-stems: hari (§ 90); 3d pers. sg. prt. opt.: nêmi. This final i appears as j, when it becums medial (§ 45).

Note 2. Final i before a following i of an enclitic word is elided in nist (= ni-ist), sei (= si-ei), niba (= ni-iba).

Note 3. Every i before h and r is broken to ; cp. § 20.

Note 4. ij is found in ija, 'eam'; þrija, 'tria'; fijan, to hate; frijôn, to luv; sijum, we ar; kijans, germinated, etc. i for ij is rare: fian, sium, etc., but friaþwa (beside frijaþwa), luv, occurs very often.

Note 5. Occasionally e takes the place of i; as, usdrebi; Mk. V, 10; seneigana; I. Tim. V, 1.

Note 6. For i in the difthong iu, s. §§ 18. 19.

Note 7. For a separation of the two is (= OHG. ë and i) in East Gothic names, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 162.


§ 11. The Gothic character o always denotes a long close o approaching sumwhat the sound of û (= o in E. home).

Note 1. In Greek words o, as a rule, corresponds to ω, rarely to ο; e. g., Makidonja, Μακεδονία; it also stands for ου: Iodas, Ἰούδας; Lu. III, 26.

Note 2. o in Gothic words often stands for (short) u (§ 14, n. 3).

§ 12. ô (= OHG. uo; s. ahd. gr., § 38 et seq.) is frequent in Gothic words. E. g., brôþar, brother; bôka, beech; frôþs, wise; flôdus, flud; fôtus, foot.

In the prt. of the VI. series (§ 35) and of the ê—ô-series (§ 36): ôl, hôf, ôg, pl. ôlum, hôfum, ôgum; laílôt, laílôtum,[Pg 7] aísô. In endings, as in nom. pl. gibôs, dagôs; wvs. II.: salbôn; final, in gen. pl. f. gibô, tuggônô; nom. sg. tuggô, haírtô. Prns.: ƕô, þô, , ƕanô-h, ainnô-hun, ƕarjanô-h. Verb salbô. Advs. in (§ 211).

Note 1. For ô we sumtimes find u: gakrôtûda (inf. krôtôn), he is crusht; Lu. XX, 18; ûhtêdun (prs. ôg), they feard; Mk. XI, 32.—In East Gothic names u often takes the place of ô; s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 164.

Note 2. In a few words ô before vowels becums au; s. § 26.

Note 3. ô and u interchange in the inflection of fôn, gen. funins (§ 118). Concerning this and other relations between ô and u, cp. Beitr. 6, 377 et seq.; 564; also Kuhns Zs., 26, 16 et seq.


§ 13. The letter u in Gothic denotes both a short and a long vowel; the short u, however, occurs oftener than long û.

Note 1. u in foren words regularly represents Gr. ου. In unaccented syllabls, however, it stands for Gr. ο: diabulus, διάβολος (beside diabaúlus), apaústulus (beside apaústaúlus), paíntêkustê, πεντηκοστή.

Note 2. u for ô seldom (§ 12, n. 1), u for áu (§ 25, n. 3).

§ 14. Short u is very frequent in Gothic. E. g.

(a) juk, yoke; sunus, sun; drus, fall; us-drusts, a falling; fra-lusts, lost; lusnan, to perish; —in the prt. pl. and pp. of the verbs of the II. series (§ 31); e. g., gutum, gutans; lusum, lusans; —in endings of the sbs. of the u-decl.: handus, handu; —final, as in þu, prn., thou; nu, now; -u (interr. particl).

(b) wulfs, wolf; wulla, wool; gaqumþs, council; gulþ, gold; swumfsl, pond; hund, 100; sibun, 7; taíhun, 10; fulls, ful; un- (privativ prefix); in the prt. pl. and pp. of the verbs of the III. series (§ 32): bundum, bundans; in the pp. of the verbs of the IV. series (§ 33): numans, stulans.

brukans, broken; us-bruknan, to break off (intr.); trudan, to tred, pp. trudans; snutrs, wise.

Note 1. As a rule, the final u of stems is dropt before derivativ j-suffixes; e. g., -hardjan, to harden (< hardus); -agljan, to trubl (< aglus); manwjan, to prepare (< manwus); ufarassjan, to increase (< ufarassus); L. Meyer, 'Got. Spr.', p. 325 et seq. But skadwjan, to overshadow (< skadus), and skadweins, a shading (cp. Zs. fda. 36, 269).—Concerning u beside w, cp. § 42.

Note 2. Every u before h and r is broken to ; cp. § 24.

[Pg 8]

Note 3. u is eight times (mostly in Lu.) represented by o; e. g., laúhmoni, lightning: Lu. XVII, 24; sunjos, suns; Lu. XVI, 8; ushôfon; Lu. XVII, 13; ainomêhun; Lu. VIII, 43; faího, muney; Mk. X, 23.

Note 4. In the endings of the u-declension u is occasionally represented by au; as, sunaus (nom. sg.); Lu. IV, 3; cp. § 105, n. 2.

§ 15. Long û certainly appears in: (a) ût, out (ûta, etc.); dûbô, duv; rûna, mystery; rûms, room, roomy; *mûl (in faúrmûljan, to muzl); brûþs, bride; hûs, house; skûra, shower; hlûtrs, pure; fûls, foul; *mûks (in mûkamôdei), meek; þûsundi, 1000; brûkjan, to uze (prt. brûhta; adj. brûks); lûkan, to lock (§ 173, n. 2); hrûkjan, to crow (s. Beitr., 6, 379); hnûþô, sting (Icel. hnúþa; s. Noreen, Nord. revy, April 1883).

(b) for nasalized u, the primitiv nasal being lost (cp. § 5, b; § 50, n. 1): þûhta (prt. of þugkjan, to think), þûhtus, thought (adj. þûhts); hûhrus, hunger; jûhiza (compar. to juggs), yunger; ûhtwô, daybreak; ûhteigs, ûhtiugs, seasonabl; bi-ûhts, accustomd (s. Brgm., I, 181).

Note 1. u is perhaps long in: þrûtsfill, leprosy (cp. ON. þrútinn, swoln; OE. þrûstfell; Beitr., 9, 254); anabûsns, commandment (Beitr., 9, 152 and 10, 497; Brgm., II, 287); lûns, ransom (Brgm., II, 285); sûts, sweet (OS. swôti, OE. swête; cp. however Kuhn's Zs., 26, 380); the suff. -dûþs (§ 103; cp. Beitr. 6, 380); jûs, ye (§ 150; Brgm., III, 374. 398). Sum write also fidûr- and -ûh (cp. § 24, n. 2).

Note 2. In Rûma, Rome, Rûmôneis, a Roman, û stands for the Lt. o.

Note 3. o for û occurs only in ôhteigô; II. Tim. IV, 2 (in codex B, for ûhteigô in A).

Note 4. For û becuming au before vowels, s. § 26, b.


§ 16. Like Greek ει at the time of Wulfila, and in imitation of it, Gothic ei denotes long î.

Note 1. In Greek words ei uzually stands for ι, but also for ei, and sumtimes for η.

Note 2. Concerning ei for Goth. ê, s. § 7, n. 2.

Note 3. The difthongal pronunciation of ei suggested by J. Grimm is refuted also for linguistic reasons. Cp. J. Schmidt, 'Idg. Vocalismus', I, 485; Litbl. 1886, 485; Brgm., I, 57.

§ 17. ei in stem syllabls of Gothic words occurs especially in the prs. tense of the I. series (§ 30): beitan, to bite; steigan, to mount; þeihan, to thrive; in the inflection of these verbs it interchanges with ai and i.

[Pg 9]

Other exampls: ƕeila, time; eisarn, iron; leiþu, cider; þreis, 3; leihts, light; weihs, holy; skeirs, clear; pronouns: weis, we; meins, þeins, seins; —very often in formativ and inflectional syllabls; as, adjs. in -eigs (mahteigs, mighty); in -eins (aiweins, eternal); nomina actionis in -eins (laiseins, doctrin); nom. and gen. sg. of the m. ja-stems: haírdeis, herd; laisareis, teacher; nom. pl. of the i-decl.: gasteis; opt. prt.: nêmeis; final, in feminins in -ei: managei (§ 113); imperativs: sôkei, etc. (§ 186); the rel. particl ei (§ 157), alone and in composition.

Note 1. ei is quite often represented by ê; as akêtis; Mt. XXVII, 48; wêhsa; Mk. VIII, 26. 27; akê; Gal. II, 14; izê; Mk. IX, 1. Lu. VIII, 13. 15, etc.—Here perhaps belongs also awêþi (§ 7, e), which, however, occurs three times with ê: Jo. XVI, 16. I. Cor. IX, 7; cp. Beitr., 11, 32; 18, 286.

Note 2. Onse (in seiteina; II. Cor. XI, 28) occurs ei beside in (in sinteins, daily; sinteinô, always).

Note 3. Beside gabeigs, rich (gabei, riches), which occurs 5 times in Luke, also II. Cor. VIII, 9. Eph. II, 4 (in B), we find more frequently (11 times) gabigs (> gabigjan, to enrich; gabignan, to grow rich); cp. Brgm., II, 261. 271.


§ 18. In the pronunciation of iu the stress is on the i, and u is a consonant.

Note 1. In Gothic words Latin writers render iu by eu, eo: Theudes, Theudicodo; Theodoricus. As to this, cp. Wrede, 'Wand', 100 et seq.; 'Ostg.', 167.

Note 2. In sium (§ 10, n. 4), niu (interr. particl = ni-u, § 216) iu is dissyllabic, i. e. í-ú.

§ 19. iu is a normal vowel of the present tense of the II. series (§ 31), and here it interchanges with the ablauts au, u: biugan, to bend; biudan, to offer.—In other words; as, þiuda, peple; dius, animal; liuhaþ, light; diups, deep; siuks, sick; niujis, new; niun, 9; iup, upward.—In formativ and inflectional syllabls iu does not occur, except in the isolated ûhtiugs (I. Cor. XVI, 12. Cp. Beitr., 12, 202).

Note. In triu, tree; qiujan, to quicken, etc., iu interchanges with iw before an inflectional vowel: gen. triwis; prt. qiwida; cp. § 42.


ai in Gothic words denotes two etymologically, and certainly also fonetically, different sounds.

[Pg 10]

§ 20. I. The short vowel [= a in E. fat]. ai is uzed in Gothic to denote a short, open e[1]-sound. In this case, according to Grimm's exampl, grammarians put an accute accent over the i () in order to distinguish it from ái (§ 21). Gothic ai corresponds to e or i in OHG. and in the other Germanic languages. The short e-sound represented by occurs:

(1) before h (ƕ) and r, which sounds hav caused breaking of every preceding short i to e (aí; § 10, n. 3); e. g., aírþa, erth; waírpan, to throw; baírhts, bright; faíhu, catl; maíhstus, dung; raíhts, right; taíhun, 10; saíƕan, to see; þaíhum (prt. pl. of þeihan, to grow). (2) in reduplicated syllabls (§ 178 et seq.): haíhald, aíaik, laílôt, saísô, etc. Cp. Osthoff, 'Zur Geschichte des Perfects', p. 276 et seq. Brugmann, IV, 15. (3) in the conj. aíþþau, or (= OHG. ëddo, ahd. gr. § 167, n. 11; cp. Beitr. 12, 211); probably, also, in waíla, wel (= OHG. wëla, ahd. gr., § 29, n. 4), but cp. Beitr. 11, 553.

Note 1. The law for the transition of i to ai before h and r (so-calld breaking or refraction) is almost without exception, and equally concerns the Germanic i in general and the Gothic is (§ 10) in particular. The i before h, r, is retaind only in the following words: nih, 'neque' (= ni uh), hiri, (cum) here!; du. hirjats, pl. hirjiþ (219); and in the isolated forms: sihu, victory (cp. § 106, n. 1), þarihis (a probably corrupt form in Mt. IX, 16), adj. in gen. sg., not fuld (said of cloth). Cp. IF. 4, 334 et seq.

Note 2. Not every ai before h, r is , but may also be the old difthong; e. g., þáih (prt. of þeihan, like ráis, prt. of reisan, but pl. þaíhum, like risum, § 30), áih, I hav; áihts, property; háihs, one-eyd; fáih, deceit (Beitr., 12, 397); áir, erly (OHG. êr); sáir (OHG. sêr), sorrow; áirus, messenger. Whether ai has the value of ái or can in most cases only be inferd from the remaining Germanic languages.

Note 3. In Latin orthografy is exprest by e; e. g., Ermanaricus = Goth. *Aírmanareiks, Ermenberga = Goth. *Aírminbaírga. Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 162.

Note 4. ai is to be regarded as a difthong (ái) in baitrs, bitter; jains, yon, that (and its derivations), while formerly, according to OHG. bittar, jenêr, it was thought to be short (). Cp. Holtzmann, 'Altd. Gr.', p. 11 et seq.; Brgm., I, 392; Bezzenb. Beitr., 16, 156.—Scherer (Zur Gesch. d. dtsch. Sprache) presumed short also in the 3d pers. sg. prs. opt. (like nimai) and in several forms of the strong inflection of adjs. (nom. pl. m. blindai, gen. sg. f. blindaizôs, gen. pl. blindaizê, blindaizô). Hirt (Beitr., 18, 284 et seq.) goes stil farther in this direction.—Cp. also § 22, n. 3.

[Pg 11]

§ 21. II. The old Difthong ai. By far the greater number of the Gothic ais express a difthongal sound which is equivalent to OHG. ei or ê (ahd. gr., §§ 43. 44), OS. ê, ON. ei. The Goths of Wulfila's time indeed seem to hav stil pronounced this ai as a + i.—For the difthong ai we employ Grimm's sign ái whenever it is likely to be confused with . Exampls of difthongal ai (before h, r, cp. § 20, n. 2): The prts. sg. of the I. ablaut-series (§ 30),—bait, I bit (inf. beitan); staig, I mounted (inf. steigan); etc.; wait (§ 197); ains, one; hlaifs, (loaf of) bred; staiga, path; laisjan, to teach; —haitan, to be calld; maitan, to cut; skaidan, to separate; aiws, time; —hails, hale, sound; dails, deal.

ai appears also in inflectional syllabls of the III. Weak Conjugation (§ 191): habais, habaida, etc.; in the prs. opt.: nimais, etc.; anstais, gen. sg. of the i-decl.; in the str. adjs.: blindaizôs, etc. (§ 123); —final: gibai, anstai, dat. sg.: nimai, 3 prs. sg. opt.; blindai, dat. sg. f. and nom. pl. m. of the str. adj.; —monosyllabls: þai, nom. pl., these; twai, 2; bai, both; jai, yes; sai, behold!; wai, woe!

Note 1. Latin writers express the Gothic ai predominantly by ai, ei: Dagalaiphus, Gaina, Radagaisus, Gisaleicus (cp. Dietrich, 'Ausspr.'), eils in a Lt. epigram (Zs. fda., 1, 379). On the Bukarest rune-ring (cp. § 221, n. 3) stands hailag (Paul's 'Grundriss', I, 411).—Concerning the difthongal pronunciation of the Gothic ai, cp. especially Wrede, 'Wand.', 95 et seq.; about monofthongization in East Goth., s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 165.

Note 2. ai and aj interchange in wai, woe!; wai-dêdja, evil-doer, and waja-mêrjan, to blasfeme; in aiws, time, and ajukdûþs, eternity.

§ 22. Many scholars hold that also the ai in the reduplicating ablaut vs. (§ 182) saian and waian is difthongal. This ai, however, stands etymologically for Gothic ê, and its OHG. equivalent is â (not ei): OHG. sâen, wâen (cp. ahd. gr., § 359, n. 3.) The difthong ai before a vowel would becum aj; hense, *sajan, *wajan. Here ai perhaps has the sound of long æ, i. e. open e representing close e (ê) when followd by a vowel; thus, saian, waian, for sêan, wêan.

Note 1. Before the i of the 3d pers. sg. prs. a j is often found: saijiþ (Mk. IV, 14), saijiþ (II. Cor. IX, 6 in A, for saiiþ in B; Gal. VI, 7. 8. in A, for saiiþ in B). Before a the j occurs but onse: saijands (Mk. IV, 14). Cp. Beitr. 11, 75 et seq.

Note 2. Here belongs also the isolated faian (Rom. IX, 19, in prs. faianda); but the prs. to the prt. laílôun is lauan rather than laian. Cp. Beitr. 11, 56.

[Pg 12]

Note 3. Also the ai in armaiô, alms (Bezzenb. Beitr. 7, 210; Beitr. 11, 74), is likely to belong here.—Concerning the fonetic values of the ais discust here, cp. especially Beitr. 11, 51 et seq.; Brgm., I, pp. 126. 127; Wrede, 'Wand.' 99, who, beside Holtzmann, is inclined to assume a long sound for these ais; Noreen, 'Urg. Lautlehre', p. 35 et seq.

§ 23. That the Goth. ai may be both short and long (like a in E. at, fare) is evident from its regular occurrence in Greek words. As a rule, ai = ε in aikklêsjô, ἐκκλησία; Aileisabaiþ, Ἐλισάβεθ; Baiailzaibul, Βεελζεβούλ; Gainnêsaraiþ, Γεννησαρέτ, etc.; likewise = αι (i. e. long æ): Idumaia, Ἰδουμαία; Haíbraius, Ἑβραῖος; hairaísis, αἵρεσις, etc.

Note. Gothic ai for Greek η is exceptional; e. g., Hairodiadins, gen. to Ἡρωδίας (Mk. VI, 17); Neikaúdaimus (Skeir. 52); Νικόδημος (for Nikaúdêmus elsewhere.)


Also Goth. au (like ai) stands for historically and fonetically different sounds.

§ 24. I. The short vowel .—au in Gothic denotes a short open o-sound. In this case grammarians put an accute accent over the u () in order to keep it apart from the difthong au. Goth. corresponds to o or u in OHG. and in the other Germanic languages.

The , before h and r in Gothic words, has in every instance developt from a short u which, when immediately followd by these sounds, was 'broken' to short ŏ. E. g.

waúrms, wurm; haúrn, horn; baúrgs (OHG. burg), city; waúrd, word; waúrpum, prt. pl. of waírpan, to throw (cp. § 32); saúhts (OHG. suht), sickness; daúhtar, daughter; aúhsa, ox; taúhum, prt. pl. of tiuhan, to pul; baúhta, prt. of bugjan, to buy.

Note 1. before other sounds is entirely exceptional and sumwhat doutful. Thus, in auftô, perhaps (onse also ufto; Mt. XXVII, 64), bisauljan, to sully; bisaulnan, to becum sullied. Holtzmann (altd. gr., p. 14) regards also ufbauljan (II. Tim. III, 4) as belonging to this class.

Note 2. The change of short u into before h is without exception. An apparent exception is the enclitic -uh, and, the u of which must be referd to a secondary development; it is never found after a short accented vowel, nor after a long vowel or difthong; e. g., sa-h, ni-h, þai-h, wiljáu-h, ƕarjanô-h; u occurs after consonants, and in polysyllabic words in which a final short a before the u was elided; as, ƕaz-uh, þammuh (= þamma uh), qiþuh (= qiþa uh). Sum, however, assume -ûh (cp. Beitr. 18, 299).—Other us before h ar all long: þûhta (cp. § 15).—There ar a few cases of[Pg 13] u before r in unaccented syllabls (§ 13, n. 1), namely in the foren words spaikulâtur and paúrpura (beside paúrpaúra), purpl; so, also, in the Gothic fidur- (§ 141, n. 1) which, however, stands perhaps for fidûr- (cp. IF. 4, 334).—The prefix ur- (in urreisan, urruns, etc.) does not belong here; it is a late form for us the s of which was assimilated to a following r (§ 78, n. 4).

Note 3. Not every au before h and r has developt from u, but may also be the difthong au; as, háuhs, high; táuh, prt. of tiuhan (but pl. taúhum, § 31); gáurs, sorry (cp. OHG. gôrag, wreched, and Goth. gaunôn, to mourn).

Note 4. The au for u in the endings of the u-declension may be , but also áu which would be due to confusion caused by analogy. Beitr., 18, 280.—Cp. also uftô for auftô, § 24, n. 1.

Note 5. As a rule, the Greek ο is represented by ; e. g., apaustaulus, ἀπόστολος; alabalstraun, ἀλάβαστρον; Barþaulaumaius, Βαρθολομαῖος; Pauntius, Πόντιος; = υ in Saúr, Σύρος; paúrpaúra, πορφύρα.—Goth. = o in the East Gothic name Thorisa. (Wrede, 'Ostg.', 76. 165).

§ 25. II. The old difthong au [= ou in E. house]. Every au not broken from u (before h, r; s. § 24 and note 3) is a difthong; it corresponds to OHG. au, ou, or ô (ahd. gr., §§ 45. 46), OS. ô, ON. au. Whenever it is likely to be confused with , we put (according to Grimm), an accute accent over the a (áu). E. g.

The prts. sg. of the II. ablaut-series (§ 31): gaut, I pour (inf. giutan); laug, I lied, etc.; laugnjan, to deny; daupjan, to baptize; galaubjan, to believ; galaubeins, belief; rauþs, red; dauþus, deth; —aukan, to increase; hlaupan, to run; stautan, to push, strike; —haubiþ, hed; augô, ey.

au in inflections and final occurs in the u-declension: sunaus, sunau; 1st pers. sg. opt.: nimau, nêmjau; 3d pers. sg. imper.: lausjadau; opt. midl: haitaidau.

Note 1. au often interchanges with aw (cp. § 42); e. g., taujan, prt. tawida, to do; mawi, gen. maujôs, girl; sniwan, prt. snau, to hasten.

Note 2. Latin writers express Goth. au by au; as, Ausila, Austrovaldus, Audericus. Cp. Wrede, 'Wand.', 96 et seq. Concerning East Gothic monofthongizations, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 165 et seq. (Zs. fda., 36, 2732).

Note 3. In the u-declension u is often found for áu; cp. § 24, n. 4; § 105, n. 2.

§ 26. Another au, historically, and probably also fonetically, different from the preceding ones occurs before vowels.

(a) For original ô: stauida, prt. of stôjan, to judge; staua, f., judgment; staua, m., judge; taui, n., gen. tôjis,[Pg 14] deed (cp. also ubiltôjis, evil-doer; taujan, to do, prt. tawida); afmauidai and afdauidai, pps. of *afmôjan, and *afdôjan, to tire out, weary; sauil, n., sun.

(b) For û in the other Germanic languages: trauan (OHG. trûên), to trust; bauan (OHG. bûan), to dwel; bnauan, to rub (to pieces or powder. ON. (g)núa, OHG. nûan). Cp. also § 179, n. 2.

Sinse this au does not change into aw before vowels, it must denote a monofthong which is likely to be the long of , hense a long open o (= a in E. fall), while long close o (shading very much to û, like ô in E. home) is denoted by ô. Accordingly, Goth. antevocalic ô, û past into au. Cp. Brgm., I, 156. For the extensiv literature on this question, s. Noreen's 'Urgerm. Lautlehre', p. 34; also Beitr., 17, 563-567.

Note 1. Also Gr. ω before a vowel, which is represented as a rule by ô, is renderd by au: Trauada, Τρῳάς; Nauêl, Νωέ; Lauidja, Λωίς.

Note 2. ô before u occurs, however, in the preterit forms waiwôun (inf. waian, § 182), lailôun (inf. *lauan, § 179, 4). Cp. Beitr., 11, 742.


§ 27. Beside the vowel-signs discust in the foregoing paragrafs, a few consonant-signs may likewise discharge the function of vowels, for the Gothic liquids l, r and the nasals m, n ar very often vocalic (i. e. syllabic) at the end of a word after a consonant. Here an original suffixal vowel was lost in most cases, and in its place the following liquid or nasal became the bearer of the accent. Thus the Gothic has dissyllabic words with vocalic liquids or vocalic nasals (sonant liquids or sonant nasals); as, akrs, field; fugls, bird; taikns, token; maiþms, present.

Note In the West Germanic languages a new vowel (OHG. a) has developt from these vocalic liquids and nasals; e. g., OHG. akkar, fogal, zeihhan, OS. mêþom. Cp. ahd. gr., § 65, and Brgm., I, 190. 237.


[1] For the values of this sign according to 'Amended Spelling', s. 'Standard Dictionary', p. 568.



§ 28. In the preceding paragrafs the Gothic vowels hav been givn according to the letters by which they ar represented. Now they wil be arranged according to the nature[Pg 15] of their sounds, the following scale of seven vowels from i to u being taken as a basis:

i e æ a ǫ o u.

e and o denote here the close e and o (which shade very much to i and u, respectivly); æ = open e (= a in fat, fare); ǫ = open o.

In the following survey we shal state after each of these vowel grades whether it occurs in Gothic, and by what letter it is exprest.

i: Short, i (§ 10).
Long, ei (§§ 16. 17).
e: Short, wanting.
Long, ê (§§ 6-8).
æ: Short, (§ 20).
Long? (perhaps the ai in § 22).
a: Short, a (§§ 3. 4).
Long, â (§ 5).
ǫ: Short, wanting.
Long, ô (§§ 11. 12).
u: Short, u (§§ 13. 14).
Long, û (§ 15).
iu: §§ 18. 19.
ai: § 21.
au: § 25.


§ 29. The Gothic vowels, as regarded from a historico-etymological point of view, may be groupt into a number of series of related vowels. The vowels belonging to such a series may interchange in formations with the same root; in the formation of tenses and in the verbal and nominal derivation all vowels of the same series may occur, but not such as hav nothing in common with that series. This change of vowels within a series is calld ablaut (or gradation), the series themselvs ablaut-series. The ablaut-series ar most perceptibl in the verb. The relation between the vowels of the same series is not a fonetic but a historical one; to establish it, we must pass beyond the[Pg 16] limits of the Germanic languages and take recourse to the comparativ grammar of the Indo-Germanic languages. The Gothic ablaut-series as appearing in verbal inflection ar these (cp. § 172 et seq.):

§ 30. I. Series: ei ai i (aí).

Exampls: reisan (urreisan), rais, risum, risans, to rize; urraisjan, to raiz; urrists, f., resurrection; —þeihan, þaíh, þaíhum, þaíhans, to thrive; —wait, I know; pl. witum; weitan, to see; weitwôds, witness; miþ-wissei, conscience; witubni, n., knowledge; —lais, I know; lubja-leisei, f., wichcraft; lists, f. (?), stratagem; laisjan, to teach.

Note. The i of this series is the proethnic Germanic i mentiond in § 10, b.

§ 31. II. Series: iu au u (aú).

Exampls: giuta, gaut, gutum, gutans, to pour; gutnan, to pour (intr.); —liugan, laug, lugum, lugans, to lie; liugnja, m., liar; liugn, n., lie; analaugns, hidn; laugnjan, to deny; —galaubjan, to believ; galaubeins, belief; liufs, dear; lubô, f., luv; lubains, f., hope; —siuks, sick; saúhts, f., sickness; —driusan, to fall; drausjan, to drop (tr.); drus, m., fall; driusô, f., slope.

Note. The vowel û is rare in this series; cp. lûkan, to lock (§ 173, n. 2); anabûsns (? § 15, n. 1), command, < biudan.

§ 32. III. Series: i (aí) a u (aú).

The themes of this series always hav two consonants after the vowel, mostly a liquid or a nasal in gemination, or a liquid or a nasal + another consonant. E. g.

bindan, band, bundum, bundans, to bind; bandi, f., band; bandja, m., prisoner; gabinda, f., band, bond; and-bundnan, to becum loose; gabundi, f., bond; —rinnan, to run; rannjan, to cause to run; runs, m., a run, course; rinnô, f., brook; —waírpan, warp, waúrpum, waúrpans, to throw; uswaúrpa, f., a casting out or away, an outcast; —þaírsan, to be dry; þaúrsnan, to wither; þaúrsus, dry, witherd; þaúrstei, thirst; —drigkan, to drink; dragkjan, to giv to drink; dragk, n., a drink, potion; -drukja, m., a drinker; drugkanei, f., drunkenness; —þriskan, to thresh; gaþrask, n., threshing-floor.

Note. The i of this and the following two series is that givn in § 10, a (= proethnic Germanic e).

[Pg 17]

§ 33. IV. Series: i (aí) a ê u (aú).

The stems of this series hav a simpl liquid or nasal after the vowel. E. g.

niman, nam, nêmum, numans, to take; -numja, m., taker; anda-numts, f., a receiving; andanêms, agreeabl; andanêm, n., a receiving; —baíran, bar, bêrum, baúrans, to bear; baúr, m., 'natus'; barn, n., child; bêrusjôs, parents; —ga-timan, to becum, suit; ga-tamjan, to tame; gatêmiba, fitly.

Note. To this series belongs also brikan, brak, brêkum, brukans, to break: gabruka, f., a broken bit; us-bruknan, to break off (intr.); brakja, f., strugl.—Also trudan, to tred; § 175, n. 2.

§ 34. V. Series: i (aí) a ê.

The vowel of the stems of this series is followd by a singl consonant other than a liquid or a nasal. E. g.

giban, gaf, gêbum, gibans, to giv; giba, f., gift; gabei, f., richness; —sitan, to sit; satjan, to set; anda-sêts, abominabl; —mitan, to mezure; mitôn, to consider; mitaþs, f., mezure; usmêt, n., manner of life; —ga-nisan, to be saved, recuver; nasjan, to save; ganists, salvation.

Note. Also saíƕan, saƕ, sêƕum, saíƕans, belongs to this class, because ƕ represents a singl sound; § 63, n. 1.

§ 35. VI. Series: a ô.

Most of the stems of this series end in a singl consonant. E. g.

wakan, wôk, wôkum, wakans, to wake; waknan, to awake; wahtwô, f., wach; wôkains, f., a waching; —graban, to dig; grôba, f., pit, hole; graba, f., dich; —fraþjan, frôþ, to understand; fraþi, n., understanding; frôþs, wise; frôdei, f., understanding, wisdom; —hafjan, hôf, to heav (tr.); -hafnan, to heav (intr.); haban, to hav, hold; ungahôbains, f., incontinency; —ôg, I fear; unagands, fearless; ôgjan, to frighten; usagjan, to terrify; agis, n., fear; —sakan, to contend; sakjô, f., strife; sôkjan, to seek; sôkns, f., serch, inquiry; unand-sôks, irrefutabl.

§ 36. Series: ê ô (VII. Ablaut-Series).

A connection between ê and ô occurs in the so-calld reduplicating ablaut-verbs lêtan, laílôt, etc.; saian (= *sêan, § 22), saísô, etc.; cp. § 180 et seq.

Note. This series is no longer found in the verbal inflection of the remaining Germanic languages, but its existence is proved by its occurring in word-formation; as, OHG. (â: ô) tât, f., tôn, tuon, to do; —knâan, to know: knôt, chnuat, f., kin.—For more on this point, s. Beitr. 11, 262 et seq.

[Pg 18]


§ 37. The consonant-signs to be discust here both in regard to value and occurrence in the Gothic language hav alredy been enumerated in § 2. We divide the consonantal sounds in sonorous consonants and noizd sounds. Cp. Sievers, Grundzüge der Phonetik4, p. 70 et seq. Accordingly, the Gothic consonant-signs w, j, l, m, n, r, represent the sonorous sounds, the rest the noizd sounds.


1. The semivowels w and j.

§ 38. Germanic w and j ar the vowels u and i uzed as consonants; hense in Gothic the interchange between i and j, u and w, according to their position which determins their fonetic values as vowels or consonants. The consonantal i and u, which in other languages ar denoted by the same signs as the vocalic i and u, hav special signs in Gothic, j and w. These sounds ar also calld 'semivowels'.


§ 39. The sign of the Gothic alfabet which we represent by w, is, according to its form and alfabetic position, the Gr. υ. For this it also stands in Greek foren words, for exampl, Pawlus, Παῦλος; Daweid, Δαυίδ; aíwaggêljô, εὐαγγέλιον; paraskaíwê, παρασκευή. But the Gothic w stands not only for the Gr. υ of the combinations αυ, ευ, in which it had perhaps at that time assumed the value of a spirant, but also for simpl Greek υ, namely vocalic υ; as, Swmaíôn, Συμεών; swnagôgê, συναγωγή; martwr, μάρτυρ. But in our transcriptions of the Gothic texts the Greek vocalic υ is exprest by y instead of w (Symaíôn, synagôgê, martyr); so, also, for practical reasons, in this book.

Note 1. A noteworthy Gothic transcription is kawtsjô (= Lt. cautio) in the document at Naples (§ 221, n. 3). Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 166; Zs. fda., 36, 273.

Note 2. The Gothic sign is in most of the later editions represented by v. But because of its correspondence in the other Germanic languages the letter w should be uzed (as, Goth. wilja, MHG. NHG. wille, OE. willa, NE. wil). Cp. Beitr., 12, 218 et seq.

[Pg 19]

§ 40. In Gothic words the w originally had the fonetic value of the consonantal u (= E. w). But at Wulfila's time the u-sound seems to hav alredy containd sumwhat of a spirant. Cp. Zs. fda., 36, 266 et seq. (37, 121 et seq.).

Note. Latin writers uzually express the w in proper nouns by uu. Vvilia, Uualamir; but also often by Ub: Ubadala (= Wadila), Ubadamirus (= Wadamêrs), etc. Greek authors mostly put οὐ for the Goth. w (as in Οὐάνδαλοι), but also β (as in Βάνδαλοι). Cp. Dietrich, pp. 77-80. Wrede, 'Wand.', 102; 'Ostg.', 167 et seq.

§ 41. Initial Gothic w occurs frequently; e. g., wasjan, to clothe; witan, to know; wiljan, to wil; waír, man; warmjan, to warm.

So also before l and r; as, wlits, countenance; wrikan, to persecute; wrôhjan, to accuse.

After the consonants: t, d, þ, s; e. g., twai, two; dwals, foolish; þwahan, to wash; swistar, sister.

Medial w before vowels; e. g., awistr, sheepfold; saiwala, soul; hneiwan, to bow; siggwan, to sing; ûhtwô, dawn; taíhswô, right hand; nidwa, rust.

Note. The signs q (kw) and ƕ (hw) ar also uzually explaind as combinations of w with k and h. There ar reasons, however, to assume that q and ƕ ar simpl labialized gutturals (§§ 59. 63). But on the other hand q and ƕ in High German ar treated precisely like Goth. tw, gw, etc. (= t, g, etc., medial w being dropt); for exampl, Goth. ûhtwô, siggwan = OHG. ûhta, singan; and Goth. sigqan, saíƕan = OHG. sinkan, sehan. Altho this proves nothing as to the values of the Gothic signs, it certainly shows that in proethnic Germanic the tw, gw, etc., must hav denoted sounds analogous to those of kw and hw.

§ 42. (1) w remains unchanged after long vowels, difthongs, and consonants, (a) finally, (b) before the s of the nominativ, (c) before j; e. g., (a) lêw, n., opportunity; hlaiw, n., grave;, waúrstw, n., work; (b) snaiws, snow; triggws, tru, faithful; (c) lêwjan, to betray; hnaiwjan, to abase; skadwjan, to cast a shade (< skadus, shade); arwjô, adv., in vain.

(2) in all three positions, however, w becums u after a short vowel; e. g., (a) snau (prt. to sniwan, § 176, n. 2); triu, tree (gen. triwis); *kniu, knee (gen. kniwis, § 94, n. 1); (b) naus, m., a ded person (gen. nawis); *þius, servant (gen. þiwis, § 91, n. 3); (c) mawi, gen. maujôs, girl; gawi, gen. gaujis, district; þiwi, gen. þiujôs, maid-servant; tawida, pres. taujan, to do; *straujan, to strew, prt. strawida;[Pg 20] iujan, to quicken, prt. qiwida.—Cp. Grundr., I, 414; Zs. fda., 36, 277.

Note 1. Hense a word does not end in aw, iw; aws, iws, except the isolated lasiws, weak (II. Cor. X, 10).

Note 2. aw for au occurs before j in usskawjan, to awake; II. Tim. II, 26 (in B); I. Cor. XV, 34 (ussk..jiþ in MS.); and in the nom. pl. usskawai (unskawai in MS.), wakeful; I. Thess. V, 8; cp. § 124, n. 3.

Note 3. No exampl occurs for the position of medial w before consonants other than j and s; before n after a short vowel u is found in qiunan (< qiwa-), to becum alive; siuns (cp. saíƕa-).


§ 43. The sign j stands, as a rule, for the Greek antevocalic ι, in Akaja, Αχαία; Marja, Μαρία; Judas, Ἰούδας; Iskarjôtês, Ἰσκαριώτης, etc. But Gr. antevocalic ι is also often represented by Goth. i; as, Iskariôtês, Zakarias, Gabriêl, Iûdas.—The sign j in Gothic pronunciation probably has the value of a consonantal i, not that of the spirant j in German.

§ 44. (a) Initial j in Gothic words: juk, yoke; jêr, year; ju, alredy; jus, yu. (b) Medial j occurs after vowels and after consonants, but always before vowels, never before consonants; e. g., midjis, 'medius'; lagjan, to lay; niujis, new; frauja, lord; þrija, 'tria'; bajôþs, both. (c) ji is contracted into ei after a consonant belonging to the same syllabl, but is retaind when the syllabl begins with j (cp. Beitr. 16, 282). The latter is the case when it is preceded by a short high-toned vowel with a singl consonant or by a long stem-vowel without a consonant. Exampls—concerning particularly the masculins (and neuters) of the ja-stems (§§ 92. 127)—ar: har-jis, tô-jis (doer), but haír-deis, dat. haírd-ja; —also the I. Weak Conjugation (§ 185): sô-kja, sô-keis, sô-keiþ; san-dja, san-deiþ; miki-lja, miki-leiþ; but nas-ja, nas-jis, nas-jiþ; stô-ja, stô-jis, stô-jiþ.

Note 1. The rule under (c) may, practically, also be worded in the following manner: ji becums ei after a long stem-syllabl and after secondary syllabls, but remains ji after a short stem-syllabl and immediately after a long stem-vowel.—For exceptions, s. § 95; § 108, n. 2; § 132, n. 1.

Note 2. Only i is often employd for medial ij before vowels; s. § 10, n. 4; for j occurring sporadically in the inflection of saian, s. § 22, n. 1.

§ 45. j is never final; in this position it always becums i; e. g., harjis, acc. hari; mawi, gen. maujôs (s. § 42, 2, c); taui, deed, gen. tôjis.

Note 1. For the change of aj and ai, s. § 21, n. 2.

[Pg 21]

2. Liquids.

§ 46. Gothic l occurs often,—initially, medially, and finally; as, laggs, long; galaubjan, to believ; liuhaþ, light; laúhmuni, lightning; wiljan, to wil; aljis, 'alius'; blôma, flower; —dubl l, as in fill, hide; fulls, ful; wulla, wool.

Note 1. l is syllabic (§ 27), for exampl, in fugls, bird (fowl); tuggl, constellation, star; tagl, hair; swumfsl, pond; sigljan, to seal.

Note 2. Goth. l always corresponds to Gr. λ. It is interpolated in alabalstraún, ἀλάβαστρον.


§ 47. r is equivalent to Gr. ρ and occurs frequently in Gothic words; e. g., raíhts, right; raubôn, to rob; baíran, to bear; fidwôr, four.—Dubl r is rare: qaírrus, meek; andstaúrran, to threten; faírra, far.

Note 1. Syllabic r (§ 27) occurs, for exampl, in akrs, field; brôþr, dat. sg. of brôþar (§ 114), brother; figgrs, finger; tagr, tear; hlûtrs, pure; fagrs, suitabl; maúrþr, murder; huggrjan, to hunger.

Note 2. Every i before r becums , and every u in the same position ; s. §§ 20. 24.

Note 3. Concerning r from z, s. § 78, n. 4; § 24, n. 2.

3. Nasals.

§ 48. m occurs in all positions of a word; as, mizdô, f., reward; mêna, m., moon; ams, m., shoulder; guma, m., man; finally: nam, I took; in the terminations of the dat. pl.,—dagam, etc.; 1st pers. pl.,—nimam, nêmum, etc.—Dubl (mm) in swamms (cp. § 80, n. 1), spunge; wamm, n., spot; in the pronominal dat. sg.,—imma, blindamma.

Note. Syllabic m (§ 27) in maiþms, present; bagms, tree.


§ 49. Initial n in nahts, night; niujis, new; ni (negation), etc.; medial: kuni, n., kin; ains, one, etc.; final: laun, n., reward; niun, nine; often in inflection; as, dat. sg. hanin, inf. niman, nêmun (3d pers. pl. prt.), etc.

Dubl n (nn) occurs frequently; e. g., brinnan, to burn; spinnan, to spin; rinnan, to run; kann, I know; kannjan, to make known; manna, man; brunna, wel, spring. Dubl n remains finally and before j, but is simplified before other[Pg 22] consonants (s. § 80): kant, kunþa (inf. kunnan), rant (2nd pers. sg. prt.; inf. rinnan), brunsts (inf. brinnan), ur-runs (< rinnan), outlet.

Note. Syllabic n (§ 27) in usbeisns, f., expectation; taikns, f., token; ibns, even; laugnjan, to deny; swêgnjan, to triumf, rejoice.

§ 50. Before guttural consonants n becums a guttural nasal which (in imitation of the Gr.) is denoted by g (gg; s. § 67).

Note. The (guttural) nasal disappears before h, and the preceding short vowel is lengthend. S. § 5, b; § 15, b (Brgm., I, 182 et seq.).


1. Labials.

§ 51. The letter p, which does not occur very often in Gothic, corresponds to Gr. π.

(a) Initially, p may be regarded as being altogether wanting in purely Gothic words; the exampls which do occur ar either obviously foren words or at least etymologically obscure, if not loanwords too: plinsjan, to dance; plats, pach; anapraggan, to harass; paida, coat; puggs, purse; peikabagms, date-palm; pund, pound; plapja, street ('platea'); pistikeins, πιστικός, paúrpura, purpl.

(b) p occurs in purely Gothic words medially and finally; e. g., slêpan, to sleep; greipan, to gripe; ƕôpan, to boast; skapjan, to shape, make; hlaupan, to run; diups, deep; waírpan, to throw; hilpan, to help; skip, ship; iup, upwards.—Initial sp in speiwan, to spit; sparwa, sparrow; spillôn, to narrate; spinnôn, to spin.

Note 1. pp does not occur.

Note 2. p before t becums f in gaskafts, f., creature (cp. skapjan); ƕôftuli, f., glory (cp. ƕôpan). Cp. § 81.


§ 52. Gothic f in foren words corresponds to Gr. φ; e. g., Filippus, Φίλιππος; Kajafa, Καϊάφας. Latin writers render Goth. f mostly by ph (Dietrich, p. 75); as, Dagalaiphus, Phaeba. Hense Goth. f was probably a bilabial, not a labiodental spirant, as is also evident from Goth. fimf, hamfs.

Note. f is regarded as labiodental by Jellinek; Zs. fda., 36, 275 et seq.

[Pg 23]

§ 53. (a) Initial f occurs often in Gothic words; e. g., fôtus, foot; fadar, father; flôdus, flud; faíhu (catl), muney; fûls, foul; frôþs, wise, judicious; frius, cold; fidwôr, 4.

(b) Medially and finally f occurs in but a small number of Gothic words; as, hlifan, to steal; hafjan, to heav; hiufan, to lament; lôfa, m., palm of the hand; ufar, over; afar, after. Before consonants: luftus, air; hamfs, maimd; tweifls, dout; wulfs, wolf; —(final) fimf, five; hôf (prt. of hafjan); þarf, I need (inf. þaúrban).

Note 1. Finally and before the s of the nom., f occurs very often for medial b; s. § 56.

Note 2. Medial f before t (n) stands for b (§ 56, n. 4), before t also for p (§ 51, n. 2).

Note 3. ff is not found.


§ 54. b corresponds to Gr. β, for which it stands in foren words; e. g., barbarus, βάρβαρος; Iakôb, Ἰακώβ. The pronunciation of the Gr. β was that of a labial soft spirant [nearly = E. v]. In like manner Goth. b has the value of a soft (voiced) labiolabial spirant medially after vowels, while initially and medially after consonants it denotes a soft stop (= E. b).

Note 1. Gothic b between vowels in Latin foren words stands for Lt. v, but after m for b: Silbanus, Silvanus; Naúbaímbaír, November; (ana)kumbjan, cumbere.

Note 2. In Gothic names Latin writers employ Lt. b for Gothic b initially and after a consonant (as, Amala-berga, Hildi-bald, Albila), but medially between vowels Lt. v is uzed (as, Liuva, Erelieva); cp. Dietrich, p. 71; Beitr., 1, 148 et seq.; Wrede, 'Ostg.', 169; Zs. fda., 36, 275.

§ 55. Exampls of b:

(a) initially: baíran, to bear; beitan, to bite; brikan, to break; brûkjan, to uze; blêsan, to blow; biudan, to offer; blôma, flower; brôþar, brother; bôka, letter; bnauan, to rub.

(b) medially: liuba (w. m. adj.), dear; galaubjan, to believ; graban, to dig; sibja, relationship; arbi, inheritance; kalbô, hefer; —haubiþ, hed; hlaibis (gen. of hlaifs), bred; sibun, seven; haban, to hav; skaban, to shave; (bi-)leiban, to remain; liban, to liv; biraubôn, to rob; salbôn, to salv, anoint.

Note. bb occurs in foren words only; as, sabbatus.

[Pg 24]

§ 56. b after consonants (l, m, r) remains finally, before the s of the nom., and before the t of the 2nd pers. sg. prt.; postvocalic b becums f. This means that postvocalic b was a soft spirant (§ 54) which, finally, changed into the corresponding hard spirant, while postconsonantal b, medially and finally, had the value of a stop. Hense giban, to giv, 1st and 3d pers. sg. prt.: gaf, 2nd. pers. gaft, 2nd sg. imper.: gif; hlaifs, bred, acc. hlaif, nom. pl. hlaibôs; —but lamb, lam; dumbs, dum; swaírban, to wipe, prt. swarb.

Note 1. Our texts contain a few exceptions to the rule of final f for medial b after vowels, but the preponderant number of exampls prove the validity of the rule which is fonetically founded and has a striking analogon in the OS. geƀan—gaf; lioƀo—liof (but lamb). The exceptional cases with final b (21 in all) occur only in definit parts of the texts (7 in Lu., 5 in the epistls to the Thess., 4 in Jo., 3 in Skeir., in all the other texts only onse each in Mk. and Eph.). Therefore the anomalous bs may be referd to the writers of the respectiv parts, who either from purely orthografic considerations put the medial bs also finally, or in order to express a later pronunciation as it existed at their time, according to which voiced sounds occurd also finally. The latter supposition is founded on the fact that in the Arezzo document (of the 6th century) the spelling Gudilub occurs.—Cp. also the remarks on the interchange of d and þ in § 74, n. 1.

The exceptions in the verb ar rare, only grôb (Lu. VI, 48) and gadôb (Skeir. 42); —the forms with f occur in gaf, gaft, gif (very often); onse each: grôf (inf. graban), swaif (inf. sweiban), bilaif (inf. bileiban), skauf (inf. skiuban). Accordingly, we may safely write draif (prt. of dreiban, to drive).

Of nouns only hlaifs is often found: nom. hlaifs (12 times, onse hlaibs), acc. hlaif (19 times, hlaib seven times); —twalif, twelv (12 times, twalib 3 times); accordingly, also *ainlif (dat. ainlibim).

Furthermore the following nominativs must be regarded as normal forms: *stafs, element (only stabim occurs); *laufs, leaf (only galaubamma 3 times, filugalaubis, galubaim), *gadôfs, becuming (onse gadôf, 4 times gadôb), *liufs, dear (only forms with more than one syllabl occur: liubai, liuba, liubana, etc.). Lastly, also *þiufs (= OS. thiof), thief, tho the nom. accidentally occurs (4 times) as þiubs, beside þiubôs (twice), þiubê.

Note 2. Subject to the abuv rule ar also the preps. of and uf, the f of which becums medial by enclisis and is changed into b before the following vowel; ab-u, ub-uh. In composition, however, f remains: af-êtja, voracious eater; uf-aiþeis, under oath. (Cp. us in § 78, n. 4).

Note 3. An apparent exception is þarf, I want (for þarb), pl. þaúrbum; but þarf has real f (§ 53) and must be kept apart from the pl. with b (s. ahd. gr., § 101). b stands correctly in the adj. gaþaúrbs. Cp. § 79, n. 2.

[Pg 25]

Note 4. f before t in derivativ words stands for b elsewhere (§ 81): gifts, f., gift (< giban, onse fragibtim; Lu. I, 27), þaúrfts, necessity. b is common before n: ibns, stibna, daubnan, drôbnan, but the ending -ubni interchanges with -ufni; as, fraistubni, temptation, but waldufni, power; aflifnan, to remain, be left; cp. laiba, remnant.

2. Gutturals.

§ 57. Goth. k corresponds to Greek κ, Lt. c; e. g., Kêfas, Κηφᾶς; aíkklêsjô, ἐκκλησία; laíktjô, lectio. Goth. k in Greek words represents also χ; as, kaúrazein, Χοραζίν; ark-aggilus, ἀρχάγγελος. The Gr. sign χ is but rarely retaind, always in χristus (s. § 2). Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 54.

Note. The labialized k (kw) has a special sign (q § 59) in Gothic.

§ 58. Exampls of k: (a) initially: kniu, knee; kaúrn, corn; kuni, kin; kalds, cold; kiusan, to choose; kalbô, f., calf; —sk: skeinan, to shine; skaidan, to separate. (b) medially: brikan, to break; aukan, to increase; akrs, field; reiks, mighty; mikils, great; waúrkjan, to work; laikan, to leap; rakjan, to strech; finally: ik, I; mik, me; juk, yoke.

Note 1. kk occurs in smakka, fig; sakkus, sack.

Note 2. In derivativ words h takes the place of k before t (§ 81); as, saúhts, sickness (cp. siuks); wahtwô, wach (cp. wakan); brûhta (prt. of brûkjan); þâhta (prt. of þagkjan).—Sinse there occur no exampls of the 2nd pers. prt. of verbs in k (as, wakan, aukan, têkan), it is uncertain whether the k before t remaind k or was changed into h (wôkt or wôht?).


§ 59. The Gothic sign q does not occur in the Greek alfabet, the corresponding sign being borrowd from the Latin (Q). In Lt. words it corresponds to Lt. qu (qartus; Rom. XVI, 23) to which it most likely corresponds also fonetically. The Lt. qu denoted a labialized k-sound which was a simpl consonant not forming position. Cp. Zs. fdph., 12, 481 et seq.

Note. The dubl sign kw (kv) which is uzed beside q for the Gothic character is due to the perception that in the cognate languages Gothic q is represented by a combination of consonants which appears as k with a w-sound closely attacht to it, and is therefore exprest by two signs: in OE. by cw, in ON. by kv, in OHG. MHG. NHG. by qu. Hense Goth. qiþan, to say, = OE. cweþan, ON. kveþa, OHG. quedan. But from this[Pg 26] nothing certain can be inferd about the fonetic value of Goth. q, altho it is possibl that its pronunciation was precisely the same as that of NHG. NE. qu.—Cp. also § 41, n. 1.

§ 60. Exampls of q: qinô, woman; *qius, pl. qiwai, alive; qaírnus, mil; qiman, to cum; qrammiþa, moisture; naqaþs, naked; aqizi, ax; riqis, darkness; sigqan, to sink, prt. sagq.


§ 61. Gothic h in Greek words stands for the ruf breathing (as, Haíbraius, Ἑβραῖος; Hêrôdês, Ἡρώδης), but the ruf breathing is often disregarded (as, ôsanna, ὡσαννά). Accordingly, Goth. initial h had the value of a mere breathing. Medially and finally it may stil hav had the value of a fricativ sound (HG. ch). Cp. the assimilations (§ 62, n. 3) and breaking (§ 62, n. 1). Also initially before consonants, (hl, hn, hr (ƕ)), the h had probably retaind a stronger sound.

Note 1. Latin writers render Gothic h by their h (as, Hildibald, Hildericus); but they also omit it; as, Ariamirus, eils = hails in the epigram (s. § 21, n. 1), Zs. fda. 1, 379; cp. Dietrich, p. 77.

Note 2. Labialized h (hw) has a special sign in Gothic: ƕ (§§ 63. 64).

Note 3. In foren names h is sumtimes interposed medially between vowels; as, Iôhannês, Ιωάννης; Abraham, Ἀβραάμ. Cp. Es. Tegnér, Tidskr. for filol. N. R. 7, 304 et seq.

§ 62. Exampls for h: (a) initially: haúrn, horn; hana, cock; haírtô, hart; hails, hole, sound; hund, hundred; hafjan, to heav; —initial combinations: hlaifs, bred; hliuma, m., hearing; hlifan, to steal; hlûtrs, pure; hlahjan, to laf; hnaiws, low; hrains, clean; hrôpjan, to call; hrôt, n., roof.—(b) medially: faíhu, muney; taíhun, ten; teihan, to show; tiuhan, to pul; saíhs, six; nahts, night; liuhtjan, to light; filhan, to conceal; swaíhra, 'socer'.—(c) finally: jah, and; -uh, and (cp. § 24, n. 2); falh (prt. of filhan); taúh (prt. of tiuhan), etc.

Note 1. Before h (as before r) i is broken to , u to ; cp. §§ 20. 24.

Note 2. Dropping of n before h, which made the preceding vowel long: fâhan (< fanhan), þûhta (< þunhta), etc.; cp. § 50, n. 1; § 5, b; § 15, b.

Note 3. Final h in -uh (or -h; § 24, n. 2), jah, nih, may be assimilated to the initial sound of a following word. But rarely in the gospels (cod. argent.) and in codex B, and only before particls or prns. beginning with þ; frequently, however, also before other consonants, in codex A and Skeir; as, wasuþþan (= wasuh-þan, but it was); Mk. I, 6; sumaiþþan (= sumaih-þan, but sum); Mt. XXVI, 67; sijaiþþan (= sijaih-þan, but it[Pg 27] shall be); Mt. V, 37; jaþþê (= jah-þê, and if); niþþan (= nih-þan, and not); —before other consonants in A: jalliban (= jah liban, and liv); II. Cor. I, 8; jaggatraua (= jah gatraua, and I trust); Rom. XIV, 14; jaddu (= jah du, and to); II. Cor. II, 16; jabbrusts (= jah brusts); II. Cor. VII, 15; nukkant (= nuh kant, knowest thou now?); I. Cor. VII, 16; exceptionally also in the codex argent., but only in Lu.: janni (= jah ni); Lu. VII, 32; nissijai (= nih sijai); Lu. XX, 16.

Note 4. Final h is sumtimes dropt (in consequence of having lost its sharp sound? But cp. Beitr., XV, 277): ƕarjô (for ƕarjôh); Mk. XV, 6; ƕammê (for ƕammêh); Gal. V, 3; ƕarjanô (for ƕarjanôh); Skeir. 43; oftener inu (in A) for inuh, without; the h of consonant-combinations is dropt in hiuma; Lu. VI, 17. VIII, 4 (elsewhere hiuhma, multitude); drausnôs; Skeir. 50 (beside drauhsna, crum); als (for alhs); Mk. XV, 38, etc. All these cases ar probably due to the copyists, and most of them hav therefore been amended by the editors. Cp. Bernhardt, Vulfila, LIII et seq.—Also superfluous h occurs: snauh (for snau); I. Thess. II, 16; here, however, it is perhaps the enclitic -h (= -uh, § 24, n. 2).

Note 5. In derivativ words h occurs in certain cases beside k (s. § 58, n. 2) and g (§ 66, n. 1).


§ 63. The sound of ƕ is peculiar to the Gothic, and has no equivalent in Gr. The Gothic sign (whose alfabetic position is that of the Greek ψ) is uzually exprest by hv (hw), because all the corresponding words of the remaining Germanic languages (at least initially) hav hw (hu, hv); as, Goth. ƕeits = OHG. hwîz, OS. OE. hwît, ON. hvîtr, white. But there ar reasons which justify the assumption that the Goth. ƕ was a simpl consonant. Fonetically, it may be regarded as a labialized h (or a voiceless w = NE. wh? Grundr., I, 411). It is therefore recommendabl to represent the simpl Gothic sign by the unitary ligature ƕ. Cp. Zs. fdph., 12, 481 et seq.; Beitr., 12, 218 et seq.

Note. ƕ and hw ar not identical in Gothic. This is proved by the fact that in composition the final h and the following initial w ar not exprest by ƕ, but by hw: þaírhwakandans, keeping wach (thruout); Lu. II, 8; ubuhwôpida (= uf-uh-wôpida; ufwôpida < uf-wôpjan), and he cried out; Lu. XVIII, 38.—The simpl sound of ƕ is also evident from the fact that the verb saíƕan is inflected like the verbal stems ending in a singl consonant (§ 34, n. 1), and that in reduplication ƕ is treated like a singl consonant (ƕaíƕôp, § 178). Cp. Holtzmann, altd. gr. I, 25, together with § 41, n. 1, abuv.

§ 64. Exampls of ƕ: initially: ƕas, who; ƕaírnei, f., skul; ƕaírban, to walk about; ƕeila, time; ƕôpan, to boast; ƕeits, white; ƕaiteis, wheat; —medially: aƕa, water;[Pg 28] saíƕan, to see; leiƕan, to lend; þeiƕô, thunder; nêƕa, near; aíƕa-tundi, f., brambl-bush; —also finally: saƕ, saƕt (prt. of saíƕan), nêƕ, near.

Note. i and u ar broken before ƕ as wel as before h; cp. § 62, n. 1.

§ 65. g corresponds to Greek γ, also as a guttural nasal; as, synagôgê, συναγωγή; aggilus, ἄγγελος.—The pronunciation of the Gothic initial g was quite certainly that of a soft (voiced) stop; final and medial g was possibly a spirant.

Note 1. Latin authors render g in Gothic names by g, but also by c; as, Caina beside Gaina (Jornandes), Commundus (= Gummundus); medially, especially before i, it is often dropt; as, Eila beside Agila, Egila, Aiulf (= Aigulf), Athanaildus (= Athanagildus); cp. Dietrich, p. 73 et seq.

Note 2. For the pronunciation of medial g as a spirant the Latin representations may be adduced (cp. especially Wrede, 'Ostg.', 173 et seq.); but this is contradicted by the fact that final g does not becum h (cp. b-f, d-þ). Jellinek (Beitr., 15, 276 et seq.; Zs. fda., 36, 85) infers a 'media affricata' for the pronunciation of medial and final g; then the value of a stop seems more probabl (cp. Wilmanns, D. Gramm., I, 16).

§ 66. g occurs frequently in Goth. words, both initially and medially. E. g. (a) gasts, guest; guma, man; gulþ, gold; gôþs, good; giutan, to pour; greipan, to gripe, seiz; graban, to dig. (b) agis, aw; wigs, way; gawigan, to move; steigan, to mount; ligan, to lie; þragjan, to run; —augô, ey; tagr, tear; tigus, ten; aigan, to hav; suffixal g: mahteigs, mighty; môdags, angry.

Also final g remains unchanged: ôg, I fear; mag, I can; wig (acc. of wigs, way), etc.

Note. g becums h before a suffixal t attacht to it (§ 81); e. g., mahts, mahta (prs. mag), ôhta (prs. ôg), baúhta (inf. bugjan), brâhta (inf. briggan). But there seems to be no change of consonants before the t of the 2nd pers. prt. Only magt (1st mag) is found (201).—Also elsewhere in word-formation an interchange between h and g takes place in words belonging to the same root: taíhun, 10; and tigus, decad; filhan, to conceal, and fulgins, adj., hidn; faginôn, to rejoice, and fahêþs f., joy; huggrjan, to hunger, and hûhrus, hunger; juggs, yung; compar. jûhiza; concerning the interchange between áig and áih, s. § 203, n. 1. Cp. § 79, n. 2.

§ 67. g denotes also a guttural nasal (s. § 50); e. g., (n + g): laggs, long; briggan, to bring; tuggô, tung; figgrs, finger; gaggan, to go; —(n + k, q): drigkan, to drink; þagkjan, to think; þugkjan, to seem; igqis, (to) yu both; sigqan, to sink; stigqan, to thrust.

Note 1. Beside the singl letter g uzed to express the guttural nasal, gg is sumtimes found (so regularly in codex B): siggqan, driggkan, iggqis;[Pg 29] g is not dubld before g; the only case, atgagggand (Mt. IX, 15) is corrected by the editors. The reverse error occurs three times: faúragagja (for faúragaggja, steward); Lu. VIII, 3. XVI, 1; hugridai (for huggridai); I. Cor. IV, 11. Cp. Vulfila by Bernhardt, p. LI.

Note 2. The Latin sign (n) for the guttural nasal occurs but a few times in Lu.; as, þank; XVII, 9; bringiþ; XV, 22.

§ 68. The combination ggw deservs special notice. (1) It is a guttural nasal + gw, as is proved by the ng of the remaining Germanic languages (also of the ON.): aggwus, narrow (OHG. engi, ON. ǫngr); siggwan, to sing (OHG. singan, ON. syngva); saggws, song. Here perhaps belongs also unmanariggws, unrestraind, wild (cognate with OHG. ringi? Dtsch. Litteraturzeitg. 1888, p. 770).

(2) Another ggw corresponds to West-Germanic uw (OHG. uu or uuu; cp. ahd. gr., §§ 112. 113), to ON. gg(v); this gg certainly denotes a stop: triggws, faithful (OHG. triuwi, ON. tryggr); bliggwan, to beat (OHG. bliuwan); *glaggwus, exact (OHG. glauwêr, ON. glǫggr); skuggwa, mirror (ON. skyggja; cp. Goth. skawjan).

Note. Concerning the ggw of the words givn under (2) and the analogous ddj (§ 73, n. 1), cp. Beitr., IX, 545; Göttinger Nachrichten, 1885, No. 6; Brgm., I, 157; Scherer, 'Kleinere Schriften', I, p. XII et seq.—Concerning the East-Gothic names Triggua, Trigguilla, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 78 et seq.

3. Dentals.

§ 69. Gothic t corresponds to Greek τ, and stands frequently both initially and medially. E. g. (a) initially: tunþus, tooth; triu, tree; tuggô, tung; tagr, tear; taíhun, ten; twai, two; tamjan, to tame; trauan, to trust. st: steigan, to mount. (b) medially: watô, water; haírtô, hart; baitrs, bitter; itan, to eat; giutan, to pour; sitan, to sit; witan, to know.

Final t remains unchanged; as, wait, I know; at, at; wit, we two.

Note 1. t is dubld in atta, father; skatts, muney.

Note 2. t before t in derivativ and inflected words becums s (§ 81); as, ushaista, very poor (cp. haitan); blôstreis, wurshipper (cp. blôtan, to wurship); 2nd pers. sg. prt. waist (1st wait), haíhaist (inf. haitan, to be calld); weak prt. gamôsta (1st pers. gamôt); kaupasta (inf. kaupatjan, to cuf); wissa (< wista, 1st wait).

[Pg 30]

§ 70. Gothic þ corresponds to Gr. θ (as, Þômas, Θωμᾶς; Naþan, Ναθάν); its sound-value was that of a voiceless dental spirant = the NE. surd th in thin. Also the Greek θ denoted at that time, as it stil does in New Greek, a similar sound.

Note 1. Greek authors represent the Goth. þ by θ; as, Θευδέριχος. Latin writers express Goth. þ mostly by th; as, Theodoricus, Theodomirus, but also often by t. Cp. Wrede, 'Wand.', 104; 'Ostg.', 170 et seq.—In like manner sum later prints hav th for þ (s. § 1, n. 3).

Note 2. Latin authors often uze d beside th for medial þ in proper nouns, from which a later softening may be inferd. Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 171.

Note 3. Concerning the sound-value of Germanic-Goth. þ, cp. IF. 4, 341 et seq.; for the relation between Goth. þ and Gr. θ, s. Wimmer, 'Die Runenschrift', 268.

§ 71. þ in Gothic words is very frequent. E. g. (a) initially: þulan, to suffer; þanjan, to strech; ga-þaírsan, to wither; þaúrsus, witherd; þaúrstei, thirst; þata (prn.), that; þu, thou; þreis, three; þliuhan, flee; ga-þláihan, to cumfort, console; þwahan, to wash. (b) medially: brôþar, brother; tunþus, tooth; wiþrus, lam; fraþi, n., understanding; fraþjan, to understand; anþar, other; ƕaþar, 'uter'; waírþan, to becum; qiþan, to say. (c) Also final þ remains unchanged; as, þiuþ, n., good (gen. þiuþis); qaþ, prt. of qiþan; aiþs, acc. aiþ, oath.

Note 1. þþ occurs in aiþþau, or (§ 20), and, by assimilation, for h-þ: niþþan, etc.; s. § 62, n. 3.

Note 2. þ finally and before the s of the nom. very often stands for d, and must be kept apart from the þ mentiond under (c) which remain þ medially also; s. § 74.

Note 3. þ becums s before t (§ 81); e. g., 2nd pers. sg. prt. qast (inf. qiþan), warst (inf. waírþan), snaist (inf. sneiþan, to cut).

Note 4. d stands for medial þ in weitwôdida, testimony; Jo. III, 32.


§ 72. Goth. d corresponds to Greek δ. The New Greek pronunciation of δ is that of a soft (voiced) dental spirant (ð = NE. th in thou). Gothic d, at least medially after a vowel, likewise had the sound-value of this spirant. But d initially and medially after n, r, l, z, has the value of a soft (voiced) stop.

§ 73. Examples of d: (a) initially: daúr, n., door, gate; daúhtar, daughter; dal, dale, valley; dauns, odor; daddjan, to suckl; ga-daúrsan, to dare; driusan, to fall;[Pg 31] dwals, foolish. (b) medially: sidus, custom; wadi, n., wager; midjis, 'medius'; widuwô, widow; biudan, to offer; bindan, to bind; haírda, herd; waldan, to rule; mizdô, reward; fadar, father; frôdei, understanding (cp. frôþs, frôdis, intelligent); fidwôr, four; þridja, 'tertius'; þiuda, peple; -ida, as in auþida, desert; gahugds, mind; gards, house (yard); hardus, hard; hund, hundred; and, on, in; alds, age (cp. alþeis, old), kalds, cold; gazds, sting.

Note. In Gothic words dd is found only in waddjus, wall (ON. veggr); daddjan, to suckl; twaddjê (gen. of twai, 2; ON. tweggja); iddja, I went; hense always in the combination ddj.—Cp. § 68, n. 1; and Brgm., I, 127.

§ 74. Finally and before the s of the nominativ d remains only after a consonant; e. g., hund, nimand (3d pers. pl. prs.), gards, alds, gazds, gahugds. But postvocalic d becuming final (and before the s of the nominativ) is changed into þ, because þ denotes the hard sound corresponding to d. Such eufonic þs from medial ds constitute the greater number of the Gothic final þs, the smaller number ar original (also medial) þs. (§ 71, n. 2). E. g.

staþs, stadis, place (but *staþs, staþis, shore); haubiþ, haubidis, hed; liuhaþ, liuhadis, light; frôþs, frôdis, wise; gôþs, gôdis, good; báuþ, prt. of biudan; bidjan, to pray, prt. baþ; —all pps. of wvs.; as, nasiþs, nasidis; salbôþs, salbôdis; furthermore all final þs in verbal inflection (3d pers. sg., 2nd pl.); as, nimiþ, nêmuþ, nêmeiþ,—but with enclitic -uh: nimiduh, nêmuduh, nêmeiduh; —advs. like ƕaþ, whither (cp. § 213); prep. miþ, with.

Note 1. The change of final d into þ does not occur in all cases in our manuscripts. This exception does not concern the original text of Wulfila, but is only a deviation from the normal state of orthografy, which is proved by the fact that final d occurs exceedingly often only in Lu., especially in the first ten chapters, not quite rarely also in Jo., more rarely in the other books. Exampls from the sixth chapter of Lu. ar: samalaud (34), gôds (35. 43), gôd (43), mitads (38), ptc. gamanwids (40), gasulid, and especially frequently verbal forms: taujid (2), ussuggwud (3), faginôd, laikid (23), habaid (24), usbaírid (45), etc.—Sinse yunger forms of speech ar a characteristic feature of the gospel of Lu. (§ 221, 1), they might be regarded as representativs of a later development of the Goth. language, introduced into our text by sum writers (for similar cases in East-Gothic names, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 171). Others explain the forms with final d as being due to their original position before words beginning with a vowel according to which the forms nimiþ and nimid would be 'dublets' ('satzdubletten').—Cp. also Kock, Zs. fda., 26, 226 et seq., who shows[Pg 32] that these ds for þs ar most frequent after unaccented vowels (as in mitads), but after an accented vowel only when the latter is long or a difthong, rarely after a short accented vowel (as in mid; Lu. VII, 11.)

Note 2. Sinse the final þ has by all means to be regarded as the regular one, it must also be employd in words of which only forms with medial d occur: biuþs, biudis, table; rauþs, red; usdauþs, zelous; gamaiþs, maimd; môþs, anger; knôþs, stock, race. Hense also garaiþs, redy; unlêds, poor, which, beside the forms with medial b, hav onse each the final forms garaid and unlêds, respectivly. But both forms occur in Lu.

With final d only ar repeatedly found: weitwôds, witness, acc. weitwôd; twice gariuds (gariud), honorabl; only one final form with d (but none with þ) occurs in braids, broad; dêds, deed; wôds, mad, possest; grids, step, grade; skaískaid (prt. of skaidan). The normal forms would be dêþs, wôþs, etc., for the forms with d insted of þ ar hardly due to anything else but unfavorabl transmission.

Note 3. The occurrence of this final þ for thematic d must not be confounded with that of þ in words that hav also medial þ beside d in other words from the same root; as, frôd- (nom. frôþs), prudent; frôdei, prudence; but fraþi, understanding, fraþjan, to understand; sad- (nom. saþs), satisfied, but ga-sôþjan, to satisfy; sinþs, a going, way, but sandjan, to send; alds, age, but alþeis, old. Cp. § 79, n. 2.

Note 4. þ is seldom found where medial d is expected; as, guþa (for guda); Gal. IV, 8; unfrôþans; Gal. III, 3.

§ 75. The d of the weak preterit, which stands mostly after vowels (nasida, habaida), remains intact after l and n (skulda, munda), while after s, h, f it becums t: kaupasta, môsta, daúrsta, þâhta, brâhta, þûhta, brûhta, waúrhta, baúhta, ôhta, mahta, áihta, þaúrfta; it is changed into þ in kunþa; ss is assimilated from st in wissa.

Conform to this rule ar the respectiv ptcs. nasiþs, habaiþs, skulds, munds, but waúrhts, baúhts, mahts, binaúhts, þaúrfts, kunþs. Cp. § 187, n. 1; § 197 et seq.; §§ 208. 209.

Note. d becums s before the t of the 2nd pers. prt. (§ 81): baust (1st bauþ, inf. biudan); so, also, before consonants in derivativ words; as, gilstr, tax, tribute (< gildan); usbeisns, expectation (< usbeidan, to abide, expect).


§ 76. s is a hard (voiceless) dental spirant and corresponds to Gr. σ. s occurs very often in Gothic words, especially initially. E. g.

(a) initially: sunus, sun; sitan, to sit; skadus, shade; speiwan, to spit; standan, to stand; straujan, to strew; slêpan, to sleep; smals, small; snutrs, wise; swaíhra, father-in-law.

[Pg 33]

(b) medially: kiusan, to choose; wisan, to be; wasjan, to clothe; þûsundi, thousand; gasts, guest; fisks, fish; asneis, hired man; hansa, host; aúhsa, ox; þaúrsus, witherd.

(c) Also final s remains unchanged; as, gras, grass; mês, table; was (prt. of wisan), was; hals, neck.

Note 1. ss occurs frequently; e. g., ƕassei, sharpness; qiss, speech; wissa (prt. of witan); suff. -assus (þiudinassus, kingdom, etc.).

Note 2. Final s stands in most cases for medial z, especially the final inflectional s. Cp. § 78; dropping of the s of the nominativ in § 78, n. 2.

Note 3. For s from t, þ, d, before consonants (t), s. § 69, n. 2; § 71, n. 3; § 75, n. 1.

Note 4. Concerning the fonetic distinction between the spirants s and þ, cp. IF., 342.

§ 77. The sign z corresponds in Greek words to ζ; as, Zaíbaídaius, Ζεβεδαῖος; azymus, ἄζυμος. Its sound, like that of the Gr. ζ both at Wulfila's time and in New Greek, was the corresponding soft sound of s, hense a voiced dental spirant (E. z).

§ 78. (a) In Goth. words z occurs never initially.

(b) Medial z is frequent. But final z becums s, the corresponding hard sound (cp. § 79). E. g.

azêts, easy; hazjan, to praise; hazeins, praise; dius, gen. diuzis, animal; hatis, gen. hatizis, hatred; hatizôn, to be angry; huzd, trezure; gazds, sting; mizdô, reward; azgô, ashes; marzjan, to offend; talzjan, to teach; —comparativs: maiza, 'major'; frôdôza, alþiza, etc.; —pronominal forms; as, izwara, þizôs, þizê, blindaizôs; 2nd pers. sing. midl: haitaza.

(c) Most of the Gothic final ss represent z, especially the inflectional s; this reappears as z when it becums medial by an enclitic addition, for exampl, the s of the nom. ƕas, who?, but ƕazuh; is, he, but izei, who; us, out, but uzuh, uzu; dis- (as in dizuhþansat; Mk. XVI, 8); þôs, nom. pl. f., but þôzuh; weis, we; weizuh; wileis, 2nd pers. sg., but wileizu; advs.: mais (compar. maiza), more; áiris, erlier (compar. áiriza), etc.

Note 1. z is but rarely employd for final s: minz, less; II. Cor. XII, 15 (Codex B), for mins elsewhere; riqiz (4 times), darkness, beside riqis, gen. riqizis; aiz, brass, muney (only Mk. VI, 8); mimz, flesh; I. Cor. VIII, 13.—For a different view of final s for z, s. Wilmanns, Dtsch. Gramm., I, p. 86.

[Pg 34]

Note 2. The s (z) of the nom. sg. is dropt (1) after s (ss, z): drus, m., gen. drusis, fall; swês, gen. swêsis, adj., one's own; laus, lausis, loose; us-stass, f., gen. usstassais, resurrection; (2) after r immediately preceded by a short vowel: waír, waíris, man; baúr, sun; kaisar, Cæsar; anþar, other; unsar, our; but s remains unchanged after a long syllabl: akrs, field; hôrs, whoremonger; skeirs, clear; swêrs, honord; gáurs, sorrowful. An exception is the onse occurring nom. stiur, steer, calf. Cp. Brgm., I, 516; II, 531; Wrede, 'Ostg.', 177 et seq.—At a later stage of development, especially in East-Gothic, the loss of the nominativ-s occurs more extensivly. So alredy in the Documents (Neap. Doc.: Gudilub, Ufitahari); cp. Wrede, loc. cit.

Note 3. z and s interchange in the prt. of slêpan; saíslêp; Mt. VIII, 24. Lu. VIII, 23. I. Thess. IV, 14; saízlêp; Jo. XI, 11. I. Cor. XV, 6; —in the neuters in -is (gen. agisis and gen. hatizis); s. 94, n. 5.

Note 4. The z (s. c, abuv) of the prep. us is in compounds assimilated to a following r (cp. § 24, n. 2); e. g., urruns, a running out; urreisan, to (a)rise; urrûmnan (beside usrûmnan, in Codex B, II. Cor. VI, 11), to expand; onse ur for the prep. us: ur riqiza; II. Cor. IV, 6.—us remains unchanged before other sounds in cpds.; as, usagjan, to frighten; usbeidan, to abide, expect (cp. § 56, n. 2). z for s before a vowel appears only in uzôn (prt. of *usanan, to expire); Mk. XV, 37. 39; and in uzêtin (dat. of *usêta, manger); Lu. II, 7. 12. 16.

Note 5. When us is affixt to a word beginning with st, only one s is sumtimes writn: ustaig (prt. of us-steigan); Mk. III, 13; ustôþ; Lu. VIII, 55. X, 25; ustandiþ (prt. and prs. of us-standan); Mk. X, 34; ustassai (nom. usstass); Lu. XIV, 14.—Cp. twistandans (in B = twis-standans in A); II. Cor. II, 13; diskritnan (for dis-skritnan); Mt. XXVII, 51; there is no analogon for sp.


§ 79. The Gothic soft spirants, b, d, z, finally and before the s of the nom. (cp. §§ 56. 74. 78) ar changed into the corresponding hard sounds, f, þ, s, while the fourth soft spirant, medial g, remains unchanged when final (§ 66; § 65, n. 2).

Note 1. Also the final b, d, z hav sumtimes remaind unchanged, i. e. z rarely (§ 78, n. 1), but b and d especially often in certain parts where also other forms show a later stage of development. Cp. § 56, n. 1; § 74, n. 1, and Zs. fda., 25, 226 et seq.

Note 2. Interchange between f and b, þ and d, h and g, s and z, which had taken place in proethnic Germanic according to definit laws and is better preservd in other Germanic languages ('Grammatical Change'; s. ahd. gr., § 100 et seq.), occurs in Gothic only in derivativ words; cp. g-h, § 66, n. 1; d-þ, § 74, n. 3; (z—s, § 78, n. 3); and traces of it ar seen in the inflection of the verbs þarf (§ 56, n. 3), áih (§ 203, n. 1).

[Pg 35]

§ 80. Gemination of the Gothic liquids and nasals, l, m, n, r, is frequent; also ss and a few instances of kk (§ 58, n. 1), tt (§ 69, n. 1), þþ (§ 71, n. 1), dd (§ 73, n. 1); —the more frequent exampls of gg (§§ 67. 68) ar in part of another kind.

The geminated consonants remain unchanged when final and before the s of the nominativ: skatts, full, kann, rann, wamm, gawiss; likewise before j (as in fulljan, skattja, kannjan, etc.), but ar as a rule simplified before other consonants: kant, kunþa (cp. kann); rant, 2nd pers. sg. prt., ur-runs, m., a running out (cp. rinnan); swumfsl, pond (cp. *swimman); —but uzually fullnan, only a few times fulnan.

Note. Sum instances of gemination as wel as of simplified gemination in the MSS. ar merely orthografic errors; as, allh for alh; Lu. II, 46; wisêdun (s for ss); inbranjada (nj for nnj); Jo. XV, 6; swam for swamm; Mk. XV, 36.—Such errors ar mostly corrected by the editors. Cp. Bernhardt, 'Vulfila', p. LVII.

§ 81. The changes of consonants before dentals may, as far as the Gothic is concernd, be embraced in the following rule:

Before the dentals, d, þ, t, all labial stops and spirants ar changed into f, all gutturals into h, all dentals into s, the second dental appearing always as t. E. g.

skapjan, gaskafts (§ 51, n. 2); þaúrban (*þaúrbda), þaúrfta; giban, gifts (§ 56, n. 4); —siuks, saúhts; þagkjan, þâhta (§ 58, n. 2); magan, mahta (§ 66, n. 1); —wait, waist (§ 69, n. 2); waírþan, warst (§ 71, n. 3); biudan, baust (§ 75, n. 1).

Note 1. Exceptions ar magt (2nd pers. sg.; 1st mag, § 201) and gahugds, mind.

Note 2. st often becums ss by assimilation; as, wissa, prt. of witan (§ 76, n. 1). Cp. Beitr., 7, 171 et seq.; 9, 150 et seq.; IF., 4, 341 et seq.

Note 3. The rule givn abuv from a practical standpoint of the Gothic grammar must be formulated differently from a comparativ-historical standpoint, because the discust sound-shiftings hav not originated in the Gothic language, but ar reflections of proethnic Germanic and Indo-Germanic relations of sounds. S. Brgm., I, 381 et seq.; 403 et seq.

§ 82. Assimilations occur only in combination with h (s. § 62, n. 3) and us (§ 78, n. 4).

[Pg 36]
[Pg 37]




(a) On declension in general.

§ 83. The Gothic declension, like that of the remaining Old-Germanic dialects, comprises three genders: the masculin, neuter and feminin.

Note 1. The neuter of all declensions resembls in form very closely the masculin; a distinction occurs in the nom. and acc. sg. and pl. only.

Note 2. A distinction of gender is wanting only with the personal prn. of the 1st and 2nd persons, with the reflexiv prn. (§ 150), and with the numeral adjectivs 4-19 (§ 141).

§ 84. The Goth. declension has two numbers: singular and plural.

Note. The dual which originally existed in all Indg. languages, is preservd in the Goth. decl. in the 1st and 2nd pers. of the personal prn. only (§ 150).

§ 85. The Goth. declension has four complete cases: nominativ, genitiv, dativ, accusativ. The vocativ is mostly identical with the nominativ, only in the singular of sum classes of declension the vocativ is different from the nominativ, but then it is always identical with the accusativ.

Note. The Goth. dativ represents several Indg. cases (dativ, locativ, ablativ, instrumental). Relics of the neuter instrumental ar stil present in the pronominal declension: þê (§ 153), ƕê (§ 159).

(b) On the declension of substantivs.

§ 86. The declension of substantivs in Gothic is divided into a vocalic and a consonantal declension, according as the stems of the substantivs end in a vowel or a consonant.

[Pg 38]

Note. The original form of the stem is in part unrecognizabl in the Gothic language, because the stem has blended with the endings, final vowels hav been lost, and the like, so that the division into a vocalic and a consonantal declension appears correct only in the light of the Comparativ Indo-Germanic Grammar, and but with reference to this it must be retaind. Such a division would never hav been made from an especially Gothic-Germanic standpoint.

§ 87. Of the consonantal stems in Gothic the n-stems (i. e. the stems in -an, -ôn, -ein), ar very numerous, while of other consonantal declensions but a few remains ar preservd (§ 114 et seq.). Sinse the time of Jac. Grimm the n-declension has also been calld Weak Declension.

§ 88. There ar four classes of the vocalic declension: stems in a, ô, i, u. Accordingly, we distinguish them as a-, ô-, i-, and u-declensions. The stem-characteristics ar stil clearly seen in all classes in the dat. and acc. pl.; e. g., dagam, dagans; — gibôm, gibôs; — gastim, gastins; — sunum, sununs. Sinse the time of Jacob Grimm the vocalic declension has also been calld Strong Declension.

Note 1. Of the four vocalic declensions the a- and ô-declensions ar closely connected, the a-declension containing only masculins and neuters (dags, waúrd), the ô-declension the corresponding feminins. Both classes ar therefore uzually givn as one, the a-declension.

Note 2. The Gothic a-declension corresponds to the second or o-declension in Greek and Latin (Gr. m. -ος, n. -ον; Lt. -us, -um), the Goth. ô-declension corresponds to the first or ā-declension in Gr. and Lt. Now sinse Comparativ Grammar teaches us that the Græco-Lt. vowels ar the more original ones, and that onse also the Germanic stems of the corresponding masculine and neuters must hav ended in o and those of the feminins in â, we often meet in Germanic Grammar with the term o-declension for the masculins and neuters, and with the term â-declension for the feminins.

(c) On the nominal composition.

§ 88a. Substantivs (and adjectivs) as the first parts of compounds end as a rule in a vowel, the connecting vowel of the components (or composition-vowel), which in the case of the vocalic stems is oftenest identical with the stem-vowel. Exampls: a-decl.: figgra-gulþ, hunsla-staþs, himina-kunds, fulla-tôjis; —i-decl.: gasti-gôþs, naudi-bandi; —u-decl.: fôtu-baúrd, hardu-haírtei, filu-waúrdei.

But the connecting vowel of the o-stems is always -a; as, aírþa-kunds, hleiþra-stakeins; the -ja of ja-stems per[Pg 39]sists when the stem is a short syllabl, but it becums i when the stem is long (cp. § 44); as, wadja-bôkôs, alja-kuns; arbi-numja, aglaiti-waúrdei; in like manner þûsundi-faþs, < stem in -jô-, nom. þûsundi (§ 145).

The n-stems hav simpl a insted of the thematic ending -an, -ôn; as, guma-kunds, fruma-baúr, wilja-halþei, qina-kunds, auga-daúrô; but mari-saiws (cp. Beitr., 8, 410).

Note 1. The composition-vowel was often dropt in Gothic, especially that of the a-stems; e. g., of a-stems: wein-drugkja (but weina-triu, weina-basi, etc.), gud-hûs, guþ-blôstreis (but guda-faúrhts, guda-laus, guþa-skaunei), laus-qiþrs, laus-handus (but lausa-waúrds), þiudan-gardi, háuh-þûhts, ain-falþs, þiu-magus (for þiwa-, § 91, n. 3); —of ja-stems: niuklahs (but niuja-satiþs), frei-hals, aglait-gastalds (but aglaiti-waúrdei); —of i-stems: brûþ-faþs, þut-haúrn (Beitr., 8, 411), twalib-wintrus (§ 141).

Note 2. Sum words show evasions of the composition-vowel: þiuþi-qiss (for þiuþa-); I. Cor. X, 16 (in Cod. A); anda-laus (for andja-); I. Tim. I, 4 (in A, but andi-laus in B); hrainja-haírts (for hraini-); Mt. V, 8; garda- in cpds. seems to be the normal form beside the stem gardi- (s. § 101): garda-waldands; Mt. X, 25. Lu. XIV, 21; miþgarda-waddjus; Eph. II, 14 (in B, but midgardi-w. in A); Beitr., 8, 432. Cp. also brôþra-lubô; Rom. XII, 10 (in A, but brôþru-lubô; I. Thess. IV, 9, in B).—The evasions occur mostly in Codex A and seem to be yunger East-Gothic forms; cp. the names in the Documents (e. g., Gudi-lub, in Ar. Doc.; Sunjai-friþas, in Neap. Doc.), and Wrede, 'Ostg.', 184.

Note 3. Beside the other consonantal stems there occur: brôþru-lubô (§ 114); cp. the preceding note; baúrgs-waddjus, a genitiv-composition (§ 116); nahta-mats (§ 116); beside mann- (§ 117) the stem mana- is found: mana-sêþs, mana-maúrþrja, unmana-riggws; and (probably according to note 1) man-leika.—sigis-laun and þruts-fill, which belong to old s-stems (s. § 94, n. 5.—Leo Meyer, Got. Spr., p. 174), may (by loss of a, according to note 1) also refer to a-stems.

Note 4. For more about the cpds. in Gothic, s. Beitr., 8, 371-460; Brgm., II, 73 et seq.; Wrede, 'Ostg.', 183 et seq.


1. (a) A-Declension.

§ 89. The Gothic a-declension contains only masculins and neuters. We distinguish between pure a-stems and ja-stems.

Note. The wa-stems in Gothic differ but very litl from the pure a-stems. Their number is very small (§ 91, n. 3; § 93; § 94, n. 1).


§ 90. Paradims of the masculins. (a) Pure a-stems: dags, day (< an erlier *dagaz, proethnic Germanic *dago-z,[Pg 40] § 88, n. 2); hlaifs, (loaf of) bred (proethnic Germanic *hlaibo-z). (b) ja-stems: haírdeis, herdsman (proethnic Germanic *herdio-z); harjis, army (proethnic Germanic *hario-z).

Sing. N. dags hlaifs haírdeis harjis
G. dagis hlaibis haírdeis harjis
D. daga hlaiba haírdja harja
A. dag hlaif haírdi hari
V. dag hlaif haírdi hari
Plur. A. dagôs hlaibôs haírdjôs harjôs
G. dagê hlaibê haírdjê harjê
D. dagam hlaibam haírdjam harjam
A. dagans hlaibans haírdjans harjans

§ 91. Like dags decline many masculins; as, stains, stone; skalks, servant; tains, twig; himins, heven; fisks, fish; wigs, way; wulfs, wolf; fugls, bird (fowl); aiþs (gen. aiþis), oath.

hlaifs shows the hardening of the medial soft spirant when becuming final (cp. §§ 56. 79). So does laufs (nom. pl. laubôs), leaf.

Note 1. The declension of these masculins is identical with that of the masculin i-stems (100) in the hole sg. and in the gen. pl. Only the nom., acc., and dat. pl. can show to which declension they belong. Consequently, a number of masculins which ar not found in those pl. cases cannot with certainty be classified. The testimony of the other Germanic languages, however, wil in many cases enable us to decide. Thus akrs, field; mêgs, sun-in-law; maúrgins, morning; snaiws, snow; maiþms, present, etc., belong to the a-decl.

Note 2. Words which ar not found in the nom. sg. nor in the nom. acc. pl., may be neuter. Thus the nom. to the isolated gen. akeitis (vinegar) may be both akeits and akeit, that to the dat. staþa (shore) both staþs and staþ. Sum of such words ar undoutedly m., as is evident from the adjs. which modify them, or from the cognate dialects; e. g., slêps, sleep; wôkrs, uzury; aúhns, oven; tweifls, dout; môþs, anger (gen. môdis, § 74).

Note 3. According to the rules for final w (§ 42), þius and þiu ar givn, respectivly, as the nom. and voc. sg. to the nom. pl. þiwôs (servants), gen. þiwê—the only forms found. Cp. þiu-magus, servant, § 88a, n. 1.

Note 4. According to § 78, n. 2, the s of the nom. sg. is dropt in *ans (dat. anza), beam; *hals (halsis), neck; freihals, liberty; *ams (acc. pl. amsans), shoulder: waír, man; *gabaúr (n. pl. gabaúrôs), festiv meal; kaisar, emperor, Cæsar; stiur, steer (Neh. 5, 18; cp. Zs. fda., 37, 319).

Note 5. wêgs, wave (nom. pl. wêgôs, but dat. pl. wêgim); aiws, time (dat. pl. aiwam, acc. pl. aiwins), show a tendency to merge into the i-decl.

[Pg 41]

§ 92. The ja-stems ar subject to the rules concerning the contraction of the ji into ei (s. § 44, c and n. 1), according to which there is a distinction between the words with long and those with short stem-syllabls. Further exampls: (a) long-stemd and trisyllabic (polysyllabic): asneis, hired man; andeis, end; ƕaiteis, wheat; sipôneis, disciple; the words in -areis (Kluge, Stammbildung, §§ 8. 9; ahd. gr., § 200): laisareis, teacher; bôkareis, scribe, etc. (b) short stems: niþjis, cuzin; *andastaþjis, adversary.

Note 1. andeis, end, has in Rom. X, 18 the acc. pl. according to the i-decl.: andins.

Note 2. Only in the pl. occurs: bêrusjôs, parents (§ 33).

Note 3. The acc. pl. hlijans (Mk. IX, 5) suggests the nom. sg. *hleis (like freis, § 126, n. 2), tent. Cp. Zimmer, QF., 13, 308.

Note 4. A nom. pl. silbawiljôs, adj. uzed as sb. (nom. sg. *silba-wiljis, willing of one's self; cp. gawiljis, § 126), occurs in II. Cor. VIII, 3.


§ 93. Paradims. (a) pure a-stems: waúrd, word; haubiþ, hed. (b) wa-stems: triu, tree. (c) ja-stems: kuni, kin.

Sing. N. waúrd haubiþ triu kuni
G. waúrdis haubidis triwis kunjis
D. waúrda haubida triwa kunja
A. waúrd haubiþ triu kuni
Plur. N. waúrda haubida triwa kunja
G. waúrdê haubidê triwê kunjê
D. waúrdam haubidam triwam kunjam
A. waúrda haubida triwa kunja

§ 94. Like waúrd ar declined a very great number of neuter nouns; e. g., blôþ, blôþis, blud; gulþ, gold; juk, yoke; jêr, year; haúrn, horn; sauil, sun; silubr, silver; agis, fear; sáir, sorrow; maúrþr, murder; gras, grasis, grass.

Exampls of words, like haubiþ, with a final hard sound for a medial soft spirant: dius, diuzis, animal; hatis, hatred; riqis, darkness (§ 78, n. 1); liuhaþ, liuhadis, light; witôþ, law.

Note 1. According to § 42, the final w of wa-stems becums u after a short vowel. There occur two words of this kind: the paradim triu (weina-triu, vine) and *kniu, kniwis, knee. No change after a long vowel; as, lêw, opportunity; fraiw, seed.

Note 2. According to § 91, n. 2, it is doutful whether sum words ar m. or n. The reasons givn there permit us to class words like þaúrp, field;[Pg 42] maþl, market, with the neuters; doutful ar the forms dal, dale (cp. ON. dalr), lun, ransom (or lûns, cp. § 15, n. 1).

Note 3. The word guþ, which is neuter in form, is uzed as m. when denoting the Christian God. But the n. pl. guda (heathen) gods (cp. § 74, n. 4), is stil uzed. The inflection of the sg. is uncertain, because only abbreviated forms (§ 1, n. 4) occur: , gþs, gþa. As ful forms ar givn: nom. acc. guþ, gen. guþs, dat. guþa, tho we should expect the gen. gudis, dat. guda. If the gen. form guþs is correct, the word guþ would belong to the consonantal stems (§ 114 et seq.).—In composition guda- and guþa-; s. § 88a, n. 1.

Note 4. fadrein, 'paternity', in the sense of 'parents', may be uzed as an indeclinabl pl. with the art.: þai fadrein, þans fadrein. But also the regular neuter pl. fadreina occurs in the sense of 'parents'. The fem. fadreins, lineage, family, is a separate word (§ 103).—Cp. J. Schmidt, 'Indog. Neutra', 14.

Note 5. The gen. of hatis, hatred, occurs onse (in cod. B) as hatis (a consonantal form); Eph. II, 3 (hatizê in A). For a different view, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 77.—Concerning the neuters in -is, s. v. Bahder, 'Verbalabstracta', 52 et seq.; Kluge, Stammbild., §§ 84. 145; Brgm., II, 419 et seq. Cp. also § 78, n. 3.

§ 95. Like kuni ar declined both short and long ja-stems; e. g., badi, bed; nati, net; faírguni, mountain; gawi, gaujis, province (§ 42, n. 2); taui, tôjis, deed (§ 26); reiki, reikjis, kingdom; arbi, arbjis, inheritance; galigri, consummation of marriage; gawaúrki, business; garûni, counsel; andwaírþi, presence.

Note 1. Beside -jis a contracted gen. in -eis (cp. § 44, c; § 92) is found in but a few long and short stems; as, trausteis (nom. trausti, cuvenant); Eph. II, 12; andbahti, office, has the gen. andbahtjis (3 times) beside andbahteis (onse); Lu. I, 23; gawaírþi, peace, has gawaírþjis (6 times), gawaírþeis (3 times); waldufni, power, has waldufneis (Skeir., 49) beside waldufnjis (twice).

1. (b) Ô-Declension.

§ 96. The Gothic ô-declension contains only feminins which serv as a supplement to the a-decl. (§ 88, n. 1). Also here we distinguish between pure ô-stems and -stems.

Paradims: (a) giba, gift (stem gibô-). (b) long -stems: bandi, bond (stem bandjô-); mawi, girl (stem maujô-).

Sing. N. giba bandi mawi
G. gibôs bandjôs maujôs
D. gibai bandjai maujai
A. giba bandja mauja
Plur. N. gibôs bandjôs maujôs
G. gibô bandjô maujô
D. gibôm bandjôm maujôm
A. gibôs bandjôs maujôs
[Pg 43]

§ 97. Like giba ar declined a great many words; as, bida, request; þiuda, peple; hansa, multitude; saiwala, soul; stibna, voice; aírþa, erth; ƕeila, hour; wamba, belly; mildiþa, mercy; aƕa, water.

Note 1. The declension of the wô- and short -stems is identical with that of giba; e. g., triggwa, cuvenant; bandwa, sign; —sunja, truth; halja, hel; sibja, relationship; wrakja, persecution; plapja, street.

Note 2. The acc. sg. of ƕeila before the enclitic -hun is found as ƕeilô- in ƕeilôhun; s. § 163, n. 1 (as regards the form, cp. ainôhun, § 163, c; ƕarjôh, § 165).

§ 98. Like bandi go the long and polysyllabic -stems. Their inflection is the same as that of giba, except in the nom. and voc. sg. which hav i insted of ja.—Further exampls: þiudangardi, kingdom; ƕôftuli, glory; *haiþi, field, heath; *wasti, garment; *frijôndi, f., frend; *fraistubni, temptation.

Note 1. Like mawi (for the change of w into u, s. § 42), whose inflection corresponds to that of bandi, inflects also þiwi, þiujôs, maid-servant.

2. I-Declension.

§ 99. The i-declension contains only masculins and feminins. Both genders properly ought to inflect precisely alike. But this is the case in the pl. only, while the sg. of the masculins has the gen. and dat. after the analogy of the a-declension.


§ 100. Paradim: balgs, wine-skin (proethnic Germanic balgi-z).

Sing. N. balgs Plur. N. balgeis
G. balgis G. balgê
D. balga D. balgim
A. balg A. balgins
V. balg

§ 101. The number of masculins inflecting like balgs is not very great; e. g., gasts, guest; gards, house; muns, thought; mats, meat, food; saggws, song; sauþs, saudis, sacrifice; brûþ-faþs (d), bridegroom; staþs (d), sted, place.

Note 1. Words not occurring in the nom., dat., acc. pl. can not with certainty be referd to this declension (cp. § 91, n. 1). In many cases, however, we can infer from the remaining Germanic languages to what declension they belong. Accordingly, the word saiws, sea, lake, belongs[Pg 44] here; and, particularly, a number of verbal abstracts like qums, arrival; drus, fall; wlits, face; runs (gen. runis), a running; grêts, weeping; krusts, gnashing.

Note 2. The s of the nom. is dropt according to § 78, n. 2; e. g., ur-runs, ur-runsis; drus, drusis; baúr, baúris (< baíran, to bear), sun.

Note 3. naus, a ded person, is explaind according to the rules for w (§ 42); nom. pl. naweis, acc. pl. nawins; so, also, the acc. and voc. sg. nau.

Note 4. For wêgs and aiws, s. § 91, n. 5; for the acc. pl. andins, s. § 92, n. 1.


§ 102. Paradim: ansts, favor (proethnic Germanic ansti-z).

Sing. N. ansts Plur. N. ansteis
G. anstais G. anstê
D. anstai D. anstim
A. anst A. anstins
V. anst

§ 103. A great number of feminins belong to this class. Exampls: qêns, woman, wife; dails, deal; wêns, hope; nauþs, nauþais, need; siuns, sight; sôkns, serch; taikns, token; fahêþs, fahêdais, joy; magaþs (þ), maid; fadreins, generation, family; arbaiþs (d), work; asans, harvest; ahaks, duv; those in -duþs, -duþais (perhaps -dûþs; cp. § 15, n. 1): mikilduþs, greatness; managduþs, abundance; ajukduþs, eternity; gamainduþs, communion.

Very numerous ar the verbal abstracts which may be formd from every strong verb by means of the dental suffix t (þ, d); e. g., gaskafts, creation; þaúrfts, need; ganists, salvation; fralusts, loss; gakusts, test; gabaúrþs, birth; gataúrþs, destruction; manasêþs (d), world; dêþs, deed; gahugds, thought.

Note 1. Here belong also the abstracts in -eins, -ôns, -ains, derived from the weak verbs of the I., II., and III. Weak Conjugations, respectivly; e. g., naseins (< nasjan), salvation; laiseins, doctrin; háuheins, a 'heightening', hense praise; galaubeins, belief; naiteins, blasfemy; laþôns (< laþôn), invitation; salbôns, salv, ointment; mitôns, consideration; þulains (< þulan), suffering, patience; libains, life.—But those in -eins hav the nom. and gen. pl. according to the ô-declension. Thus, for exampl:

Sing. N. naiteins G. naiteinais D. naiteinai A. V. naitein
Plur. N. naiteinôs G. naiteinô D. naiteinim A. naiteinins.

So in one exampl also the dat. pl.: unkaúreinôm; II. Cor. XI, 8.—The pl. of the abstracts in -ôns, -ains is regular: mitôneis, mitônê, etc.

Note 2. Whether words ar f. or m. is doutful when they do not occur in a distinctiv case; as, lists, craftiness; fulleiþs (or fulleiþ, n.), fulness.

[Pg 45]

Note 3. The s of the nom. is dropt according to § 78, n. 2; e. g., us-stass, us-stassais, resurrection; garuns, -runsais, street.

Note 4. haims, village, forms its pl. according to the ô-declension: haimôs, etc.

3. U-Declension.
Masculins and Feminins.

§ 104. The masculins and feminins of the u-declension ar identical in form. Paradim: sunus, sun.

Sing. N. sunus Plur. N. sunjus
G. sunáus G. suniwê
D. sunáu D. sunum
A. sunu A. sununs
V. sunu

§ 105. Further exampls: (a) masculins; e. g., áirus, messenger; asilus, ass; dauþus, deth; wulþus, glory; hûhrus, hunger; þaúrnus, thorn; haírus, sword; liþus, lim; lustus, lust; magus, boy; faírƕus, world; fôtus, foot; stubjus, dust; wrêþus, flock (§ 7, n. 3); in -assus (Kluge, Stammbildg., § 137 et seq.): draúhtinassus, warfare; ibnassus, evenness; þiudinassus, kingdom; in -ôdus, -ôþus (Kluge, Stammbildg., § 134); e. g., auhjôdus, tumult; gabaúrjôþus, plezure.

(b) The only feminins ar certainly only handus, hand; kinnus, cheek; waddjus, wall (cp. Beitr., 16, 3181), and perhaps asilus (if ὄνου in Lu. XIX, 30. Joh. XII, 15, means she-ass).

The gender of sum is doutful; as, qaírnus, mil; flôdus, flud; luftus, air.

Note 1. Foren words like aggilus, angel; sabbatus, sabbath, fluctuate in the pl. between the u- and i-decl.; s. § 120, n. 1.

Note 2. There is a notewurthy fluctuation between u and au (? cp. § 24, n. 4) in the terminations of the sing. All cases of this kind hav been collected by Leo Meyer in his 'Got. Spr.', p. 574. au occurs for u: nom. sunaus; Lu. IV, 3; faírƕaus; Gal. VI, 14 (in cod. B = faírƕus in cod. A); Bartimaiaus; Mt. X, 46; —acc. handau; Mk. VII, 32; þiudinassau; Lu. IX, 27; haírau; Rom. XIII, 4 (in A = haíru in Cod. Car.); —voc. sunau (often), magau; Lu. II, 48.

Reversely we find u for au: gen. dauþus; Lu. I, 79; wulþus; Rom. IX, 23; apaustaulus; II. Cor. XII, 12 (in A = apaustaulaus in B); dat. wulþu; Lu. IX, 26; Paítru; Gal. II, 7 (in A = Paítrau in B).

From the great number of exampls, however, we infer that the abuv paradim is by all means the regular one; the deviations just mentiond ar merely owing to confusion on the part of later copyists. When a word[Pg 46] occurs in two manuscripts, it generally has the correct form in one. Especially in Cod. Amb. A and in the gospel of Lu. the u-decl. is confused in this way. Cp. Beitr., 18, 2801.


§ 106. The word faíhu, muney (orig. 'catl', = OHG. fihu) is the only neuter sb. of this class which occurs in several cases in the singular. No n. pl. is found.

N. faíhu
G. [faíháus]
D. faíháu
A. faíhu

Note 1. Also gairu, sting, is n. It occurs only in the nom. sg. (II. Cor. XII, 7 in A, as a gloss to hnûþô).—The sb. leiþu, fruit-wine, probably belongs here too; only the acc. sg. leiþu occurs (Lu. I, 15); cp. Gallée (§ 223, n. 1), I, p. 38.—The acc. sg. sihu, a gloss to the neuter sigis, victory, in Cod. B I. Cor. XV, 57, is probably miswritn for sigu (because the i in sihu would hav becum ) which may also belong to a masculin (nom. sg. *sigus = OHG. sigu). But cp. J. Schmidt, 'Idg. Neutra', 153.

Note 2. The gen. faíháus has been inferd from the m. (f.) and from the adv. gen. filaus (§ 131, n. 3).


1. Masculins.

§ 107. Paradim: guma, man.

Sing. N. guma Plur. N. gumans
G. gumins G. gumanê
D. gumin D. gumam
A. guman A. gumans

§ 108. Like guma inflect a great many masculins; e. g., staua, judge; hana, cock; skula, detter; mêna, moon; atta, father; ahma, spirit; blôma, flower; milhma, cloud; hliuma, hearing; weiha, priest; swaíhra, father-in-law; magula, litl boy; pl. brôþrahans, brothers (J. Schmidt, 'Idg. Neutra', 16); —bandja, prisoner; haúrnja, trumpeter; fiskja, fisher; timrja, carpenter; arbja, heir; wilja, wil; manamaúrþrja, (man-)murderer; waúrstwja, workman.

Note 1. aba, man, has the gen. pl. abnê, dat. pl. abnam; of aúhsa, ox, occurs the gen. pl. aúhsnê. Cp. the neuters in § 110, n. 1. Onse (I. Cor. IX, 9) we meet with the acc. pl. aúhsununs which either stands for aúhsuns (according to § 80, n. 1; cp. Anz. fda. 6, 120) or for aúhsnuns (Beitr., 8, 115; 12, 543; Brgm., I, 203).

Note 2. The long stems in -ja do not contract the ji of the gen. and dat. sg. into ei (s. § 44, n. 1); hense, bandja, gen. bandjins, dat. bandjin.

[Pg 47]

2. Neuters.

§ 109. Paradim: haírtô, hart.

Sing. N. haírtô Plur. N. haírtôna
G. haírtins G. haírtanê
D. haírtin D. haírtam
A. haírtô A. haírtôna

§ 110. Like haírtô inflect but few substantivs: augô, ey; ausô, ear; barnilô, litl child; auga-daúrô, window; þaírkô, hole, ear of a needl; kaúrnô, corn; sigljô, seal. Cp. J. Schmidt, 'Indog. Neutra', 106 et seq.

Also the weak adjectivs (§ 132).

Note 1. Irregular forms occur in the pl. of the neuters namô, name, and watô, water. The sg. inflects like haírtô. Paradim:

Sing. N. namô G. namins D. namin A. namô
Plur. N. namna G. namnê D. namnam A. namna.

The pl. of watô occurs only in the dat. watnam. Cp. § 108, n. 1.

Note 2. To the dat. sg. sunnin which occurs (twice) in the frase: at sunnin urrinnandin (Mk. IV, 6. XVI, 2), belongs perhaps a neuter sunnô (not a m. sunna), beside the f. sunnô, sun (§ 112).—Cp. Mahlow, 'Die langen vocale a, e, o', p. 156, and Sievers' comments on this in the appendix to the 3d G. edition of this grammar.

Note 3. The word gajukô which was formerly regarded as n., is f., 'a female cumpanion'. Cp. Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', comment on Phil. IV, 3.

3. Feminins.

§ 111. The feminins of the n-declension ar divided into two classes: stems in -ôn- and -ein-. Their inflection is the same. Paradims: tuggô, tung; managei, multitude.

Sing. N. tuggô managei
G. tuggôns manageins
D. tuggôn managein
A. tuggôn managein
Plur. N. tuggôns manageins
G. tuggônô manageinô
D. tuggôm manageim
A. tuggôns manageins

§ 112. Like tuggô inflect many substantivs; as, qinô, woman, wife; ûhtwô, dawn; swaíhrô, mother-in-law; azgô, ashes; gatwô, street; staírnô, star; wikô, week; sunnô, sun (cp. § 110, n. 2); —arbjô, heiress; brunjô, brestplate; tainjô, basket; niþjô, female cuzin; raþjô, account.

Note 1. Also the feminins of the weak adjectivs inflect like tuggô (§ 132).

[Pg 48]

§ 113. Nearly all substantivs inflecting like managei ar derived from adjectivs. Such an abstract in -ei may be formd from every adjectiv, hense the great number of these words; e. g., diupei, depth; laggei, length; bleiþei, mercy; mikilei, greatness; braidei, bredth; frôdei, wisdom; hardu-haírtei, hard-hartedness; drugkanei, drunkenness; sum can not be referd to corresponding adjs., but they likewise denote a state; e. g., þaúrstei, thirst; magaþei, maidenhood. But very few hav a concrete meaning; as, aiþei, mother; þramstei, locust; kilþei, womb; marei, sea; ƕaírnei, skul.

Note 1. There is a close resemblance between adjectival abstracts in -ei and the verbal abstracts in -eins (cp. § 103, n. 1); e. g., háuhei, height (< háuhs), but háuheins, a heightening, praise (< háuhjan). Both hav the acc. sg. háuhein.

In one case there is confusion. In Jo. X, 33 we meet with a gen. sg. wajamêreins (nom. wajamêreins, blasfemy) from which it is customary to infer a nom. wajamêrei, tho in its meaning such a form is impossibl.

Note 2. In Cod. B. three nominativs sg. in -ein ar found: liuhadein, illumination; II. Cor. IV, 4 (liuhadeins in A; comp. this passage in Bernhardt's 'Vulfila'); wiljahalþein, favor; Col. III, 25 (wanting in A); gagudein, piety; I. Tim. IV, 8 (gagudei in A).

Note 3. The comparativs, the superlativs in -ma, and the prs. participls form their feminin like managei (cp. § 132, n. 4).


§ 114. Nouns in -r denoting relationship. The words brôþar, brother; daúhtar, daughter; swistar, sister; fadar, father, hav replaced their old consonantal inflection in the nom., acc., and dat. pl. with the forms of the u-declension (§ 104). Paradim:

Sing. N. brôþar Plur. brôþrjus
G. brôþrs brôþrê
D. brôþr brôþrum
A. brôþar brôþruns

Note. Cp. the cpd. brôþru-lubô, brotherly luv (§ 88^a, n. 3; § 210, n. 1).

§ 115. The present participls in Gothic inflect like weak adjectivs (§ 133). An older (substantival) inflection, however, persists with sum participls uzed substantivly. Paradim: nasjands, savior.

[Pg 49]

Sing. N. nasjands Plur. nasjands
G. nasjandis nasjandê
D. nasjand nasjandam
A. nasjand nasjands
V. nasjand

Furthermore: fijands, fiend; frijônds, frend (> frijôndi, § 98), daupjands, the Baptist; mêrjands, preacher; bisitands, neighbor; talzjands, teacher; -waldands, ruler (all-w., the Almighty; garda-w., master of the house); fraweitands, avenger; fraujinônds, ruler; midumônds, mediator; gibands, giver. Cp. Zs. fdph., 5, 315.

§ 116. A number of feminins following in sum cases the i-decl. (ansts, § 102) appear in others as short forms which ar remains of an old consonantal inflection. Paradim: baúrgs, (burg), town, city.

Sing. N. baúrgs Plur. N. baúrgs
G. baúrgs G. baúrgê
D. baúrg D. baúrgim
A. baúrg A. baúrgs

Like baúrgs inflect also alhs, templ; spaúrds, race-course; brusts, brest; dulþs, feast; waíhts, thing; miluks, milk; mitaþs (d), mezure.

The word nahts, night, inflects in the sg. like baúrgs, in the pl. only the dat. nahtam is found. Cp. nahta-mats, § 88a, n. 3.

Note 1. waíhts and dulþs chiefly follow the i-declension; hense, g. sg. waíhtais, dulþais. According to the cons. declension occur onse each the dat. sg. dulþ and acc. pl. waíhts. Beside waíhts there is a n. nom. sg. waíht in the combination ni-waíht, nothing.

§ 117. Masculins with short (consonantal) cases: manna, man; mênôþs, month; reiks, ruler; weitwôds, witness (cp. § 74, n. 2). But in point of inflection they ar not fully alike.

(1) manna follows in sum cases the n-decl. (guma, § 107). These cases ar here put in Italics:

Sing. N. manna Plur. N. mans, mannans
G. mans G. mannê
D. mann D. mannam
A. mannan A. mans, mannans

Note 1. To manna belongs the cpd. *alamans (all men), found in the dat. pl. alamannam (Skeir.) only; also the neuter gaman (cumpanion, cumpany) which inflects, however, in all the extant forms (nom. acc. sg. gaman, dat. sg. gamana, dat. pl. gamanam) precisely like waúrd (§ 93).

Note 2. In composition the stem mana- (man-) appears; s. § 88a, n. 3.

[Pg 50]

(2) mênôþs and reiks follow in the g. sg. the a-decl.: mênôþis, reikis, but in the dat. sg. the short forms mênôþ and reik (Eph. II, 2) occur. In the nom. acc. pl. the short forms mênôþs and reiks ar uzed; gen. pl. reikê. In the dat. pl. mênôþum, but reikam.—Beside the nom. sg. weitwôds there occur the acc. sg. weitwôd and the g. pl. weitwôdê.

Note 3. The g. sg. mênôþis (Neh. VI, 15) is not quite certain; Löbe red mênôþs.

Note 4. Here belongs also the nom. bajôþs, dat. bajôþum, both (s. § 140, n. 1).

§ 118. The neuter fôn, fire, has this form in the nom. acc. sg., but funins in the gen., and funin in the dat.—No plural occurs. Cp. § 12, n. 3.

Note 1. Concerning the neuter genitivs guþs and hatis, s. § 94, n. 3, and § 94, n. 5, respectivly.


§ 119. A number of foren words from the Latin and Greek wer fully adopted into the Gothic language thru commercial and political intercourse, so that their inflection is the same as that of purely Gothic words; e. g., pund, n., pound; marikreitus, m., perl; Krêks, m., Greek; karkara, f., 'carcer'; alêw, n., oil; kaisar, m., Cæsar.

§ 120. A second portion of foren words wer at a later period forced on the Gothic language by Christianity and especially by the version of the Bible. To these belong for the most part proper nouns which ar stil felt to be foren elements and hav but imperfectly adopted the Gothic inflection. For their treatment in Gothic no fixt rules can be givn. Sumtimes they retain their Greek inflection, sumtimes they take either similar or arbitrarily formd case-endings.—Cp. Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', p. XXVIII, and especially M. H. Jellinek, 'Beitr. zur erklärung der german. flexion' (Berlin 1891), pp. 76-84.

Note 1. Most consistent is the treatment of the Gr. masculins in -ος, Lt. -us, which inflect in Gothic according to the u-decl. (§§ 104, 105); e. g., Paítrus, Barþaúlaúmaius, Teitus, aípiskaúpus, ἐπίσκοπος; apaústaúlus, ἀπόστολος; aggilus, ἄγγελος; sabbatus, sabbath. But only in the sg. pl. forms follow mostly the i-decl.; e. g., apaústaúleis, sabbatins, aggileis, aggilê beside aggiljus.

[Pg 51]

Note 2. Greek case-endings ar retaind in the neuters alabalstraún, ἀλάβαστρον; praitôriaún, πραιτώριον, etc.; Israêleitês has the nom. pl. Israêleitai = Ἰσραηλῖται; Rom. IX, 4; or (with Gothic inflection) Israêleiteis; II. Cor. XI, 22.

Note 3. The following exampl may illustrate arbitrary inflection. The Gr. ἐπιστολή is represented in Goth. by aípistaúlê (nom. sg.). But the dat. sg. is aípistaúlein, the dat. pl. aípistaúlêm, and the acc. pl. aípistaúlans.


§ 121. In Gothic, as in all other Germanic languages, adjectivs hav two kinds of inflection, the strong and the weak. The strong inflection is the original one corresponding to that of the cognate languages, the weak originated on Germanic soil. Every normal adj. may hav both a strong and a weak inflection. The distinction is a syntactic one: the weak form is employd after the articl (rarely in other positions), the strong form in all other cases, especially when the adj. is uzed predicativly, or attributivly without the articl. Cp. Zs. fda., 18, 17-43.


§ 122. The strong inflection of adjectivs is in part the same as the vocalic (or strong) inflection of the substantivs with which it was originally identical. In Germanic, however, sum cases of the adj. hav adopted the pronominal inflection, so that the identity between the adjectival inflection and that of the substantivs is now confined to certain cases. The nom. and acc. sg. of the neuter gender hav two forms of the same value, a substantival and a pronominal one (in -ata). The latter, however, is not uzed predicativly.

The Gothic adjectiv, like the substantiv, has three vocalic declensions: (1) Adjectivs of the a-declension which correspond to the substantival a-declension in the m. and n. (§ 89 et seq.) and in the f. of the ô-declension (§ 96 et seq.).—A subdivision is formd by the ja-stems, just as in the case of the corresponding substantivs. (2) Adjectivs of the i-declension which correspond to the substantivs in §§ 99-103. (3) Adjectivs of the u-declension belonging to the substantivs in §§ 104-106.

[Pg 52]

Classes (2) and (3), however, contain but very few remains in Gothic. The few adjectival ja-stems hav in most of the inflectional cases past over to the 1st class, so that the normal strong declension of the adjectivs in Gothic embraces only the a-declension and its subdivision, the ja-stems.

Note. Subject to strong inflection ar all pronouns (except sama and silba, § 132, n. 3), the cardinal numbers, inasmuch as they inflect adjectivly, and anþar, the second; also the adjectivs of a more general meaning: alls, all; ganôhs, enuf; halbs, half; midjis, 'medius'; fulls, ful.

§ 123. Paradim of the strong adjectival declension: blinds, blind. The pronominal forms differing from the inflection of the corresponding substantivs ar in the following paradim put in Italics:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. blinds blind, blindata blinda
G. blindis blindaizôs
D. blindamma blindai
A. blindana blind, blindata blinda
N. blindai blinda blindôs
G. blindaizê blindaizôs
D. blindaim blindaim
A. blindans blinda blindôs

§ 124. Here belong most of the extant adjectivs; e. g., hails, hole, helthy; siuks, sik; juggs, yung; triggws, tru, faithful; swinþs, strong; ubils, evil; aiweins, eternal; haiþiwisks, wild; mahteigs, mighty; ansteigs, gracious; manags, much, many; môdags, angry; handugs, wise.—Also adjectiv pronouns; as, meins, mine, my; þeins, thine, thy; seins, his; jains, yun; the superlativs (§ 137) and pps. pass.; as, numans, taken; nasiþs, saved (cp. § 134).

Note 1. According to § 78, n. 2, the s of the nom. sg. is dropt, (1) after s; e. g., swês, swêsis, own; gaqiss, gaqissis, consenting. (2) after r preceded by a short vowel: anþar, the second, the other; unsar, our; izwar, your; ƕaþar, which of the two. Accordingly, the nom. pl. warai must hav had a nom. sg. war, wary.

Note 2. The rules for the hardening of final soft spirants (79) must be noted; as, frôþs, frôdis, wise; gôþs, gôdis, good (§ 74); liufs, liubis, dear; daufs, daubis, def (§ 56, n. 1).

Note 3. Stems having a w before the case-endings ar subject to the rule for final w (§ 42) in the nom. sg. m. and n. The three words of this kind occur only in other cases. Therefore the noms. pl. fawai, qiwai, usskawai suggest as noms. sg. m. and n. faus, fau, few; qius, qiu, alive;[Pg 53] usskaus, usskau, wakeful. According to usskawjan (to awake, § 42, n. 2), also usskaws might be supposed insted of usskaus. For lasiws, s. § 42, n. 1.

Note 4. The pronominal adjectivs in -ar: unsar, izwar, anþar, ƕaþar, hav in the n. sg. only the shorter forms: unsar, izwar, etc.

§ 125. Adjectiv-stems with ja before the endings (ja-stems) hav most of their forms like the paradim blinds. Only in few forms a change is caused by the j. As in the case of nouns, we distinguish between short and long adjectival ja-stems.

Paradim of a short ja-stem: midjis, midl:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. midjis midi, midjata midja
G. midjis midjaizôs
D. midjamma midjai
A. midjana midi, midjata midja
N. midjai midja midjôs
G. midjaizê midjaizô
D. midjaim midjaim
A. midjans midja midjôs

§ 126. As regards inflection, the m. midjis is closely related to the substantiv harjis (§§ 90. 92), the n. midi to the substantiv kuni (§§ 93. 95). The fem. midja shows no deviation whatever.

Only a small number of adjectivs belong to this class: aljis, another; sunjis, tru; ga-wiljis, unanimous; unsibjis, criminal; -fraþjis, minded (only in grinda-, sama-fr.); ƕarjis (§ 160); also those whose stems end in a vowel (§ 44, c): niujis, new; -tôjis, doing (as, ubiltôjis, evil-doing).

Note 1. On account of the small number of these adjs. sum forms of the abuv paradim ar not extant. Thus, the short form of the neuter midi is givn in conformity with the long stems (§ 127), and that of niujis would be niwi; only niujata occurs; the n. of -tôjis would be -taúi (§ 26, a).

Note 2. The adj.-stem frija-, free, which occurs in the f. sg. frija, frijaizôs, frijai, frija, and in the m. forms, acc. sg. frijana, nom. pl. frijai, acc. frijans, has a contracted nom. sg. m. freis (for frijis). Also the gen. sg., if extant, would be freis.

Note 3. The nom. sg. f. of niujis is niuja (contrary to þiwi, § 98, n. 1).

§ 127. The long ja-stems inflect in the pl. like midjis. Paradim wilþeis (stem wilþja-), wild, in the sg.:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. wilþeis wilþi, wilþjata wilþi
G. [wilþeis or wilþjis?] [wilþjaizôs]
D. wilþjamma wilþjai
A. wilþjana wilþi, wilþjata wilþja
[Pg 54]

§ 128. The infl. of the m. is related to that of the sb. haírdeis (§§ 90. 92), the infl. of the f. to that of bandi (§§ 96. 98; only wôþi occurs; II. Cor. II, 15). None of the few adjs. of this class occurs in the gen. sg.; wilþjis (Rom. XI, 24) probably stands for wilþjins; s. § 132, n. 1.

Further exampls: alþeis, old; faírneis, old; aírzeis, astray; wôþeis, sweet.

§ 129. According to § 122, only remains of the original adjs. of the i- and u-declension ar extant in Gothic, viz.: nom. sg. of all genders, acc. sg. n., and gen. sg. m. and n. All other extant cases hav past over to the inflection of the ja-stems (§§ 125-127). The same rule applies to the weak forms (§ 132, n. 1).

Note. The old form of the gen. sg. [m.] n. is seen in skeiris (Skeir. 45) for the i-decl., in filaus (§ 131, n. 3) for the u-decl.; the latter, of course, is only a partial proof for the adj.

§ 130. The adjectival i-stems ar connected with the substantivs balgs, ansts (§§ 99-103). Exampls: hrains, clean; gamains, common; brûks, uzeful; analaugns, hidn; anasiuns, visibl; andanêms, agreeabl; andasêts, abominabl; sêls, kind (unsêls, wicked); suts, sweet; skeirs, clear; gafáurs, sober (unfáurs, talkativ); aljakuns, of different kind. The paradim hrains inflects thus:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. hrains hrain [hrainjata] hrains
G. [hrainis] [hrainjaizos]
D. hrainjamma hrainjai
A. hrainjana hrain [hrainjata] hrainja
N. hrainjai hrainja hrainjôs

Note 1. A gen. sg. f. as wel as a longer n. form (like hrainjata) ar not extant.

Note 2. A word may with certainty be referd to this class, (1) if it occurs in the nom. sg. f. (hrains), (2) if besides the nom. sg. m. and n. also cases with j ar found. But if only the nominativs m. and n. (hrains, hrain) occur, the word may inflect like blinds (123); if only j-cases (as, hrainjamma) ar found, it may decline like wilþeis, midjis (§§ 127. 125).—Other adjectivs, however, ar without sufficient proof, but for other considerations, included in this class; e. g., skauns, beutiful; auþs, desolate, waste; hauns, base; bleiþs, merciful; gadôfs, fit; *mêrs, famous (in[Pg 55] wailamêr, nom. sg. n.).—Cp. Kluge, Stammbildg., §§ 178. 197. 229-231; Beitr., 14, 167; 15, 489; Brgm., II, 287.

Note 3. Adjectival i-stems may be inferd from adverbs in -iba (§ 210); e. g., arniba, gatêmiba.

§ 131. The adjectival u-stems ar related to the substantivs sunus (fem. handus), faíhu (§§ 104-106). Exampls: hardus, hard; qaírrus, meek; þaúrsus, dry; tulgus, stedfast; manwus, redy; aggwus, narrow; aglus, difficult; seiþus, late; þlaqus, tender; twalibwintrus, twelv years (lit. winters) old. Paradim hardus:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. hardus hardu, hardjata hardus
G. [hardaus?] [hardjaizôs]
D. [hardjamma] [hardjai]
A. hardjana hardu, hardjata hardja
N. hardjai [hardja] hardjôs

Note 1. Whether adjectivs belong to this class is seen from the nom. sg. in which the abuv adduced exampls occur (the only f. forms being þaúrsus and tulgus; Beitr., 15, 570; 16, 318). laushandus, empty-handed; hnasqus, soft; kaúrus, hevy, ar merely inferd from their ja-cases.

Note 2. From the adv. glaggwuba (§ 210) an adj. glaggwus (§ 68) can be inferd.

Note 3. The original adj. *filus, much, is preservd in Goth. in the nom. acc. sg. n. uzed substantivly and adverbially: filu, the gen. filaus being uzed adverbially.


§ 132. The weak declension of adjectivs is fully identical with the weak or n-declension of nouns (§§ 107-112). But it must be noticed that the f. of the weak adj. inflects like the paradim tuggô (cp. § 112, n. 1).—Exampl of an inflected weak adj. (blinds, § 123):

Sing. M. N. F.
N. blinda blindô blindô
G. blindins blindôns
D. blindin blindôn
A. blindan blindô blindôn
N. blindans blindôna blindôns
G. blindanê blindônô
D. blindam blindôm
A. blindans blindôna blindôns
[Pg 56]

Note 1. Like blinda inflect all weak adjectivs. Of ja-stems: nom. sg. niuja, niujô, niujô (cp. § 126), wilþja (§ 127); —i-stems: hrainja, hrainjô; u-stems: hardja, hardjô (cp. § 129 et seq.).—In the cases with i (gen. dat. sg. m. n.) of the long stems in -ja- (-i-, -u-) the forms with -ji- appear as the regular ones (as in the sb., § 108, n. 2; contrary to § 44, c); cp. wilþji(n)s; Rom. XI, 24; unhrainjin; Mk. IX, 25. Lu. VIII, 29; unsêljin; Mt. V, 39. Jo. XVII, 15. But beside unsêljins; Eph. VI, 16 (in A) unsêleins (in B); beside faírnjin; Mk. II, 21. Lu. V, 36, also faírnin; II. Cor. VIII, 10. IX, 2.

Note 2. Sum adjectivs occur only in the weak forms; as, usgrudja, idle, despondent; alaþarba, poor; usfaírina, blameless; inkilþô, pregnant, and a few more of which sum ar probably to be regarded as substantivs (cp. Zs. fda., 18, 41, note).—The weak form ainaha (no strong form occurs), only, has in Lu. VIII, 42 the nom. sg. f. ainôhô (cp. Beitr., 12, 203) which is certainly incorrect for ainahô.

Note 3. All ordinals except 1st and 2nd (cp. § 146), and the prns. sama and silba (§ 156) follow the weak inflection only.

Note 4. Lastly, the prs. ptcs. (§ 133), comparativs (§ 136), and the superlativs in -ma (§ 139) inflect exclusivly like weak adjs. But all these words hav the f. according to the paradim managei (§ 113, n. 3).


§ 133. The present participl has lost its strong inflection and declines like a weak adj., but with the f. in -ei (§ 132, n. 4). Only the nom. sg. m. has frequently both the strong and the weak inflection. Paradim gibands, giving:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. gibands gibandô gibandei
G. gibandins gibandeins
D. gibandin gibandein
A. gibandan gibandô gibandein
N. gibandans gibandôna gibandeins
G. gibandanê gibandeinô
D. gibandam gibandeim
A. gibandans gibandôna gibandeins

Note 1. Concerning the shorter inflection of sum participls uzed substantivly, s. § 115.

§ 134. The prt. ptc. pass., like an ordinary adj., follows the strong and weak inflection; e. g., the pp. of the stv. giban:

Strong: m. gibans n. giban, gibanata f. gibana
Weak: gibana gibanô gibanô
[Pg 57]

The pp. of the wv. nasjan:

Strong: nasiþs n. nasiþ, nasidata f. nasida
Weak: nasida nasidô nasidô

Note. Concerning the interchange between þ and d in the pp. of the weak verbs, s. § 74.



§ 135. The comparativ degree of adjectivs in Gothic is formd by means of two suffixes, -iz- and -ôz-, to which the terminations of the weak adjectivs ar added.

The formation with the suff. -iz- is more general than the other. It is found in adjs. of all kinds; e. g., managiza (< manags, a-stem), alþiza (< alþeis, §§ 127. 128), hardiza (< hardus, § 131).—But the suffix -ôz- occurs in a-stems only: frôdôza (< frôþs), swinþôza (< swinþs).

Note. The adj. juggs, yung, has the compar. jûhiza (according to § 50, n. 1). Its superlativ is not extant.

§ 136. The comparativs inflect exactly like weak adjectivs, but the f. ends in -ei (§ 132, n. 4):

Sing. N. m. frôdôza n. frôdôzô f. frôdôzei
G. frôdôzins frôdôzeins,

etc., like the prs. ptc. (§ 133).


§ 137. The superlativ degree, like the comparativ, is formd in two ways, in -ist- or in -ôst-; e. g., managists (< manags), armôsts (< arms, poor). The inflection of the superlativs is precisely the same as that of ordinary adjectivs—strong and weak.

Note. No rule can be givn for the appearance of the ô or the i in the suffix, except that the ô-form occurs only with a-stems. We may suppose that a word which forms the compar. by means of i, has i in the superl. also, and that, in like manner, the ô-forms correspond to each other. This supposition, however, is only founded on a few extant exampls.


§ 138. The lack of comparison of sum adjectivs is supplied by comparativs and superlativs with a corresponding meaning, but without a positiv:

[Pg 58]

gôþs (d), good Compar. batiza Superl. batists
ubils, evil " waírsiza "
mikils, great " maiza " maists
leitils, litl " minniza " minnists
sineigs, old " " sinista.

§ 139. A superlativ with an m-suffix is found in six words, which ar derived from adverbial stems and appear without a positiv. The m-suffix is either simpl: fru-ma, innu-ma, aúhu-ma, or compound: af-tuma, if-tuma, hlei-duma.

Two of them hav assumed a comparativ meaning: aúhuma, higher; hleiduma, left (ἀριστερός); the others hav a superlativ or an intensiv signification: aftuma, the last; iftuma, the next; innuma, the inmost; fruma, the first.

These words follow the weak inflection, but hav the f. in -ei, exactly like the comparativs.

Note. Sum superlativs in -ma ar compared anew in the uzual manner: aftumists, the last; aúhumists, oftener than aúhmists (cp. OE. ŷmest, Sievers-Cook, OE. Gr., § 314, n. 3), the highest; frumists, the first.—The forms hindumists, hindmost, spêdumists, last (< *spêþs, beside spêdiza, spêdists), suggest the missing hinduma and spêduma. Also miduma, midst, midumônds, mediator, point to a form *miduma, midl (cp. OE. meodume, midmest).



§ 140. The first three numerals ar declinabl in all cases and genders.

1. ains, n. ain and ainata, f. aina, inflects entirely like a strong adj. (blinds, § 123). Plural forms mean only, alone. No weak inflection is found. (§ 122, n. 1).

2. M. N. F.
N. twai twa twôs
G. twaddjê
D. twaim twaim
A. twans twa twôs
3. N. þrija
G. þrijê
D. þrim
A. þrins þrija þrins

The nom. of the m. and f., which is not extant, may with certainty be givn as þreis.

[Pg 59]

Note. The definit dual number 'both', ἀμφότεροι, is renderd by bai, which inflects like twai. The extant forms ar nom. m. bai, dat. baim, acc. bans, nom. acc. n. ba.—There occurs also an extended form with the same meaning, its inflection being that of a consonantal substantiv (§ 117, n. 4): nom. bajôþs, dat. bajôþum.

§ 141. The numerals from 4 to 19 ar of one gender. Extant ar: fidwôr, 4; fimf, 5; saíhs, 6; sibun, 7; ahtau, 8; niun, 9; taíhun, 10; ainlif (§ 56, n. 1), 11; twalif, 12; fidwôrtaíhun, 14; fimftaíhun, 15. These numerals ar uzed uninflected, but may take an inflected gen. and dat. according to the i-declension (§ 99 et seq.). Thus, fidwôr, dat. fidwôrim; niun, gen. niunê; taíhun, dat. taíhunim; ainlif, dat. ainlibim; twalif, gen. twalibê, dat. twalibim.

Note. For fidwôr appears fidur- (s. § 24, n. 2) in cpds.: fidurfalþs, fourfold; fidurdôgs, time of four days; fidurragineis, tetrarch. Cp. Beitr., 6, 394; Brgm., III, 11.

§ 142. The tens from 20 to 60 ar formd by means of the pl. tigjus (< *tigus, a decad), preceded by the units. tigjus inflects regularly like sunus (§ 104). The object counted is always givn in the gen.—twai tigjus, 20; *þreis tigjus, 30 (extant in gen. þrijê tigiwê, acc. þrins tiguns), fidwôr tigjus, 40; fimf tigjus, 50; saíhs tigjus, 60.

§ 143. From 70 to 100 -têhund takes the place of tigjus: sibuntêhund, 70; ahtautêhund, 80; niuntêhund, 90; taíhuntêhund and taíhuntaíhund, 100. The numerals in -têhund ar substantivs which ar as a rule indeclinabl. Onse (Lu. XV, 7) we meet with an inflected gen. sg.; in niuntêhundis jah niunê garaíhtaizê.—Cp. Brgm., III, 40.

§ 144. The hundreds ar formd by means of the plural of a neuter hund (a hundred). The following ar extant: twa hunda, 200; þrija hunda, 300; fimf hunda, 500; niun hunda, 900.

§ 145. þûsundi, 1000, is a f. sb. (inflecting like bandi, § 96), with a gen. pl.; several thousands ar exprest by þûsundjôs.—Onse (Ezra II, 14) occurs a n. pl. twa þûsundja. Cp. ahd. gr., § 275. OE. Gr., § 327, and Mahlow, 'Die langen Vocale', p. 98.

The extant thousands ar: twôs þûsundjôs, 2000; .g. þûsundjôs, 3000; fidwôr þûsundjôs, 4000; fimf þûsundjôs,[Pg 60] 5000; taíhun þ., 10000; miþ twaim tigum (dat.) þûsundjô (gen.), with 20000.

Note (to §§ 141-145). The numerals ar very often denoted by letters (cp. § 1, n. 2). Therefore so many words for numerals ar wanting.


§ 146. The first two ordinals differ in point of stem from the corresponding cardinals. 1. m. fruma, n. frumô, f. frumei (s. § 139), and the superl. frumists, first (§ 139, n. 1). 2. anþar, second, other, inflects like a strong adj. (§ 122, n. 1; § 124, ns. 1. 4).—All subsequent ordinals ar derived from the cardinals and inflect like weak adjectivs (§ 132, n. 3). The extant ordinals ar: þridja, 3d; *fimfta (only in 15th), fifth; saíhsta, 6th; ahtuda, 8th; niunda, 9th; taíhunda, tenth; fimftataíhunda, 15th. Only the second component is declined: dat. sg. (in jêra) fimftataíhundin; Lu. III, 1.


§ 147. A distributiv numeral is tweihnai, two apiece, two-and-two, extant in the dat. f. tweihnaim and acc. f. tweihnôs.

Note. All other distributivs ar exprest by means of the cardinals along with ƕazuh, ƕarjizuh (§§ 164. 165) or the prep. bi; as (insandida ins) twans ƕanzuh, two and two; Lu. X, 1; bi twans; I. Cor. XIV, 27.

§ 148. Multiplicativs ar formd by means of the adj. falþ-: ainfalþs, onefold; fidurfalþs, fourfold; taíhuntaíhund-falþs, hundredfold; managfalþs, manifold.

§ 149. Numeral adverbs answering the question 'how many times', 'how often'? ar exprest by the dat. sg. sinþa or by the dat. pl. sinþam (nom. sg. sinþs, time, lit. 'a going') preceded by the cardinals: ainamma sinþa, onse; twaim sinþam, twice; þrim sinþam, thrice; fimf s., five times; sibun s., seven times.—With an ordinal numeral: anþaramma sinþa, a second time.

Note. Also the n. þridjô, a third time, is uzed adverbially (II. Cor. XII, 14).

[Pg 61]



§ 150.

1. Person. 2. Person. Reflexiv.
Sing. N. ik þu
G. meina þeina seina
D. mis þus sis
A. mik þuk sik
Dual N. wit
G. ugkara igqara seina
D. ugkis igqis sis
A. ugkis, ugk igqis sik
Plur. N. weis jus
G. unsara izwara seina
D. uns, unsis izwis sis
A. uns, unsis izwis sik

Note 1. ugkis, igqis, etc., are also speld uggkis, iggqis; cp. § 67, n. 1.

Note 2. The nom. du. 2nd pers. is not extant; it was undoutedly jut. For jus (jûs?), s. § 15, n. 1.

§ 151. From the stems of these pronouns adjectivs ar derived, the so-calld possessiv pronouns. 1st pers.: m. meins, n. mein, meinata; f. meina, my (mine); 2nd pers.: þeins, thy (thine); refl. seins, his. Plurals: 1st pers. unsar, our; 2nd pers. izwar, your. The only extant dual poss. prn. is igqar, the 1st pers. would be ugkar.

Note 1. The inflection of these pronominal adjectivs is identical with that of the strong adj.; concerning unsar, izwar, cp. § 124, ns. 1 and 4.—No weak inflection occurs.

Note 2. The reflexiv *seins occurs only in the gen., dat., acc.; insted of the nominativs of all genders and numbers the genitivs of the prn. of the 3d pers. (is, izôs; izê, izô; § 152) ar employd.


§ 152.

Sing. M. N. F.
N. is, he ita, it si, she
G. is izôs
D. imma izai
A. ina ita ija
N. eis ija [ijôs]
G. izê izô
D. im im
A. ins [ija] ijôs

Note. The acc. and gen. pl. n. and the nom. pl. f. ar not extant, but the inferd forms ar undoutedly correct.

[Pg 62]


§ 153. The simpl dem. prn. sa, , þata is uzed both as dem. prn., this, that (for the Gr. οὗτος or αὐτός), and, with a weakend force, as articl, the. The latter uze is predominant.—The neuter sing. (like the interrog., § 159) has preservd the instrumental case.

Sing. M. N. F.
N. sa þata
G. þis þizôs
D. þamma þizai
A. þana þata þô
Instr. þê
N. þai þô þôs
G. þizê þizô
D. þaim þaim
A. þans þô þôs

Note 1. The final as of the dissyllabic forms ar dropt in combination with enclitics beginning with a vowel; cp. § 4, n. 1.—For þei from *þa-ei, s. § 157, n. 2.

Note 2. The instr. n. þê is preservd only in the combinations bi-þê, du-þê (duþþê), jaþ-þê (§ 62, n. 3), þêei (§ 157, n. 1), and, like þana (in þanamais, þanaseiþs), before a comparativ (= E. 'the' in 'the more').

§ 154. A compound demonstrativ pronoun is formd by affixing the enclitic particl -uh to the simpl demonstrativ. Cp. § 24, n. 2. Its meaning is always that of the simpl sa uzed demonstrativly, this, that (= Gr. οὗτος or αὐτός).—It inflects thus:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. sah þatuh sôh
G. þizuh [þizôzuh]
D. þammuh [þizaih]
A. þanuh þatuh [þôh]
N. þáih [þôh] [þôzuh]
G. [þizêh] [þizôh]
D. [þaimuh] [þaimuh]
A. [þanzuh] [þôh] [þôzuh]

Note 1. The forms in square brackets ar not extant.

Note 2. The instr. n. þêh occurs only in the adv. bi-þêh.

§ 155. A defectiv demonstrativ pronoun hi- (nom. *his = is, § 152), this, occurs only in temporal frases in the[Pg 63] dativ m. and n. himma and in the acc. m. hina, n. hita; e. g., himma daga, to-day; und hina dag, to this day; und hita, til now.

§ 156. jains (concerning the vowel ai, cp. § 20, n. 4), n. jainata, f. jaina (yon), that, inflects like a strong adj. (blinds, § 124).

Like weak adjectivs inflect silba, self, and sama, same, or with the articl: sa sama, the same (cp. § 132, n. 3).


§ 157. A simpl relativ pronoun is not found in the Gothic language. A relativ prn. of the 3d pers. is formd from the simpl demonstrativ pronoun by affixing the particl ei which, when uzed independently, has the force of a conjunction, that, in order that. This relativ pronoun inflects as follows:

Sing. M. N. F.
N. saei þatei sôei
G. þizei þizôzei
D. þammei þizaiei
A. þanei þatei þôei
Instr. þêei
N. þaiei þôei þôzei
G. þizêei [þizôei]
D. þaimei þaimei
A. þanzei þôei þôzei

Note 1. The instr. n. þêei is uzed only as a conjunction.

Note 2. Beside þatei occurs þei, which is employd, however, only in combination with ƕah (§ 164, n. 1), and (like þatei) as a conjunction, that. Cp. Beitr., 4, 467; 6, 402; Zs. fda., 29, 366 et seq.

Note 3. Insted of the nom. sg. saei, m., sôei, f., also izei, m., sei (i. e. si-ei, § 10, n. 2), f., (formd from the 3d pers. of the pers. prn., § 152) ar employd. The form sei occurs even more frequently than sôei. Sumtimes izei stands as nom. pl. m. (for eizei which is not found); e. g., þai izei bimaitanai sind; Gal. VI, 13.—For izei the form izê is often found; cp. § 17, n. 1.

Note 4. Concerning the change of final s before ei into z, s. § 78, c.

§ 158. When a relativ clause refers to a prn. of the 1st or 2nd pers., the relativ particl is affixt to the respectiv pers. prn. Thus, ikei, who (1st pers. sg.); —þuei, who; þuzei, to whom (as in Mk. I, 11); þukei, whom (2nd pers. sg.); —juzei, who; izwizei, to whom (2nd pers. pl.).

[Pg 64]


§ 159. The interrogativ pronoun ƕas, who? (= Lt. quis), is formd from the simpl interrogativ stem ƕa-. A substantiv following ƕas occurs always in the genitiv; e. g., ƕa mizdônô, τίνα μισθόν; Mt. V, 46.

Sing. M. N. F.
N. ƕas ƕa ƕô
G. ƕis [ƕizôs]
D. ƕamma ƕizai
A. ƕana ƕa ƕô
Instr. ƕê

Note 1. The gen. f. is not extant. The instr. occurs only in the neuter (cp. sa, § 153).

Note 2. ƕas has no plural; cp. however ƕanzuh, § 164, n.

Note 3. ƕas is also employd as an indefinit prn.; cp. § 162, n. 2.

§ 160. From stem ƕa- ar derived: ƕaþar, which of two?, and ƕarjis, which? A substantiv following is always put in the gen. Both words inflect like strong adjectivs—ƕaþar like anþar (cp. § 124, n. 1), ƕarjis like midjis (§ 125), f. ƕarja, the n. *ƕarjata like ƕarjatôh (§ 165).

§ 161. Compound interrogativs: ƕileiks, what sort of?, 'qualis?' (its correlativ being swaleiks, such, 'talis'), and ƕêlauþs, f. ƕêlauda, how great?, 'quantus?' (correlativ swalauþs, so great, 'tantus'). These words inflect like a strong adjectiv.

Note. ƕeleiks (in Lu. I, 29), for ƕileiks, is probably miswritn (according to § 10, n. 5).


§ 162. The Goth. indefinit pronoun sums, f. suma, n. sum, sumata, sum (Gr. τις, τι), inflects like a strong adjectiv and is uzed adjectivly; with the meaning sum one, a certain one, it is also uzed substantivly.

Note 1. An enumerativ expression is sums...sums (= Gr. ὁ μέν...ὁ δέ). In most cases uh (§ 24, n. 2) is added to the second sums, occasionally also to the first; as, sumai...sumáih, or sumáih...sumáih, sum ... others.

Note 2. Also the interrogativ ƕas (§ 159) is very often uzed as an indefinit prn., anyone.

§ 163. The enclitic particl -hun is uzed to form indefinit pronouns which occur only with the negativ particl ni. Their meaning is no one, none.

[Pg 65]

(a) The singular of manna, man (§ 117), with the suffix -hun means no one.—The extant forms ar:

(b) ni ƕashun (< ƕas, § 159), uzed substantivly, no one. It occurs in the nom. sg. m. only.—An analogon to ƕashun is ƕanhun (< ƕan, § 214, n. 1).

(c) ni ainshun, the commonest indef. prn., is uzed substantivly (no one, none) and adjectivly (no, not any). A following sb. occurs always in the (partit.) gen.; e. g., ni ainshun þiwê, no servant; Lu. XVI, 3.—The declension of ainshun differs in sum cases from that of the simpl form ains (§ 140).

Sing. M. N. F.
N. ainshun ainhun ainôhun
G. ainishun
D. ainummêhun ainaihun
A. ainnôhun ainhun ainôhun

Note. -hun is also affixt to the acc. sg. of the sb. ƕeila (§ 97, n. 2): ƕeilôhun, for an hour (ni ƕeilôhun, οὐδὲ πρὸς ὥραν; Gal. II, 5).

§ 164. 'Every' is renderd by affixing -uh to the interrogativ pronouns.

(a) ƕazuh, every. A noun or prn. following takes the gen. Its inflection differs in part from that of the simpl form ƕas (§ 159):

Sing. M. N. F.
N. ƕazuh ƕah ƕôh
G. ƕizuh
D. ƕammêh
A. ƕanôh ƕah
A. ƕanzuh

In the pl. only the acc. ƕanzuh occurs.

Note 1. The indef. relativ 'whoever, whosoever' (Lt. quicunque) is renderd: (1) by ƕazuh saei or, with sa prefixt, saƕazuh saei. For saei also izei is found (§ 157, n. 3).—These forms ar uzed in the nom. sg. only, the nom. n. þataƕah þei (þei = þatei, § 157, n. 2) occurs twice: Jo. XV, 7. 16.—(2) by þisƕazuh followd by saei or ei in all cases; the first component, þis, remains uninflected: m. n. þisƕazuh saei, dat. þisƕammêh saei, acc. þisƕanôh saei; —nom. acc. n. þisƕah þei (or þatei), gen. þisƕizuh þei, dat. þisƕammêh þei.

[Pg 66]

Note 2. Here may be observd the adverbs: ƕêh (instr. of ƕazuh), at least, at any rate, only, and þisƕaduh þei, whithersoever, þisƕaruh þei, wheresoever (cp. ƕaþ, ƕar, § 213, n. 1).

§ 165. (b) ƕarjizuh, every, each.

Sing. M. N. F.
N. ƕarjizuh ƕarjatôh
G. ƕarjizuh
D. ƕarjammêh
A. ƕarjanôh [ƕarjatôh] ƕarjôh

Note. ƕarjizuh is also compounded with (uninflected) ain: ainƕarjizuh, every one, every, each, n. ainƕarjatôh, dat. ainƕarjammêh, etc.

§ 166. Each of two is renderd by ƕaþaruh; it occurs only in the dat. ƕaþarammêh (Skeir. 46), for the evidently incorrect ƕaþaramma (cp. Bernhardt's comment on this passage); —also with ain- prefixt (cp. § 165, n. 1): ainƕaþaruh, each one of two (only ainƕaþarammêh occurs; Skeir. 41).



§ 167. The Gothic verb has the following forms:

1. Two voices, Activ and Midl. The Activ Voice alone has preservd a great variety of forms. The Midl Voice is retaind in but a few forms of the prs. indicativ and optativ, which occur, however, very often. The midl forms hav a passiv meaning. Therefore the Midl Voice is also calld Passiv or Medio-Passiv Voice.

Note 1. The lost passiv forms ar supplied by the pp. along with the corresponding forms of waírþan or wisan; e. g., daupjada, he is baptized, but daupiþs was or warþ, he was baptized. Cp. Zs. fdph., 5, 409 et seq.

Note 2. The originally inchoativ verbs in -nan (§ 194) frequently hav a medial meaning (§ 194).

2. Two tenses, Present and Preterit (Perfect). The Preterit is the general tense for the past. The future is wanting; its place is mostly supplied by the present, seldom by means of auxiliary verbs (skulan, shal; haban, hav; duginnan, to begin).

3. Two complete moods, Indicativ and Optativ (also calld Subjunctiv). An Imperativ occurs only in the present; it has the second persons of all three numbers and a 1st pers. pl.—There ar but few instances of a 3d pers. sg. and[Pg 67] pl. imper. This is uzually exprest by the 3d pers. opt. But also the 2nd and 1st pers. imp. ar frequently exprest by the opt.

4. Three numbers: Singular, Dual, and Plural. The 3d pers. du. is wanting.

5. The Present Infinitiv, the Present Participl with an activ meaning, and the Preterit Partic. with a passiv meaning.

§ 168. The Gothic verbs ar, from a Germanic point of view, divided according to the formation of the preterit in relation to the present into two chief classes:

I. Strong Verbs.

The strong verbs do not form the preterit with an additional suffix, but by change of the radical vowel or by reduplication. Thus, we hav two subdivisions:

1. Ablaut Verbs. The preterit of these verbs is formd without reduplication. It differs from the present only by a regular change of the radical vowel, the so-calld ablaut (cp. § 29); e. g., binda, I bind, band, I bound.

2. Reduplicating Verbs. The prt. has reduplication, but no ablaut; e. g., halda, I hold, haíhald, I held.

3. Reduplicating Ablaut Verbs. A smaller number of verbs hav the prt. both with ablaut and reduplication; e. g., lêta, I let; laílôt, I let (prt.).

II. Weak Verbs.

The weak verbs form the preterit by the addition of a suffix beginning with a dental consonant; e. g., nasja, I save, nasida, I saved. This suffixal element, -da, was formerly regarded as a form of the verb 'do' (Germanic dôn), wherefore the weak prt. was also calld 'compound preterit'.

The weak verbs (except a few) ar derivativ verbs. According to their formativ suffixes, which ar best preservd in the preterit forms, they ar divided into four classes: (1) Suffix i (in the present j): nasja, nasi-da. (2) Suffix ô: salbô, salbô-da. (3) Suffix ai (in the present in part obscured): haba, habai-da. (4) Suffix (in the present n): fullna, fullnô-da.

Note. The small number of verbs which can not be referd to the two chief classes must, according to this classification, be considerd 'irregular'.

[Pg 68]



§ 169. The inflection of the strong verbs (by means of personal endings) is the same in all three classes (§ 168). Therefore we first giv the paradims of inflection and then discuss the formation of the tense-stems (which is different in each class). As paradims may serv a reduplicating verb, haitan, to be calld, and two ablaut verbs, niman, to take, and biudan, to offer.

§ 170.

(a) Present (Activ).
Sing. 1. nima biuda haita
2. nimis biudis haitis
3. nimiþ biudiþ haitiþ
Dual 1. nimôs biudôs haitôs
2. nimats biudats haitats
Plur. 1. nimam biudam haitam
2. nimiþ biudiþ haitiþ
3. nimand biudand haitand
Sing. 1. nimau biudau haitau
2. nimais biudais haitais
3. nimai biudai haitai
Dual 1. nimaiwa biudaiwa haitaiwa
2. nimaits biudaits haitaits
Plur. 1. nimaima biudaima haitaima
2. nimaiþ biudaiþ haitaiþ
3. nimaina biudaina haitaina
Sing. 2. nim biuþ hait
3. nimadau biudadau haitadau
Dual 2. nimats biudats haitats
Plur. 1. nimam biudam haitam
2. nimiþ biudiþ haitiþ
3. nimandau biudandau haitandau
niman biudan haitan
nimands biudands haitands
[Pg 69]
(b) Preterit.
Sing. 1. nam bauþ haíhait
2. namt baust haíhaist
3. nam bauþ haíhait
Dual 1. nêmu budu haíhaitu
2. nêmuts buduts haíhaituts
Plur. 1. nêmum budum haíhaitum
2. nêmuþ buduþ haíhaituþ
3. nêmun budun haíhaitun
Sing. 1. nêmjau budjau haíhaitjau
2. nêmeis budeis haíhaiteis
3. nêmi budi haíhaiti
Dual 1. nêmeiwa budeiwa haíhaiteiwa
2. nêmeits budeits haíhaiteits
Plur. 1. nêmeima budeima haíhaiteima
2. nêmeiþ budeiþ haíhaiteiþ
3. nêmeina budeina haíhaiteina
(c) Preterit Participl Passiv.
numans budans haitans
(d) Medio-Passiv—Present.
Sing. 1. nimada biudada haitada
2. nimaza biudaza haitaza
3. nimada biudada haitada
Plur. 1. 2. 3. nimanda biudanda haitanda
Sing. 1. nimaidau biudaidau haitaidau
2. nimaizau biudaizau haitaizau
3. nimaidau biudaidau haitaidau
Plur. 1. 2. 3. nimaindau biudaindau haitaindau

Note 1. biudan is subject to the rules for the final soft spirants (§ 79): imper. sg. biuþ, prt. bauþ (cp. § 374). Likewise giban, gif, gaf (cp. § 56).

Note 2. The termination of the 2nd pers. sg. prt. (-t) causes the change stated in the rule for consonants before dentals (§ 81). Final b of stems becums f: gaft (inf. giban); exampls for pt ar wanting: skôpt or skôft? (inf. skapjan); —g remains unchanged in magt (§ 66, n. 1), other exampls ar wanting; neither ar there any exampls for kt (wôkt or wôht? cp. § 58, n. 2); —dentals becum s: warst < waírþan, qast < qiþan (§ 71, n. 3), gastôst < standan, baust < biudan (§ 75, n. 1), bigast < gitan,[Pg 70] haíhaist < haitan (§ 69, n. 2).—The extant 2nd pers. prt. of saísô (inf. saian) is saísôst. On account of the scarcity of exampls it is uncertain whether all stems ending in a vowel had -st.—The 2nd pers. prt. of rinnan is rant (§ 80).

Note 3. Only one strong verb is found (twice) in the 3d pers. sg. imper.: atsteigadan, καταβάτω; Mt. XXVII, 42. Mk. XV, 32 (cp. § 186, n. 1). The 3d pers. pl. may be givn with certainty according to the weak verb (§ 192, n. 1).

Note 4. The dual forms of the verb occur very seldom. The 1st pers. du. opt. prt., nêmeiwa, etc., which is only givn according to the corresponding form of the prs. nimaiwa, is not found at all. Also the 2nd pers. du. opt. prt. is but an inferd form according to the anomalous wileits (§ 205).

Note 5. Concerning the irregular formation of the present of sum strong verbs with j, s. § 206, n.

1. Ablaut Verbs.

§ 171. The ablaut verbs form their tense-stems by a regular change of the radical vowel, the so-calld ablaut. The several ablaut-series and the conditions of their appearance wil be found givn in §§ 30-35. To each of these series belong ablaut verbs, and therefore six ablaut classes must be distinguisht. Each ablaut verb contains four ablaut vowels which appear in the formation of the verb in the following manner: (1) The first vowel belongs to the present and to what is connected with the present (prsp., inf., also medio-passiv). (2) The second vowel is that of the sg. prt. indic. (3) The third vowel appears in the du. and pl. prt. indic. and thruout the prt. opt. (4) The fourth vowel belongs to the pp.

In order to determin the inflection of a strong verb, it is customary to giv the following four forms (principal parts): (1) 1st pers. sg. prs. indic., or the prs. inf.; (2) 1st pers. sg. prt. indic.; (3) 1st pers. pl. prt. indic.; (4) the pp.

In the following we arrange the ablaut verbs according to their classes.

§ 172. Class I. Verbs of the first ablaut series: eiáii () (cp. § 30); e. g., greipa, graip, gripum, gripans, to gripe, seiz; i before h (ƕ) becums by breaking (§ 20): leiƕa, láiƕ, laíƕum, laíƕans, to lend.

[Pg 71]

Note 1. Like these inflect: deigan, to knead; steigan, to mount; gateihan, to show; þeihan, to thrive; þreihan, to throng; weihan, to fight; —beitan, to bite; dis-kreitan, to tear to pieces; ga-smeitan, to smear; -weitan (inweitan, to wurship; fraweitan, to punish); beidan, to wait; leiþan, to go; sneiþan, to cut; —weipan, to crown; dreiban, to drive; bi-leiban, to remain; sweiban, to cease; —reisan, to rize; skeinan, to shine; hneiwan, to decline, bow; speiwan, to spit.

Note 2. The n of keinan (OHG. kînan), to germinate, occurs only in the prs. stem (cp. § 206, b); the pp. is kijans (only in uskijanata; Lu. VIII, 6). The prt. *kai, *kijum, has been replaced by a weak prt. of the IV. weak conjugation (keinôda, § 195, n. 2). Cp. Kluge, 'Germ. Conjug.', 143.

Note 3. The verb neiwan, to hav a quarrel against, occurs only in a sumwhat doutful exampl: naiw; Mk. VI, 19. Cp. Bernhardt, 'Vulfila', p. 282, and Zs. fdph., 7, 112. 484.

§ 173. Class II. Verbs of the second ablaut series: iuauu ()—u () (cp. § 31); e. g., biuda, bauþ, budum, budans, to offer; with breaking (§ 24): tiuha, táuh, taúhum, taúhans, to draw, lead.

Note 1. Like tiuhan inflect: siukan, to be sick; biugan, to bend; driugan, to perform military service; liugan, to lie; þliuhan, to flee; —giutan, to pour; usþriutan, to trubl, vex; niutan, to enjoy; liudan, to grow; —dis-hniupan, to break to pieces; sliupan, to slip; af-skiuban, to shuv away; hiufan, to weep; driusan, to fall; kiusan, to choose; fra-liusan, to lose; kriustan, to gnash.

Note 2. The vowel of the prs. is irregular in lûka, lauk, lukum, lukans, to lock.

§ 174. Class III. Verbs of the third ablaut series: i ()—au ()—u () (cp. § 32); e. g., binda, band, bundum, bundans, to bind; with breaking (§§ 20. 24): waírpa, warp, waúrpum, waúrpans, to throw, cast.

Note 1. Like these inflect: brinnan, to burn; du-ginnan, to begin; af-linnan, to depart; rinnan, to run; spinnan, to spin; winnan, to suffer; —trimpan, to tred; —fra-slindan, to devour; windan, to wind; hinþan, to cach; finþan, to find; þinsan, to draw; —stiggan (only by conjecture in Mt. V, 29), to sting; bliggwan, to beat (§ 68, 2); siggwan, to sing; sigqan, to sink; stigqan, to thrust; drigkan, to drink; —gildan, to be of value; swiltan, to die; hilpan, to help; filhan, to hide; wilwan, to rob; —baírgan, to hide, keep; gaírdan, to gird; waírþan, to becum; ga-þaírsan, to wither; swaírban, to wipe; ƕaírban, to walk; —þriskan, to thresh; ga-wrisqan, to bear fruit (these two only in the prs. tense, in I. Tim. V, 18. Lu. VIII, 14).

Note 2. According to its prs. tense, also briggan would belong here; s. § 208.

§ 175. Class IV. Verbs of the fourth ablaut series: i ()—aêu () (cp. § 33); e. g., nima, nam, nêmum,[Pg 72] umans, to take; with breaking (§§ 20. 24): baíra, bar, bêrum, baúrans, to bear.

Note 1. Like these inflect: qiman, to cum; ga-timan, to suit; stilan, to steal; ga-taíran, to tear; —brikan, to break (§ 33, n. 1).

Note 2. Here belongs also trudan, [traþ], [trêdum], trudans, to tred (ON. troða, trað, traðum, troðinn; in OHG. according to V.: trëtan, trat, trátum, trëtan). According to trudan, we should also write wulan, to boil (only prsp. wulandans occurs; Rom. XII, 11).

§ 176. Class V. Verbs of the fifth ablaut series: i ()—aêi () (cp. § 34); e. g., mita, mat, mêtum, mitans, to mezure; giba, gaf, gêbum, gibans, to giv.

Note 1. Here belong also wrikan, to persecute; rikan (found in the prs. only), to accumulate; ligan, to lie; ga-wigan, to move; saíƕan, to see (cp. § 34, n. 1); —hlifan, to steal; —bigitan, to get, obtain; sitan, to sit; fitan, to bear (children)?; widan, to bind; qiþan, to say; niþan, to help (?); —lisan, to gather; ga-nisan, to recuver; wisan, to remain.

Note 2. sniwan, to hasten, has sniwa, snau (§ 42), snêwum, sniwans. Onse occurs the prt. snauh (with additional h; cp. § 62, n. 4), onse sniwun for snêwun (§ 7, n. 3).—Like sniwan inflects probably diwan, to die, of which only the pp. (þata) diwanô occurs.

Note 3. The prt. sg. of itan is, irregularly, êt, not at; only the cpd. frêt (< fra-itan, to eat up; § 4, n. 1; § 7, b) is extant. Hense itan, êt, êtum, itans. Cp. the OHG. prts. âz frâz (ahd. gr., § 343, n. 5), ON. át. Möller, 'Engl. Studien', 3, 154.

Note 4. The n of fraíhnan, to ask, occurs only in the prs. stem: fraíhna, frah, frêhum, fraíhans (cp. § 206, b).

Note 5. The j in bidjan occurs in the prs. stem only: bidja, baþ, bêdum, bidans (cp. § 206, n.). Onse the prs. is found without j: usbida; Rom. IX, 3.

§ 177. Class VI. Verbs of the sixth ablaut series: a—ô—ô—a (cp. § 35); e. g., slaha, slôh, slôhum, slahans, to strike.

Note 1. Like slahan go: sakan, to quarrel; wakan, to wake; dragan, to carry, load; þwahan, to wash; hlaþan, to load; ga-daban, to becum, fit; ga-draban, to hew; graban, to dig; skaban, to shave; alan, to grow; malan, to grind; swaran, to swear; faran, to fare, go; us-anan, to expire. Sum of these verbs occur only in the prs.: wakan, dragan, alan, malan, faran.

Note 2. Sum verbs of this class hav j in the present stem, which is wanting in the prt. and pp.; e. g., hafjan, to heav, forms: hafja, hôf, hôfum, hafans. So do: fraþjan, to understand; hlahjan, to laf; skapjan, to shape, make; skaþjan, to do scath, to injure; wahsjan, to wax, grow. Doutful is the prs. form *garaþjan which is uzually inferd from the pp. garaþana (Mt. X, 30), to count.—Cp. § 206, n.

Note 3. The n of standan occurs only in the present stem (cp. § 206, b): standa, stôþ, stôþum. The pp. *staþans (ON. staðinn) is wanting; cp. Anz. fda., 14, 286.

[Pg 73]

2. Reduplicating Verbs.

§ 178. The preterit of the reduplicating verbs is formd by reduplication only, the radical vowel remaining unchanged. The reduplication consists of the initial consonant together with the constant reduplication vowel (short e; s. § 20); e. g., haita, I am calld, prt. haíhait; ƕôpa, I boast, prt. ƕaíƕôp. When the word begins with two consonants, only the first is repeated; e. g., fraisa, I tempt, prt. faífrais. The initial combinations st, sk, [sp], however, ar repeated together; e. g., (ga-)stalda, I possess, prt. staístald; skaida, I separate, prt. skaískaiþ. When the word begins with a vowel, only the reduplication vowel is prefixt; e. g., auka, I increase, prt. aíauk.

The pp. is formd without reduplication: haitans, fraisans, etc.

§ 179. The reduplicating verbs may be divided into five classes according to their radical vowels: (1) a (â). (2) ê. (3) ai. (4) ô. (5) au. Sinse the vowel remains unchanged in the hole verb, it causes no change of inflection. Therefore the paradim haitan (givn in § 170) is sufficient for all classes.

The preterits of the following reduplicating verbs ar extant:

(1) haldan, to hold; falþan, to fold; staldan, to possess; —fâhan, to cach (prt. faífâh, pl. faífâhum, pp. fâhans), hâhan, to hang (§ 62, n. 2).

(2) slêpan, to sleep (concerning the prt., cp. § 78, n. 3).

(3) af-aikan, to deny; fraisan, to tempt; haitan, to be calld; laikan, to leap; maitan, to cut off; skaidan, to separate.

(4) ƕôpan, to boast; flôkan, to lament.—The inf. belonging to the prt. laílôun (Jo. IX, 28) is probably (according to § 26, n.) *lauan, to revile. Cp. § 22, n. 2.

(5) aukan, to increase.

Note 1. It is tolerably certain that several verbs of which the preterit does not occur belong here too: (1) us-alþan, to grow old; blandan, to blend; saltan, to salt; waldan, to wield, rule; ana-praggan, to oppress, harass. (2) blêsan, to blow. (3) ga-þláihan, to cumfurt, caress. (4) blôtan, to wurship. (5) stautan, to thrust, smite; hlaupan, to run.

[Pg 74]

Note 2. bauan, to dwel, which formerly belongd here according to the testimony of other Germanic dialects, has the weak prt. bauaida and is referd to the third weak conjugation (§ 193) also because of the f. bauains (§ 103, n. 1). But the 3d pers. sg. is bauiþ which is stil a form of the strong conjugation. The inflection of the Goth. bnauan, to rub, which occurs only onse (bnauandans; Lu. VI, 1) can not be determind; its ON. correspondence, *bnúa, (g)núa (altisl. gr., § 433; cp. Zs. fdph., 17, 250), like the OHG. nûan, niuwan (ahd. gr., § 334, n. 5) belongs to the strong inflection; trauan, however, follows the weak inflection thruout.—Cp. § 26, b.

Note 3. gaggan, to go, pp. gaggans, has lost its prt. *gaígagg, which is replaced by other forms. Cp. § 207.

Note 4. Insted of flôkan the form flêkan was formerly uzed on account of the isolated prt. faíflôkun (according to § 181). That this is wrong was shown by Bezzenberger, 'Ueber die a-reihe der got. spr.', p. 564. Cp. also Gallée, 'Noord en Zuid', 4, 54 et seq.

Note 5. arjandan (in Lu. XVII, 7) seems to refer to a red. v. arjan (to plow), w. a j-present (206a); cp. OHG. erien, iar, giaran (ahd. gr., § 350, n. 5).

3. Reduplicating Ablaut Verbs.

§ 180. A number of verbs with the stem-vowel ê in the present (or final ai in the root) hav the ablaut of the ê—ô-series (s. § 36). The prt. has the vowel ô and reduplication. In the pp. appears the same vowel as in the prs. These verbs ar divided into two classes according to the vowel of the prs.:

§ 181. I. Stems ending in a consonant hav ê in the prs.; e. g., lêtan, to let, which has lêta, laílôt, laílôtum, lêtans. Of this kind ar also grêtan (gaígrôt), to weep; têkan (taítôk), to tuch; -rêdan (raírôþ), to counsel.

§ 182. II. Roots ending in a vowel change the ê into ai (§ 22). Here belong: saian, to sow: saia, saísô, saísôum, saians (concerning other forms, cp. § 22, n. 1; § 170, n. 2), and waian (waíwô), to blow.

Note. The prt. of faian, to blame, is not extant; cp. § 22, n. 2.


§ 183. The formation and inflection of the prt. and pp. of the four classes of the weak verbs (§ 168) ar alike. The pp. is formd by means of the suffix -da- (nom. m. -þs) which is in all classes added to the verbal stem. The latter varies according to the formativ suffix and causes in the present[Pg 75] forms a considerabl difference of inflection in the four classes. We first giv the inflection of the prt., which is the same in all classes.


§ 184. Paradims: nasida, salbôda, habaida, fullnôda. Only one exampl is necessary to show the inflection.

Indicativ. Optativ.
Sing. 1. nasi-da nasi-dêdjau
2. nasi-dês nasi-dêdeis
3. nasi-da nasi-dêdi
Dual 1. nasi-dêdu nasi-dêdeiwa
2. nasi-dêduts nasi-dêdeits
Plur. 1. nasi-dêdum nasi-dêdeima
2. nasi-dêduþ nasi-dêdeiþ
3. nasi-dêdun nasi-dêdeina

What has been said in § 170, n. 4 concerns also the 1st and 2nd pers. du. optativ.


§ 185. The verbs of this class hav the formativ suffix i which appears in the present as j (inf. -jan). This j and a following i ar either contracted into ei (according to § 44, c and n. 1) or remain ji. Thus we hav two subdivisions: (a) Verbs with short stem-syllabls; e. g., nasjan, to save, or verbs in a long vowel; as, stôjan, to judge. (b) Verbs with long stem-syllabls ending in a consonant; e. g., sôkjan, to seek, and polysyllabic verbs; e. g., mikiljan, to praise.

§ 186.

(a) Present (Activ).
Sing. 1. nasja stôja sôkja
2. nasjis stôjis sôkeis
3. nasjiþ stôjiþ sôkeiþ
Dual 1. nasjôs stôjôs sôkjôs
2. nasjats stôjats sôkjats
Plur. 1. nasjam stôjam sôkjam
2. nasjiþ stôjiþ sôkeiþ
3. nasjand stôjand sôkjand[Pg 76]
Sing. 1. nasjau stôjau sôkjau
2. nasjais etc. etc.
3. nasjai
Dual 1. nasjaiwa
2. nasjaits
Plur. 1. nasjaima
2. nasjaiþ
3. nasjaina
Sing. 2. nasei [stauei] sôkei
3. nasjadau stôjadau sôkjadau
Dual 2. nasjats stôjats sôkjats
Plur. 1. nasjam stôjam sôkjam
2. nasjiþ stôjiþ sôkeiþ
3. nasjandau stôjandau sôkjandau
nasjan stôjan sôkjan
nasjands stôjands sôkjands
(b) Preterit.
nasida stauida sôkida
(Inflection § 184.)
(c) Preterit Participl (Passiv).
nasiþs stauiþs sôkiþs
(d) Medio-Passiv: Present.
Sing. 1. 3. nasjada stôjada sôkjada
2. nasjaza stôjaza sôkjaza
Plur. 1. 2. 3. nasjanda stôjanda sôkjanda
Sing. 1. 3. nasjaidau stôjaidau sôkjaidau
2. nasjaizau stôjaizau sôkjaizau
Plur. 1. 2. 3. nasjaindau stôjaindau sôkjaindau

Note 1. The 3d pers. sg. imper. is preservd in lausjadau, ῥυσάσθω; Mt. XXVII, 43 (cp. § 170, n. 3). The 3d pers. pl. would be lausjandau according to § 192, n. 1.

Note 2. The 2nd pers. sg. imper. stauei (inf. stôjan) is suggested by the prt. stauida according to § 26.

[Pg 77]

§ 187. Further exampls of this very numerous class: (a) 1. verbs with short stem-syllabls: waljan, to choose; ga-tamjan, to tame; uf-þanjan, to strech; warjan, to forbid; lagjan, to lay; us-wakjan, to awake; satjan, to set; wasjan, to vest, clothe; hazjan, to praise; huljan, to cuver; 2. stems ending in a vowel: taujan (imper. sg. tawei, prt. tawida, pp. tawiþs), to do; *straujan, to strew (only the prt. strawida and pp. strawiþs ar extant); qiujan (qiwida), to quicken; ana-niujan (-niwida), to renew; siujan, to sew; —concerning *môjan (in afmôjan, to weary) and *dôjan (in afdôjan, to tire out), s. § 26, a.

(b) verbs with long stems and polysyllabic verbs: mêljan, to write; mêrjan, to preach; sipônjan, to be a disciple; hnaiwjan, to abase; hrainjan, to clean; hausjan, to hear; þiuþjan, to bless; —brannjan, to burn; sandjan, to send; namnjan, to name; andbahtjan, to serv; glitmunjan, to glitter; haúrnjan, to blow the horn.

Note 1. kaupatjan, to buffet, has the prt. kaupasta (without i; cp. § 75), but the pp. kaupatiþs (cp. § 209, n. 1). The verbs lauhatjan, to shine; swôgatjan, to sigh, occur in the prs. only.

Note 2. Sum primary verbs with j in the present stem inflect in the present like the weak verbs of the first class. In the prt. they ar either strong or weak without the formativ suffix i. Cp. § 206, a (§ 209).

Note 3. Only two verbs assume occasionally forms of the 2nd weak conjugation: hausjan, to hear, beside hausjôn (occurs several times); pp. un-beistjôþs, unlevend, but ga-beistjan, to leven.

Note 4. Like the 2nd pers. du. and pl. imper. of nasjan go the interjectional hirjats, hirjiþ. The sg. hiri is irregular. Cp. § 219.

§ 188. Verbs of this class ar derived from verbs, adjectivs and substantivs. Their meaning is predominantly causativ. Causativs from strong ablaut verbs hav the vowel of the prt. sg.; e. g., wandjan, to wend, turn (< windan); dragkjan, to giv to drink (< drigkan); ur-raisjan, to raiz (< ur-reisan, to arize); ga-drausjan, to cause to fall (< driusan).—Also verbs derived from adjectivs and substantivs show, with few exceptions, a causativ meaning; e. g., háuhjan, to make high (< háuhs); hailjan, to heal (< hails); warmjan, to warm (< warms); —dailjan, to deal (< dails); taiknjan, to make a sign, to show (< taikns, a token); etc.—Only a few hav an intransitiv meaning, e. g., sipônjan, to be a disciple; faúrhtjan, to fear.

[Pg 78]


§ 189. The formativ suffix (ô) occurs in this class not only in the prt., but also in the hole prs., and absorbs the initial vowels appearing in the endings of the strong verb. Paradim: salbôn, to anoint.

(a) Present.
Indic. Opt. Imper.
Sing. 1. salbô salbô
2. salbôs salbôs salbô
3. salbôþ salbô salbôdau
Dual 1. salbôs salbôwa
2. salbôts salbôts salbôts
Plur. 1. salbôm salbôma salbôm
2. salbôþ salbôþ salbôþ
3. salbônd salbôna salbôndau
Infinitiv: salbôn
Participl: salbônds
(b) Preterit.
salbôda, -dês, -da, etc. (s. § 184).
(c) Pret. Participl Passiv.
(d) Medio-Passiv: Present.
Indic. Opt.
Sing. 1. 3. salbôda salbôdau
2. salbôza salbôzau
Plur. 1. 2. 3. salbônda salbôndau

Note. No exampls of the 3. pers. sg. and pl. imper. ar extant, but they may be safely inferd like other forms; e. g., the dual forms, or the 2nd pers. sg. midl: salbôza, salbôzau, which hav been merely inferd according to the other conjugations.

§ 190. The number of verbs of the 2nd class is greater than that of the 3d, but much smaller than that of the verbs in -jan. Exampls: mitôn, to think; ƕarbôn, to wander; fiskôn, to fish; sidôn, to practis; idreigôn, to repent; awiliudôn, to thank; þiudanôn, to be king; faginôn, to rejoice; fraujinôn, to rule; reikinôn, to rule; frijôn, to luv; sunjôn, to justify; hausjôn (§ 187, n. 3).

[Pg 79]


§ 191. Verbs of this class hav the formativ suffix -ai. This, however, appears in all forms of the prt. (and in the pp.), while it occurs in but few forms of the present and what belongs to the prs., the greater number following entirely the present forms of the strong verb. The ai is found in the present only where the terminations of the strong verb begin with i which it absorbs (thus, in the 2nd and 3d pers. sg. indic., in the 2nd pers. pl. indic., and in 2nd pers. pl. imper.), and in 2nd pers. sg. imper. (which has no termination).—But the ai is entirely wanting before the endings beginning with a (ô).

§ 192. Paradim haban, to hav.

(a) Present.
Indic. Opt. Imper.
Sing. 1. haba habau
2. habais habais habai
3. habaiþ habai habadau
Dual 1. habôs habaiwa
2. habats habaits habats
Plur. 1. habam habaima habam
2. habaiþ habaiþ habaiþ
3. haband habaina habandau
Infinitiv: haban
Participl: habands
(b) Preterit.
habaida, -dês, -da, etc. (s. § 184).
(c) Preterit Participl.
(d) Medio-Passiv: Present.
Indic. Opt.
Sing. 1. 3. habada habaidau
2. habaza habaizau
Plur. habanda habaindau

Note. An exampl of the 3d pers. pl. imper. is extant in this conjugation only: liugandau, γαμησάτωσαν; I. Cor. VII, 9.

[Pg 80]

§ 193. Verbs of this class ar mostly intransitiv. Their number is comparativly small. Exampls: þahan, to be silent; þulan, to suffer; liban, to liv; ana-silan, to be silent; fijan, to hate; trauan, to trust (cp. § 26); saúrgan, to sorrow; liugan, to marry.

Note. hatan, to hate, fluctuates between this and the 1st weak conj. (hatjan); —bauan, to dwel, has the 3d pers. sg. prs. indic. strong: bauiþ; cp. § 179, n. 2.


§ 194. By means of the suff. -no- in the prt., n (-na-) in the present, verbs ar formd in Gothic which denote an entering into a state; therefore they hav an 'inchoativ' meaning. When they hav a medial meaning, they often also render Greek medio-passiv verbs. These verbs ar always intransitiv and never hav a purely passiv meaning. Hense, for exampl, andbindada means it is loost (by sum one), but andbundniþ, it becums loose, it loosens. Nearly all of these verbs ar derived from adjectivs or from the stem of the pp. passiv. Exampls: (a) from strong verbs: and-bundnan (bindan), to loosen (intr.); us-bruknan (brikan), to break off (intr.); dis-kritnan, to rend (intr.); fra-lusnan (fra-liusan), to perish; ga-waknan (wakan), to awaken; ga-skaidnan (skaidan), to becum parted, to depart; —(b) from adjectivs: gahailnan (hails), to becum hole; mikilnan (mikils), to becum great; weihnan (weihs), to becum holy; gadauþnan, to becum ded, to die.

Note 1. To substantivs belong gafrisahtnan (frisahts, image), to be formd; ga-gawaírþnan (ga-waírþi), to reconcile one's self to; the stem-vowel is irregular in: us-geisnan, to becum amazed; in-feinan, to be moved with compassion.

Note 2. That the fundamental meaning of these verbs is inchoativ has been shown by Egge, 'Inchoativ or n-verbs in Gothic' (American Journal of Phil., 7, p. 38 et seq.). The corresponding Norse verbs in -na ar inchoativ only.

§ 195. The inflection of these verbs is in the present identical with that of the strong verbs. No medio-passiv nor a pp. can be formd. Paradim: fullnan (fulls, ful; fulljan, to fil), to becum ful, fil (intr.).

[Pg 81]

(a) Present.
Indic. Opt. Imper.
Sing. 1. fullna fullnau
2. fullnis fullnais fulln
3. fullniþ fullnai fullnadau
Dual 1. fullnôs fullnaiwa
2. fullnats fullnaits fullnats
Plur. 1. fullnam fullnaima fullnam
2. fullniþ fullnaiþ fullniþ
3. fullnand fullnaina fullnandau
Infinitiv: fullnan
Participl: fullnands
(b) Preterit.
fullnôda, -dês, -da (s. § 184).

Note 1. Of the imper. of verbs of this class only the 2nd pers. sg. is extant.

Note 2. The prt. keinôda, germinated, aroze thru the influence of the strong present keinan (§ 172, n. 2) which could not belong here merely because of its meaning.



§ 196. Preterit-Presents ar strong verbs whose preterit has assumed a present meaning. In consequence thereof the real presents hav been lost. These verbs form the preterit like weak verbs by adding -da (-ta, -þa, -sa; cp. §§ 75. 81). Their inflection is the same as that of nasida (§ 184). According to the form of their presents, the preterit-presents may be distributed among the different classes of the strong verbs. The prs. inflects like a strong preterit. In the following the 13 Gothic verbs of this kind ar clast according to the corresponding ablaut-series:

§ 197. First Ablaut-Series.

1. Prs. wait, I know, 2nd pers. waist, pl. witum, opt. witjau; prt. wissa, prt. opt. wissêdjau, prs. ptc. witands, inf. [witan].

2. lais, I know (the only form extant; causativ laisjan, to teach).

Note. The complete strong verb of wait is *weitan, wait, witum, witans, retaind in fraweitan, to avenge, and in inweitan, to wurship (§ 172, n. 1).—To wait belongs also a weak verb of the III. weak conj., witan, witaida, to look at, observ.

[Pg 82]

§ 198. Second Ablaut-Series.

3. daug (impers., the only form extant), it is of use, it profits.

§ 199. Third Ablaut-Series.

4. kann, I know, 2nd pers. kant (also kannt; cp. § 80), pl. kunnum; prt. indic. kunþa, prt. opt. kunþêdjau, pp. kunþs, known; inf. kunnan; prsp. kunnands.

5. þarf, I need, be in want of, 2nd pers. þarft, pl. þaúrbum, opt. þaúrbjau; prt. þaúrfta, pp. þaúrfts, necessary, prsp. þaúrbands, needing, inf. [þaúrban].—Cp. § 56, n. 3.

6. ga-dars, I dare, pl. ga-daúrsum, opt. gadaúrsjau; prt. gadaúrsta; inf. gadaúrsan.

Note. Like kann inflect its cpds.: frakann, I despise; gakann, I subject myself.—With this must not be confounded the derivativ weak verb -kunnan of the III. weak conjug., -kunnan, -kunnaida, to recognize, in the cpds.: anakunnan (ἀναγιγνώσκειν), to read; atkunnan, to grant, award; gakunnan, to know, consider, read (Mk. XII, 26).—uf-kunnan, to recognize, know, belongs in the prs. and pp. (ufkunnaiþs) to the III. weak conjug., but its prt. is ufkunþa, onse (I. Cor. I, 21) ufkunnaida.

§ 200. Fourth Ablaut-Series.

7. skal, I shal, 2nd pers. skalt, pl. skulum, opt. skuljau; prt. skulda, opt. skuldêdjau, pp. skulds, owing; inf. [skulan], prsp. skulands.

8. man, I think, suppose, 2nd pers. [mant], pl. munum, opt. munjau; prt. munda, pp. munds (Lu. III, 23); inf. munan, prsp. munands.

Note. Like man goes gaman, I remember.—To this belongs also munan, prt. munaida, a derivativ wv. of the III. conjug.

§ 201. Fifth Ablaut-Series.

9. mag, I may, can, 2nd pers. magt, 3d mag; dual magu, maguts, pl. magum, maguþ, magun, opt. magjau; prt. mahta, opt. mahtêdjau, pp. mahts; inf. [magan], prsp. magands.

10. ga-nah, it suffices; binah, it is permitted, it is lawful. These impersonal forms and the pp. binaúhts ar the only forms extant. There may be inferd the pl. -naúhum; prt. -naúhta; inf. -naúhan.

§ 202. Sixth Ablaut-Series.

11. ga-môt, I hav or find room or place, 2nd pers. [môst], pl. [môtum], opt. gamôtjau, prt. gamôsta; inf. [gamôtan].

[Pg 83]

12. ôg, I fear, 2nd pers. [ôht], pl. [ôgum], opt. ôgjau; prt. ôhta; inf. [ôgan]. Causativ ôgjan, to frighten.

Note 1. To ôg belongs an anomalous 2nd pers. sg. imper.: ôgs, fear thou! The opt. ôgeiþ does duty for the corresponding 2nd pers. pl.

Note 2. The only extant form of the primary strong verb is the negativ prsp. unagands, fearless.

§ 203. The verb áih, I hav, belongs to none of the ablaut-series. Disregarding the want of reduplication, we may, according to its formation, refer it to a reduplicated prt. like haíhait (§ 179, 3). The extant forms ar: 1st and 3d pers. sg. áih (onse aig), pl. 1st aigum and áihum, 2nd áihuþ (onse), 3d aigun, opt. sg. 3d aigi, pl. 2nd aigeiþ, 3d aigeina; prt. áihta; prsp. aigands (5 times) and áihands (onse), inf. áihan (only onse, in faíráihan, to partake).

Note. In most forms there is a peculiar fluctuation between g and h in such a manner that the h is predominant in the sg. (áih), the g in the other forms. Cp. § 66, n. 1; § 79, n. 2.

2. THE VERBS 'be' AND 'wil'.

§ 204. The old root es-, which is preservd in all Indo-Germanic languages, occurs in the Gothic substantiv verb only in the present indic. and opt. The remaining forms ar supplied by the strong verb wisan (§ 176, n. 1). The pp. is wanting (cp. Anz. fda., 14, 286).

Indic. Opt.
Sing. 1. im sijau
2. is sijais
3. ist sijai
Dual 1. siju [sijaiwa]
2. [sijuts] [sijaits]
Plur. 1. sijum sijaima
2. sijuþ sijaiþ
3. sind sijaina
Inf.: wisan
Prsp.: wisands
Indic.: was, wast, was, etc.
Opt.: wêsjau

Note 1. For ij (in the opt. and du. pl. indic. prs.) also simpl i (§ 10, n. 4) is occasionally found; e. g., pl. indic. 1st pers. sium, 2nd siuþ, opt.[Pg 84] siau, etc. But the ful forms occur far more frequently. The comparativly small number of the forms with i is confined to the epistls (especially in Cod. B) and to the gospel of Lu. which also in other respects shows many irregular forms (V, 10. VIII, 25. IX, 12. 41. XIV, 31). Of two extant codices (II. Cor. VII, 13. Phil. IV, 5. Col. IV, 6. I. Tim. V, 22) one (in three cases A) always has the correct form with j.

Note 2. Insted of the imper. the opt. forms, sg. sijais, sijai, pl. sijaiþ, ar employd. The form sai (= Gr. ἔστω), which occurs onse in the manuscript, either stands erroneously for sijai, siai, or must, according to Osthoff (Beitr., 8, 311), be regarded as interj. sai, 'ecce'!

Note 3. nist = ni ist, is not (§ 10, n. 2), þatist = þata ist, that is, karist = kara ist, there is care, it concerns; Jo. X, 12 (§ 4, n. 1).

§ 205. The verb 'wil' has in the present only an opt. which discharges, however, the function of the indicativ. This present optativ has the uzual terminations of the prt. opt. Its preterit is weak. The extant forms ar:—

Present: Sg. 1. wiljau 2. wileis 3. wili
Du. 2. wileits
Pl. 1. wileima 2. wileiþ 3. wileina
Infinitiv: wiljan
Prsp.: wiljands
Pret.: wilda Opt.: wildêdjau
(Inflection like that of nasida, § 184.)

§ 206. The distinction between the present stem and the preterit stem of the strong ablaut verbs consists only in the change of the vowel. The consonantal skeleton of the word remains the same. This was not always so, for in proethnic Germanic, as in other Indo-Germanic languages, there existed present formations with additional consonantal elements. Of these a few remnants stil survive in Gothic, which from a Gothic point of view must be regarded as irregularities.

(a) Present formations with j. The j of these formations which in the present inflect entirely like weak verbs of the I. conjug. (as, nasjan, sôkjan), is no formativ suffix and is dropt in the prt. and pp. The existing exampls ar:—bidjan (§ 176, n. 5), hafjan, fraþjan, hlahjan, skapjan, skaþjan, wahsjan (§ 177, n. 2), arjan (§ 179, n. 5). Cp. also § 209.

(b) Present stems with a final nasal: keinan (§ 172, n. 2) and fraíhnan (§ 176, n. 4); —a medial nasal is seen in standan (§ 177, n. 3).

[Pg 85]

§ 207. The verb gaggan belongs, according to its present and pp. and according to the testimony of the other Germanic languages, to the reduplicated verbs (§ 179, n. 3). Its prt. is uzually represented by the defectiv iddja which is conjugated like a weak prt.: iddja, I went, iddjês, iddja, etc.; opt. iddjêdjau. Onse, however (Lu. XIX, 12), a weak prt. gaggida occurs.

§ 208. briggan, to bring, is, according to its prs., an ablaut verb (III), but the prt. (with ablaut) is formd weak: brâhta (from *branhta, § 5, b), pp. [brâhts].

§ 209. Sum verbs whose present follows the first weak conjug. (in part perhaps belonging to § 206, a), form the prt. weak, but without the formativ suffix i: bugjan, to buy, baúhta; brûkjan, to uze, brûhta; waúrkjan, to work, waúrhta; þagkjan, to think, þâhta (§ 5, b); þugkjan, to seem, þûhta (§ 15, b). The extant pps. ar:—baúhts < bugjan, waúrhts < waúrkjan, the remaining ones would be brûhts, þâhts, þûhts (§ 75); þâhts occurs in anda-þâhts, cautious, vigilant; þûhts in háuh-þûhts, mikil-þûhts, haughty.

Note. Cp. also kaupatjan (§ 187, n. 1), which has, however, the formativ i in the pp.



§ 210. Adverbs of Manner ar formd from adjectivs. (a) The commonest adverbial suff. is -ba which is added to the stem of the adjectiv.

Thus, from a-stems (§§ 123. 124); e. g., ubilaba, evilly; baírhtaba, brightly; from a ja-stem (§ 125 et seq.): sunjaba, truly.—The original i- and u-stems (§§ 129-131) also show here their real stem-endings; e. g., analaugniba, secretly; anasiuniba, visibly; arniba, surely; gatêmiba, fitly; —harduba, hard, severely; manwuba, redily; glaggwuba, accurately.

Note. a for u is found onse each in hardaba; II. Cor. XIII, 10 (in Cod. A, harduba in B); glaggwaba; Lu. XV, 8.—Cp. brôþra-lubô (in A), § 88a, n. 2.

§ 211. (b) Another class of adverbs formd from adjectivs hav the suffix which contains the final vowel of the[Pg 86] adjectival stem; e. g., galeikô, similarly; ûhteigô, seasonably; þiubjô, secretly; glaggwô (beside glaggwuba, accurately).

Note. The same adverbial ending also in auftô, perhaps; sprautô, quickly; missô, reciprocally; sundrô, especially; unwêniggô, unexpectedly; ufarô, abuv; undarô, below; aftarô, behind, from behind.

§ 212. From comparativ adjectivs an adverbial form has developt which ends in the bare comparativ suffix (-iz), -is; e. g., háuhis, higher; áiris, erlier; mais, more; haldis, rather, more; framis, further; nêƕis, nearer.

Note 1. Without the i of the suffix ar formd: mins (§ 78, n. 1), less; waírs, wurse; þana-seiþs, further, more.

Note 2. With the comparativ suffix -ôs appear sniumundôs, more speedily; aljaleikôs, otherwise.

Note 3. As superlativ adverbs occur the neuter forms frumist, first; maist, most.

§ 213. Adverbs of Place ar formd either without a suffix or by means of the suffixes (-d) and -drê to denote motion towards a place; by means of the suffixes -r and -a to denote rest in a place; with the suffixes -þrô and -ana to denote motion from a place.

Note 1. From pronominal stems ar thus formd the correlativs:

ƕaþ, ƕadrê, wither? ƕar, where ƕaþrô, whense
[þaþ] (þadei, where, whither) þar, there þaþrô, thense
jaind, jaindrê, thither jainar, yonder jainþrô, thense
aljaþ, elsewhere, away aljar, elsewhere aljaþrô, by another way
hêr, here

Note 2. Other exampls: (a) 'Whither'? dalaþ, down; samaþ, together; iup, upwards; ût, out; inn, into. (b) 'Where'? dalaþa, below; iupa, abuv; ûta, out; inna, in; faírra, far; afta, behind. (c) 'Whense'? dalaþrô, from below; iupaþrô and iupana, from abuv; ûtaþrô and ûtana, from without; innaþrô and innana, from within; allaþrô, from all sides; faírraþrô, from afar; aftana, from behind; hindana, from behind, beyond.

§ 214. Adverbs of Time ar for the most part represented by cases of substantivs; e. g., gistradagis, to-morrow; himma daga, to-day; du maúrgina, to-morrow; ni aiw, never (acc. of aiws, time); framwigis, continually.

Note. Simpl adverbs of time are rare: nu, now; ju, alredy; áir, erly; simlê, onse; ufta, often; from pronominal stems: þan, then; ƕan, when?, whenever; suman, in times past.

§ 215. Other nominal cases than those givn in § 214 ar also uzed as adverbs; e. g., landis, far away, lit. 'of land'; allis, holely; sunja and bi sunjai, truly.

[Pg 87]

§ 216. Questions and Answers ar mostly accumpanied by adverbial particls. Interrogativ particls ar: -u (niu, not?, § 18, n. 2); an, nuh, then?; ibai, whether; jau (ja-u), whether; þau, perhaps.—Affirmativ particls: ja, jai, yes, truly!; a negativ particl is , no! These particls, however, ar rarely uzed 'alone' as answers, the verb of the question being uzually repeated, in negativ sentences with the adv. ni.

Note. The interrogativ particl -u is enclitically attacht to the first word of the sentence; as, skuldu; e. g., skuldu ist kaisaragild giban; Mk. XII, 14. In combinations with a prefix the u is attacht to the prefix; e. g., galaubjats þatei magjau þata taujan? Mk. IX, 28.


§ 217. (a) With the Dativ: alja, except; af, of; du, to; miþ, with; us, out, out of; faúra, before; fram, from; nêƕa, near; faírra, far off; undarô, under.

(b) With the Accusativ: and, along; þaírh, thru, by; inuh, without; undar, under; wiþra, against; faúr, for.

(c) With Dativ and Accusativ: ana, on, upon; at, at, by; afar, after; bi, by, according to, against, about, concerning; hindar, behind, beyond; und w. dat., for; w. acc., unto, to, until; uf, under, beneath; ufar, over, abuv.

(d) With Genitiv and Dativ: ufarô, over, abuv, upon.

(e) With Genitiv, Dativ, and Accusativ: in w. gen., on account of, for ... sake; w. dat., in, into, within, among, on, at; w. acc., in, into, toward, against, etc. (s. the Glossary).

Note. Also adverbs ar uzed as prepositions with the genitiv; as, utaþrô, utana, hindana, innana (§ 213, n. 2).


§ 218. (a) Copulativ: jah, and, also; -uh, and (cp. § 24, n. 2); nih, and not. (b) Disjunctiv: aíþþau, or; andizuh... aíþþau, either ... or; jaþþê...jaþþê, whether ... or; þau (þáuh), or. (c) Adversativ: , þan, aþþan, akei, but, however; ak, but. (d) Causal: allis, auk, untê, raíhtis, for, because. (e) Conclusiv: þanuh, þaruh, eiþan, nu, nuh, þannu, nunu, now, therefore, hense. (f) Conditional: jabai, if, niba, nibai, if not, unless (§ 10, n. 2). (g) Concessiv: þáuhjabai, even if, tho; swêþauh, yet, indeed, however. (h) Final: ei, þatei, þêei, þei, that, in order that; ei, swaei,[Pg 88] waswê, so that; ibai (iba), that not, lest. (i) Comparativ: ƕaiwa, how?; swê, as; swaswê, so as, as; þau, (þáuh), than. (k) Temporal: swê, as, when; þan, þandê, when, as long as; biþê, miþþanei, while; sunsei, as soon as; faúrþizei, before; untê, und þatei, þandê, til, until, as long as.

Note. Sum of these conjunctions ar uzed also as adverbs. The adverbial origin of a few is even recognizabl from their form; e. g., allis, raihtis, faúrþizei (faúrþis, adv., beforehand).


§ 219. ô, oh! ah!; wai, woe!; sai, behold!—Interjectional in meaning ar the sg. hiri, the du. hirjats, and the pl. hirjiþ, cum here! (cp. § 20, n. 1; § 187, n. 4).

[Pg 89]


Cp. Sievers 'Grundr.', I, 407-416 ('Geschichte der got. sprache'); II, 1, 65-70 ('Gotische literatur'); Kögel, Geschichte der deutsch. litteratur, I, 1, 176-195.

§ 220. THE GOTHS.

(a) The Gothic language is the language of the Gothic peple (Gut-þiuda) which, divided into the two great tribes of the East and West Goths, figured in history in the time of the great migration. Together with the fall of the East Gothic kingdom in Italy and of the West Gothic kingdom in Spain the Gothic nation also past away. Only scatterd remains of the Goths and their language remaind until the beginning of the modern era in the Crimea. ('Crimean' or 'Tetraxitic' Goths.)

Note 1. The Goth. spelling of the name of the Goths as a peple is *Gutans and *Gutôs, with t, not with þ according to J. Grimm's suggestion which is supported by Kremer (Beitr., 8, 447). Concerning the form, inflection, and etymology of the name of the Goths, cp. Zs. fda., 9, 243 et seq.; Grundr., I, 407; Wrede, 'Ostg.', 44 et seq.; Beitr., 17, 178 et seq.; Ax. Erdmann, folknamnen 'Götar' och 'Goter', Stockholm 1891 (cp. Litbl. 1894, 249).

Note 2. The current interpretation of the two Lt. names Austro-, Ostrogot(h)æ, -i and Wisigot(h)æ, -i, as East Goths and West Goths, which dates back to Jordanes, might hold good for the former only; the name of the Wisigothæ which ar simply calld also Vesi, Visi, has nothing to do with 'west'. Ep. IF., 4, 300 et seq.

Note 3. Concerning the Crimean Goths and the remains of their language, s. Zs. fda., 1, 345-366; W. Tomaschek, 'Die Goten in Taurien', Wien 1881; Beitr., 11, 563 et seq.; F. Braun, 'Die letzten schicksale der Krimgoten'. Program St. Petersburg 1890 (cp. Anz. fda. 17, 167 f.).

(b) It was for the Gothic peple that the group of Germanic tribes to which the Goths belongd has been frequently calld the 'Gothic Group'. For this there has been recently proposed the name 'Vandilians' (according to Pliny, 'nat. hist.', IV, 99). The most important of these[Pg 90] Vandilians ar the Goths, the Gepidae, the Vandals, the Burgundi, the Heruli, and the Rugii. At the beginning of the Christian era their abodes wer between the Elbe and the Vistula. The languages of these peples wer closely related. The extant literary remains, however, except in Gothic, ar very few, and these ar almost entirely proper nouns.

Note 4. Concerning the Vandilians, cp. F. Wrede, 'Ueber die sprache der Wandalen', Strassburg, 1886 (QF., 59), p. 3 et seq.; F. Dahn, 'Urgeschichte der germ. und rom. völker', vol. I (Berlin 1881), p. 139 et seq.; R. Much, 'Goten und Ingvaeonen. (Beitr., 17, 178-221).

(c) The Gothic or Vandilian group of tribes together with the Scandinavians constitute the 'East Germanic' division as opposed to the 'West Germanic' division which embraces the remaining Germanic tribes.

Note 5. Concerning the division of the Germanic race into East Germanic and West Germanic tribes, cp. H. Zimmer, 'Ostgermanisch und Westgermanisch', in Zs. fda., 19, 393 et seq.; Beitr. 9, 546 et seq.; Grundr., I, 362 et seq.; concerning the separate position of the Scandinavian as compared with the Gothic, s. Noreen, 'altisl. gr.2', § 2, and Grundr., I, 419 et seq.


We know the Gothic language from the fragments of the biblical translation which is safely ascribed to bishop Ulfilas (or, in Gothic spelling, Wulfila; cp. Bernhardt, Vulfila, p. VII; Anz. fda., 14, 285; Grundr., II, 674). Wulfila was born in 310 and died at the end of 380 or erly in 381 after Christ. During the last 33 years of his life he was bishop of that part of the West Goths which, when persecuted by their heathen kinsmen, he led across the Danube where they wer permitted by Constantius to setl in Moesia (Moeso-Goths or Goti minores).—The fragments of the biblical version hav cum down to us in the following manuscripts:—

1. 'Codex Argenteus' at Upsala. It containd on 330 leavs the four gospels in the following order: Matthew, John, Luke, Mark. Of these 330 leavs 187 ar extant. The gospel of Lu. shows yunger forms of speech which differ in many respects from the normal forms (cp. §§ 7, n. 2; 14, n. 3; 56, n. 1; 62, n. 3; 67, n. 2; a 74, n. 1; 105, n. 2; 204,[Pg 91] n. 1; probably thru the influence of the dialect of the East Gothic writers; cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 200 et seq.).

2. 'Codex Carolinus', a 'codex rescriptus' at Wolfenbüttel, which contains portions of the 11.-15. chaps. of the epistl to the Romans.

3. 'Codices Ambrosiani', five fragments ('codices rescripti') in the Ambrosian library at Milan, which contain chiefly St. Paul's epistls. They are clast as follows:—

Codex A contains on 95 leavs fragments of the epistls to the Romans, Corinthians, Ephesians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and a fragment of a Gothic calendar.

Codex B contains on 77 leavs all of the second epistl to the Corinthians, fragments of the first epistl to the Corinthians, of the epistls to the Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus.—In contents Codex A and Codex B ar partly the same, which is important for the criticism of the text.

Codex C. Two leavs with fragments of Mt. XXV-XXVII.

Codex D. Three leavs with fragments of the books of Ezra and Nehemiah.

Codex E. Eight leavs three of which ar in the Vatican library at Rome, and contain the fragments of an interpretation of the gospel of St. John. They wer calld by their editor (Massmann): Skeireins aíwaggêljôns þaírh Jôhannên, and are therefore stil cited as Skeireins (concerning which cp. Zs. fda., 37, 320; Anz. fda., 20, 148 et seq.).

4. 'Codex Taurinensis', four considerably damaged leavs with scanty fragments of the epistls to the Galatians and Colossians, which remain to be deciferd.

Note 1. Concerning Wulfila, cp. Waitz, 'Ueber das leben und die Lehre des Ulfila' (Hannover 1840); Bessell, 'Ueber das leben des Ulfilas' (Göttingen 1860); G. Kaufmann, 'Kritische untersuchung der quellen zur geschichte Ulfilas', in Zs. fda., 27, 193 et seq.; Grundr. II, 68; Kögel, 'Gesch. der dtsch. Litt.', I, 1, 182.

Note 2. For more on the Gothic manuscripts, s. Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', Introduction, p. XXXIX et seq.; for the history of the 'Codex Ar[Pg 92]genteus', cp. also the recent articls by Schulte, 'Gotthica minora', in Zs. fda., 23, 51. 318 and 24, 324 et seq.: lastly, J. Peters, 'Germania', 30, 314 et seq.

Note 3. Beside the translation of the Bible (and the Skeireins) there ar no Gothic literary monuments of great moment. The most important ones ar two Latin title deeds with Gothic signatures at Naples and Arezzo, and the abuv (with Codex A) mentiond fragment of a Gothic calendar. The editions of Wulfila contain these remains also. Concerning the Gothic words and alfabets in the Salzburg-Vienna manuscript (§ 1, n. 5; § 2, n. 2) and other remains of the Gothic language, cp. Massmann's articl 'Gotthica minora', in Zs. fda., 1, 294-393.—Concerning Gothic runic inscriptions, s. Wimmer, 'Die runenschrift' (1887), p. 62 et seq.; R. Henning, 'Die deutschen runendenkmäler', Strassburg 1889 (and Zs. fdph., 23, 354 et seq.; Wimmer, 'de tyske runemindesmærker, Aarb. f. nord. oldk. og hist.', 1894, 1 et seq.). The most important inscription is that of the Bukarest ring ('gold-ring of Pietroassa', Henning, 27 et seq.): gutaniowi hailag.

Note 4. The numerous proper nouns in Gothic, which ar containd in Greek and stil more so in Latin sources, hav been utilized by Dietrich ('Ausspr.') and by Bezzenberger, 'Ueber die A-reihe der got. sprache', Göttingen 1874, p. 7 et seq. A monografic treatment of the East Gothic names has been givn us by F. Wrede, 'Ueber die sprache der Ostgoten in Italien', Strassburg 1891 (OF., 68); cp. review of this book in Litbl. 1891, p. 333; Anz. fda., 18, 43 et seq., 309 et seq.

§ 222. EDITIONS.

The first printed edition of the 'Codex Argenteus' is that by Fr. Junius, Dortrecht 1665. All the erlier editions (the titles of which s. in Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', p. LXIII et seq., and in Balg's 'First Germanic Bible', p. XVII et seq.; cp. also v. Bahder, 'Die deutsche philologie', Paderborn 1883, p. 44 et seq.) hav now only historical value. For the study of the Gothic language the following editions ar of importance:—

(a) The large edition of Ulfilas by v. d. Gabelentz and Löbe, which appeard in 1843-46 in three volumes 4to. Altho the text in the first volume is antiquated in consequence of Uppström's editions, the glossary (vol. II, 1) and particularly the grammar (vol. II, 2) ar of great value for their abundant compilations and syntactic elaboration.

(b) For an exact establishment of the manuscripts ar exceedingly important the new readings of the learnd Swedish Professor Andreas Uppström who issued[Pg 93] exact reprints of the text according to these readings: Codex Argenteus, Upsala 1854,—Decem codicis argentei rediviva folia, Upsala 1857,—Fragmenta gothica selecta 1861,—Codices gotici ambrosiani 1864-68.—(For complete titles, s. v. Bahder, loc. cit.; cp. also Balg, loc. cit.).

(c) A critically amended text based on Uppström's readings, with critical exegetic notes and the original Greek text, is givn in E. Bernhardt's edition: 'Vulfila oder die gotische bibel'. Halle 1876. Cp. review of it in Zs. fdph., 7, 103 et seq.

(d) A good manual of Ulfilas, with a glossary and a grammar, is that by M. Heyne, 8th edition. Paderborn 1885. Its text is likewise based on Uppström's readings, but it is treated more conservativly than Bernhardt's. The fonological and inflectional parts of the grammar rest on antiquated views, but the glossary is a recommendabl handbook containing all the words of the Gothic language.

Note. Other later editions of the texts ar: (a) Bernhardt's, Halle 1884 (a reprint of the text of his larger edition, with a concise glossary); cp. review of it in Zs. fdph., 17, 249 et seq. (b) The first Germanic Bible translated from the Greek by the Gothic bishop Wulfila in the fourth century, and the other remains of the Gothic language, edited (according to Bernhardt's edition), with an introduction, a syntax, and a glossary, by G. H. Balg. Milwaukee, Wis. 1891.


I. Fonology and Inflection.

(a) The Gothic grammar by v. d. Gabelentz and Löbe, mentiond in § 222, a.

(b) Leo Meyer, Die gotische Sprache. Berlin 1869. A comparativ treatment of the Gothic fonology, with complete material.

(c) The treatment of the Gothic fonology, in Holtzmann's 'Altdeutsche Grammatik'. Leipzig 1870.

II. Word-Formation.

(a) The 2nd and 3d volumes of J. Grimm's 'Deutsche Grammatik' (reprinted, Berlin 1878. 1890) ar stil the fundamental helps on word-formation.

(b) The section on word-formation in v. d. Gabelentz and Löbe's 'Grammatik', pp. 108-135.

[Pg 94]

(c) From a comparativ point of view: Fr. Kluge, 'Nominale stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen dialekte'. Halle 1886.—See also Brugmann, II, the sections concerning Gothic.

III. Lexicografy.

(a) The glossary in v. d. Gabelentz and Löbe's edition, II, 1 (s. § 222, a). (Arranged according to the Gothic alfabet).

(b) Ernst Schulze, 'Gotisches Glossar. Mit einer vorrede von J. Grimm'. Magdeburg 1847. The most complete Gothic Glossary.—An extract (without citations, but with etymological references and based on Uppström's readings): 'Gotisches wörterbuch nebst flexionslehre' by E. Schulze. Züllichau 1867.

(c) Heyne's glossary, s. § 222, d.

(d) Lorenz Diefenbach, 'Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der gotischen Sprache', vols. 1. and 2. Frankfurt 1851.

(e) Sigmund Feist, 'Grundriss der gotischen Etymologie'. Strassburg 1888. For reviews of it, cp. Anz. fda., 16, 61 et seq.; Litbl. 1889, 365 et seq.; 1890, 47.

Note 1. Sum grammatical facts hav been laid down in the useful articls of J. H. Gallée, 'Gutiska' (I.) 'Lijst van gotische woorden, wier geslacht of buiging naar analogie van andere gotische woorden, of van het oudgermaansch wordt opgegeven'. Haarlem 1880; (cp. also the addenda to this in the 'Tijdschrift voor Nederl. taal-en letterk.', I, 220 et seq.); —(II.) 'De adjectiva in het gotisch en hunne suffixen'. Utrecht 1882.

Note 2. Concise treatments of the Gothic word-formation also in the grammars of Le M. Douse and Bernhardt (s. § 224, n. 1).

Note 3. Further lexical works: W. W. Skeat, 'A Moeso-Gothic glossary, with an introduction, an outline of Moeso-Gothic grammar, and a list of Anglo-Saxon and old and modern English words etymologically connected with M.-G.' London 1868.—G. H. Balg, 'A comparativ glossary of the Gothic language, with especial reference to English and German'. Milwaukee, Wis. 1887-1889. Cp. Zs. fdph., 24, 236 et seq.—O. Priese, 'Deutsch-gotisches wörterbuch', with an appendix, containing a topically arranged survey of the Gothic vocabulary and a collection of idioms and proverbs. Leipzig 1890.


(a) General works: J. Grimm, 'Deutsche grammatik', vol. 4. Göttingen 1837, (syntax of the simpl sentence).—v. d. Gabelentz and Löbe, in vol. II, 2 of their edition (an elaborate treatment of the hole syntax).

[Pg 95]

Note. Concise works on Gothic syntax, which ar useful to the beginner, and which rest in part on independent investigation, ar the respectiv parts in: T. Le Marchant Douse's 'An introduction, phonological, morphological, syntactic, to the Gothic of Ulfilas'. London 1886 (pp. 208-268); E. Bernhardt's 'Kurzgefasste got. grammatik'. Halle 1885 (cp. Zs. fdph., 17, 254 et seq.); Heyne's Ulfilas (§ 222 d); Balg's 'First Germanic Bible' (pp. 222-292; cp. § 222, n. 1).

(b) Monografs (cp. W. Scherer, 'Kl. schriften', I, 360 et seq.):

APELT, O., 'Ueber den accus. c. infin. im gotischen' (Germ., 19, 280-97).

BERNHARDT, E., (a) 'Die partikel ga als hilfsmittel bei der got. conjugation' (Zs. fdph. 2, 158-66).—(b) 'Ueber den genet. partit. nach transitiven verben im got.' (Zs. fdph., 2, 292-94).—(c) 'Der artikel im gotischen' (19 pp.), Progr. Erfurt 1874.—(d) 'Der gotische optativ' (Zs. fdph., 8, 1-38).—(e) 'Zur got. syntax' (Zs. fdph. 9, 383 et seq.).—(f) 'Zur got. casuslehre' ('Beitr. zur deutschen philol.' Halle 1880, 71-82).—(g) 'Zur got. casuslehre' (Zs. fdph., 13, 1-20).

BORRMANN, J., 'Ruhe und Richtung in den gotischen verbalbegriffen'. Halle diss. 1892 (39 pp.).

BURCKHARDT, F., 'Der got. conjunctiv verglichen mit den entsprechenden modis des neutestamentl. griechisch'. Zschopau 1872 (36 pp.).—reviewd by Erdmann, in Zs. fdph., 4, 455-59.

COLLIN, 'Sur les conjonctions gothiques' (40 pp., in Lunds univers. årsskrift, XII. 1875-76).

DORFELD, C., 'Ueber die function des praefixes ge- (got. ga-) in der composition mit verben. Teil 1.: Das praefix bei Ulfilas und Tatian'. Giessen diss. 1885 (47 pp.).

ECKARDT, E., 'Ueber die syntax des got. relativpronomens'. Halle diss. 1875 (54 pp.).—Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph. 6, 484.

ERDMANN, O., 'Ueber got. ei u. ahd. thaz'. (Zs. fdph., 9, 43-53).

FRIEDRICHS, E., 'Die stellung des pron. personale im gotischen'. Leipzig diss. Jena 1891 (124 pp.). Publisht in 1893.

GERING, H. (a) 'Ueber den syntactischen gebrauch der participia im got.' (Zs. fdph., 5, 294-324; 393-433).—Reviewd by Marold, in 'Wissenschaftl. monatsblätter' 1875, 26-28.—(b) 'Zwei parallelstellen aus Wulfila und Tatian' (Zs. fdph., 6, 1-3).

KLINGHARDT, H., 'Die syntax der got. partikel ei' (Zs. fdph., 8, 127-180; 289-329).

KÖHLER, A., (a) 'Ueber den syntakt. gebrauch des dativs im got'. Göttingen Diss. Dresden 1864 (54 pp.), and Germ. 11, 261-305. Nachtrag Germ., 12, 63 et seq.—(b) 'Der syntaktische gebrauch des infinitivs im got.' (Germ., 12, 421-462).—(c) 'Der syntakt. gebrauch des optativs im got.' (Germanist. studien, 1, 77-133).—Reviewd by Erdmann in Zs. fdph., 5, 212-16.

LICHTENHELD, A., 'Das schwache adjectiv im gotischen' (Zs. fda., 18, 17-43).

[Pg 96]

LÜCKE, O., 'Absolute participia im got. und ihr verhältnis zum griech. original, mit besonderer berücksichtigung der Skeireins'. Göttingen diss. Magdeburg 1876 (58 pp.).—Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 8, 352-54.

MAROLD, K., (a) 'Futurum und futurische ausdrücke im gotischen' (Wissensch. monatsblätter 1875, 169-176).—(b) 'Ueber die got. conjunctionen, welche οὖν und γάρ vertreten'. Progr. Königsberg 1881 (30 pp.).

MOERKERKEN, P. H. van, 'Over de verbinding der volzinnen in't gotisch' (Bekroond..en uitgeg. door de k. vlaamsche acad. voor taal en letterk.). Gent 1888 (104 pp.).

MOUREK, V. E., (a) 'Syntax der got. praepositionen'. Prag 1890 (X and 234 pp.). [In the Czechic language]. Reviewd by Heinzel in Anz. fda., 17, 91-93.—(b) 'Ueber den einfluss des hauptsatzes auf den modus des nebensatzes im got.' (Sitzungsber. d. k. böhm. ges. der wissensch. 1892, 5, 263-96).—(c) 'Syntax der mehrfachen sätze im gotischen'. Prag 1893 (X and 334 pp.). [In the Czechic language, pp. 285-334 an extract in the German language].

NABER, F., 'Gotische Praepositionen' I. Progr. Detmold 1879 (26 pp.).

PIPER, P., 'Ueber den gebrauch des dativs im Ulfilas, Heliand und Otfrid'. Progr. Altona 1874 (30 pp.).—Reviewd by Erdmann in Zs. fdph., 6, 120-23.

RÜCKERT, H., 'Die gotischen absoluten nominativ-und accusativ-constructionen' (Germ. 11, 415-43).

SALLWÜRK, E. v., 'Die Syntax des Wulfila' I (I. die fürwörter, II. der relativsatz, III. der inhaltssatz). Progr. Pforzheim 1875 (36 pp.).

SCHIRMER, K., 'Ueber den gebrauch des optativs im got.' Marburg diss. 1874 (47 pp.).—Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 6, 485.

SCHRADER, K., 'Ueber den syntakt. gebrauch des genitivs in der got. sprache'. Göttingen diss. 1875 (58 pp.).

SKLADNY, A., 'Ueber das got. passiv.' Progr. Neisse 1873 (19 pp.).—Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 6, 483.

SILBER, 'Versuch über den got. dativ.' Progr. Naumburg 1845 (16 pp.).

STREITBERG, W., 'Perfective und imperfective actionsart im germanischen'. Introduction and I. part: 'Gotisch' (Beitr. 15, 70-177).

TOBLER, L., 'Conjunctionen mit mehrfacher bedeutung; ein beitrag zur lehre vom satzgefüge' (Beitr. 5, 358-88).

WEISKER, Ed., 'Ueber die bedingungssätze im gotischen'. Progr. Freiburg in Schlesien 1880 (14 pp.).

[Pg 97]



Chap. V. 17 Ni hugjaiþ ei qemjau gatairan witoþ aiþþau praufetuns; ni qam gatairan, ak usfulljan. 18 amen auk qiþa izwis: und þatei usleiþiþ himins jah airþa, jota ains aiþþau ains striks ni usleiþiþ af witoda, unte allata wairþiþ. 19 iþ saei nu gatairiþ aina anabusne þizo minnistono, jah laisjai swa mans, minnista haitada in þiudangardjai himine; iþ saei taujiþ jah laisjai swa, sah mikils haitada in þiudangardjai himine.

20 Qiþa auk izwis þatei nibai managizo wairþiþ izwaraizos garaihteins þau þize bokarje jah Fareisaie, ni þau qimiþ in þiudangardjai himine. 21 hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist þaim airizam: ni maurþrjais; iþ saei maurþreiþ, skula wairþiþ stauai. 22 aþþan ik qiþa izwis þatei ƕazuh modags broþr seinamma sware skula wairþiþ stauai; iþ saei qiþiþ broþr seinamma raka, skula wairþiþ gaqumþai; aþþan saei qiþiþ dwala, skula wairþiþ in gaiainnan funins. 23 jabai nu bairais aibr þein du hunslastada, jah jainar gamuneis þatei broþar þeins habaiþ ƕa bi þuk, 24 aflet jainar þo giba þeina in andwairþja hunslastadis, jah gagg faurþis gasibjon broþr þeinamma, jah biþe atgaggands atbair þo giba þeina. 25 sijais waila hugjands andastauin þeinamma sprauto, und þatei is in wiga miþ imma, ibai ƕan atgibai þuk sa andastaua stauin, jah sa staua þuk atgibai andbahta, jah in karkara galagjaza. 26 amen qiþa þus: ni usgaggis jainþro, unte usgibis þana minnistan kintu.

27 Hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist: ni horinos. 28 aþþan ik qiþa izwis, þatei ƕazuh saei saiƕiþ qinon du luston izos, ju gahorinoda izai in hairtin seinamma. 29 iþ jabai augo þein þata taihswo marzjai þuk, usstigg[2] ita jah wairp af [Pg 98]þus; batizo ist auk þus ei fraqistnai ains liþiwe þeinaize, jah ni allata leik þein gadriusai in gaiainnan. 30 jah jabai taihswo þeina handus marzjai þuk, afmait þo jah wairp af þus; batizo ist auk þus ei fraqistnai ains liþiwe þeinaize, jah ni allata leik þein gadriusai in gaiainnan. 31 qiþanuh þan ist þatei ƕazuh[3] saei afletai qen, gibai izai afstassais bokos. 32 iþ ik qiþa izwis þatei ƕazuh saei afletiþ qen seina, inuh fairina kalkinassaus, taujiþ þo horinon; jah sa ize afsatida liugaiþ, horinoþ.

33 Aftra hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist þaim airizam: ni ufarswarais, iþ usgibais fraujin aiþans þeinans. 34 aþþan ik qiþa izwis ni swaran allis, ni bi himina, unte stols ist guþs; 35 nih bi airþai, unte fotubaurd ist fotiwe is, nih bi Iairusaulymai, unte baurgs ist þis mikilins þiudanis; 36 nih bi haubida þeinamma swarais, unte ni magt ain tagl ƕeit aiþþau swart gataujan. 37 sijaiþ-þan waurd izwar: ja, ja; ne, ne; iþ þata managizo þaim us þamma ubilin ist.

38 Hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist: augo und augin, jah tunþu und tunþau. 39 iþ ik qiþa izwis ni andstandan allis þamma unseljin; ak jabai ƕas þuk stautai bi taihswon þeina kinnu, wandei imma jah þo anþara. 40 jah þamma wiljandin miþ þus staua jah paida þeina niman, aflet imma jah wastja. 41 jah jabai ƕas þuk ananauþjai rasta aina, gaggais miþ imma twos. 42 þamma bidjandin þuk gibais, jah þamma wiljandin af þus leiƕan sis ni uswandjais.

43 Hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist: frijos neƕundjan þeinana, jah fiais fiand þeinana. 44 aþþan ik qiþa izwis: frijoþ fijands izwarans, þiuþjaiþ þans wrikandans izwis, waila taujaiþ þaim hatjandam izwis, jah bidjaiþ bi þans usþriutandans izwis, 45 ei wairþaiþ sunjus attins izwaris þis in himinam, unte sunnon seina urranneiþ ana ubilans jah godans, jah rigneiþ ana garaihtans jah ana inwindans. 46 jabai auk frijoþ þans frijondans izwis ainans, ƕo mizdono habaiþ? niu jah þai þiudo þata samo taujand? 47 jah jabai goleiþ þans frijonds izwarans þatainei, ƕe managizo taujiþ? niu jah motarjos þata samo taujand? 48 sijaiþ nu jus fullatojai, swaswe atta izwar sa in himinam fullatojis ist.

Chap. VI. 1 Atsaiƕiþ armaion izwara ni taujan in andwairþja manne du saiƕan im; aiþþau laun ni habaiþ fram attin izwaramma þamma in himinam. 2 þan nu taujais armaion, ni haurnjais faura þus, swaswe þai liutans taujand in gaqumþim jah in garunsim, ei hauhjaindau fram mannam; amen qiþa izwis: andnemun mizdon seina. 3 iþ þuk taujandan armaion ni witi hleidumei þeina, ƕa taujiþ[Pg 99] taihswo þeina, 4 ei sijai so armahairtiþa þeina in fulhsnja, jah atta þeins saei saiƕiþ in fulhsnja[4], usgibiþ þus in bairhtein. 5 jah þan bidjaiþ, ni sijaiþ swaswe þai liutans, unte frijond in gaqumþim jah waihstam plapjo standandans bidjan, ei gaumjaindau mannam. amen, qiþa izwis, þatei haband mizdon seina. 6 iþ þu þan bidjais, gagg in heþjon þeina, jah galukands haurdai þeinai bidei du attin þeinamma þamma in fulhsnja, jah atta þeins saei saiƕiþ in fulhsnja[5], usgibiþ þus in bairhtein.

7 Bidjandansuþ-þan ni filuwaurdjaiþ, swaswe þai þiudo; þugkeiþ im auk ei in filuwaurdein seinai andhausjaindau. 8 ni galeikoþ nu þaim; wait auk atta izwar þizei jus þaurbuþ, faurþizei jus bidjaiþ ina. 9 swa nu bidjaiþ jus: atta unsar þu in himinam, weihnai namo þein. 10 qimai þiudinassus þeins. wairþai wilja þeins, swe in himina jah ana airþai. 11 hlaif unsarana þana sinteinan gif uns himma daga. 12 jah aflet uns þatei skulans sijaima, swaswe jah weis afletam þaim skulam unsaraim. 13 jah ni briggais uns in fraistubnjai, ak lausei uns af þamma ubilin; unte þeina ist þiudangardi jah mahts jah wulþus in aiwins. amen.

14 Unte jabai afletiþ mannam missadedins ize, afletiþ jah izwis atta izwar sa ufar himinam. 15 iþ jabai ni afletiþ mannam missadedins ize, ni þau atta izwar afletiþ missadedins izwaros.

16 Aþþan biþe fastaiþ, ni wairþaiþ swaswe þai liutans gaurai; frawardjand auk andwairþja seina, ei gasaiƕaindau mannam fastandans. amen, qiþa izwis, þatei andnemun mizdon seina. 17 iþ þu fastands salbo haubiþ þein, jah ludja þeina þwah, 18 ei ni gasaiƕaizau mannam fastands, ak attin þeinamma þamma in fulhsnja, jah atta þeins, saei saiƕiþ in fulhsnja, usgibiþ þus.

19 Ni huzdjaiþ izwis huzda ana airþai, þarei malo jah nidwa frawardeiþ, jah þarei þiubos ufgraband jah hlifand. 20 iþ huzdjaiþ izwis huzda in himina, þarei nih malo nih nidwa frawardeiþ, jah þarei þiubos ni ufgraband nih stiland. 21 þarei auk ist huzd izwar, þaruh ist jah hairto izwar.

22 Lukarn leikis ist augo: jabai nu augo þein ainfalþ ist, allata leik þein liuhadein wairþiþ; 23 iþ jabai augo þein unsel ist, allata leik þein riqizein wairþiþ. jabai nu liuhaþ þata in þus riqiz ist, þata riqiz ƕan filu!

24 Ni manna mag twaim fraujam skalkinon; unte jabai fijaiþ ainana, jah anþarana frijoþ; aiþþau ainamma ufhauseiþ, iþ anþaramma frakann. ni maguþ guþa skalkinon jah mammonin[6]. 25 duþþe qiþa izwis: ni maurnaiþ saiwalai izwarai ƕa matjaiþ jah ƕa drigkaiþ, nih leika izwaramma [Pg 100]ƕe wasjaiþ; niu saiwala mais ist fodeinai jah leik wastjom? 26 insaiƕiþ du fuglam himinis, þei ni saiand nih sneiþand, nih lisand in banstins, jah atta izwar sa ufar himinam fodeiþ ins. niu jus mais wulþrizans sijuþ þaim? 27 iþ ƕas izwara maurnands mag anaaukan ana wahstu seinana aleina aina? 28 jah bi wastjos ƕa saurgaiþ? gakunnaiþ blomans haiþjos, ƕaiwa wahsjand; nih arbaidjand nih spinnand. 29 qiþuh þan izwis þatei nih Saulaumon in allamma wulþau seinamma gawasida sik swe ains þize. 30 jah þande þata hawi haiþjos himma daga wisando jah gistradagis in auhn galagiþ guþ swa wasjiþ, ƕaiwa mais izwis, leitil galaubjandans? 31 ni maurnaiþ nu qiþandans: ƕa matjam aiþþau ƕa drigkam, aiþþau ƕe wasjaima? 32 all auk þata þiudos sokjand; waituh þan atta izwar sa ufar himinam þatei þaurbuþ——


Chap. I. 1 Anastodeins aiwaggeljons Iesuis Xristaus sunaus guþs.

2 Swe gameliþ ist in Esaïin praufetau: sai, ik insandja aggilu meinana faura þus, saei gamanweiþ wig þeinana faura þus. 3 stibna wopjandins in auþidai: manweiþ wig fraujins, raihtos waurkeiþ staigos guþs unsaris. 4 was Iohannes daupjands in auþidai jah merjands daupein idreigos du aflageinai frawaurhte. 5 jah usiddjedun du imma all Iudaialand jah Iairusaulymeis, jah daupidai wesun allai in Iaurdane aƕai fram imma, andhaitandans frawaurhtim seinaim. 6 wasuþ-þan Iohannes gawasiþs taglam ulbandaus jah gairda filleina bi hup seinana, jah matida þramsteins jah miliþ haiþiwisk[7], 7 jah merida qiþands: qimiþ swinþoza mis sa afar mis, þizei ik ni im wairþs anahneiwands andbindan skaudaraip skohe is. 8 aþþan ik daupja izwis in watin, iþ is daupeiþ izwis in ahmin weihamma.

9 Jah warþ in jainaim dagam, qam Iesus fram Nazaraiþ Galeilaias, jah daupiþs was fram Iohanne in Iaurdane. 10 jah suns usgaggands us þamma watin gasaƕ uslukanans[8] himinans, jah ahman swe ahak atgaggandan ana ina. 11 jah stibna qam us himinam: þu is sunus meins sa liuba, in þuzei waila galeikaida[9]. 12 jah suns sai, ahma ina ustauh in auþida. 13 jah was in þizai auþidai dage fidwor tiguns fraisans fram Satanin, jah was miþ diuzam, jah aggileis andbahtidedun imma.

[Pg 101]

14 Iþ afar þatei atgibans warþ Iohannes, qam Iesus in Galeilaia merjands aiwaggeljon þiudangardjos guþs, 15 qiþands þatei usfullnoda þata mel jah atneƕida sik þiudangardi guþs: idreigoþ jah galaubeiþ in aiwaggeljon. 16 jah ƕarbonds faur marein Galeilaias gasaƕ Seimonu jah Andraian broþar is, þis Seimonis, wairpandans nati in marein; wesun auk fiskjans. 17 jah qaþ im Iesus: hirjats afar mis, jah gatauja igqis wairþan nutans manne. 18 jah suns afletandans þo natja seina laistidedun afar imma. 19 jah jainþro inngaggands framis leitil[10] gasaƕ Iakobu þana Zaibaidaiaus jah Iohanne broþar is, jah þans in skipa manwjandans natja. 20 jah suns haihait ins. jah afletandans attan seinana Zaibaidaiu in þamma skipa miþ asnjam, galiþun afar imma.

21 Jah galiþun in Kafarnaum, jah suns sabbato daga galeiþands in synagogen laisida ins. 22 jah usfilmans waurþun ana þizai laiseinai is; unte was laisjands ins swe waldufni habands jah ni swaswe þai bokarjos. 23 jah was in þizai synagogen ize manna in unhrainjamma ahmin, jah ufhropida 24 qiþands: fralet, ƕa uns jah þus, Iesu Nazorenai? qamt fraqistjan uns; kann þuk, ƕas þu is, sa weiha guþs. 25 jah andbait ina Iesus qiþands: þahai jah usgagg ut us þamma, ahma unhrainja. 26 jah tahida ina ahma sa unhrainja, jah hropjands stibnai mikilai usiddja us imma. 27 jah afslauþnodedun allai sildaleikjandans, swaei sokidedun miþ sis misso qiþandans: ƕa sijai þata? ƕo so laiseino so niujo, ei miþ waldufnja jah ahmam þaim unhrainjam anabiudiþ jah ufhausjand imma? 28 usiddja þan meriþa is suns and allans bisitands Galeilaias.

29 Jah suns us þizai synagogen usgaggandans qemun in garda Seimonis jah Andraiins miþ Iakobau jah Iohannen. 30 iþ swaihro Seimonis lag in brinnon; jah suns qeþun imma bi ija. 31 jah duatgaggands urraisida þo undgreipands handu izos, jah aflailot þo so brinno suns, jah andbahtida im. 32 Andanahtja þan waurþanamma, þan gasaggq sauil, berun du imma allans þans ubil habandans jah unhulþons habandans. 33 jah so baurgs alla garunnana was at daura. 34 jah gahailida managans ubil habandans missaleikaim sauhtim, jah unhulþons managos uswarp, jah ni fralailot rodjan þos unhulþons, unte kunþedun ina.

35 Jah air uhtwon usstandands usiddja, jah galaiþ ana auþjana staþ, jah jainar baþ. 36 jah galaistans waurþun imma Seimon jah þai miþ imma. 37 jah bigitandans ina qeþun du imma þatei allai þuk sokjand. 38 jah qaþ du im: gaggam du þaim bisunjane haimom[11] jah baurgim, ei jah jainar merjau, unte duþe qam. 39 jah was merjands [Pg 102]in synagogim ize and alla Galeilaian jah unhulþons uswairpands.

40 Jah qam at imma þrutsfill habands, bidjands ina jah kniwam knussjands jah qiþands du imma þatei jabai wileis, magt mik gahrainjan. 41 iþ Iesus infeinands, ufrakjands handu seina attaitok imma jah qaþ imma: wiljau, wairþ hrains. 42 jah biþe qaþ þata Iesus, suns þata þrutsfill aflaiþ af imma, jah hrains warþ. 43 jah gaƕotjands imma suns ussandida ina, 44 jah qaþ du imma: saiƕ ei mannhun ni qiþais waiht; ak gagg þuk silban ataugjan gudjin, jah atbair fram gahraineinai þeinai þatei anabauþ Moses du weitwodiþai im. 45 iþ is usgaggands dugann merjan filu jah usqiþan þata waurd, swaswe is juþan ni mahta andaugjo in baurg galeiþan, ak uta ana auþjaim stadim was; jah iddjedun du imma allaþro.

Chap. II. 1 Jah galaiþ aftra in Kafarnaum afar dagans, jah gafrehun þatei in garda ist. 2 jah suns gaqemun managai, swaswe juþan ni gamostedun nih at daura, jah rodida im waurd. 3 jah qemun at imma usliþan bairandans, hafanana fram fidworim[12]. 4 jah ni magandans neƕa qiman imma faura manageim, andhulidedun hrot þarei was Iesus, jah usgrabandans insailidedun þata badi, jah fralailotun ana þammei lag sa usliþa. 5 Gasaiƕands þan Iesus galaubein ize qaþ du þamma usliþin: barnilo, afletanda þus frawaurhteis þeinos. 6 wesunuh þan sumai þize bokarje jainar sitandans jah þagkjandans sis in hairtam seinaim: 7 ƕa sa swa rodeiþ naiteinins? ƕas mag afletan frawaurhtins, niba ains guþ? 8 jah suns ufkunnands Iesus ahmin seinamma þatei swa þai mitodedun sis, qaþ du im: duƕe mitoþ þata in hairtam izwaraim? 9 ƕaþar ist azetizo du qiþan þamma usliþin: afletanda[13] þus frawaurhteis þeinos, þau qiþan: urreis jah nim þata badi þeinata jah gagg? 10 aþþan ei witeiþ þatei waldufni habaiþ sunus mans ana airþai afletan frawaurhtins, qaþ du þamma usliþin: 11 þus qiþa: urreis nimuh þata badi þein jah gagg du garda þeinamma. 12 jah urrais suns jah ushafjands badi usiddja faura andwairþja allaize, swaswe usgeisnodedun allai jah hauhidedun mikiljandans guþ, qiþandans þatei aiw swa ni gaseƕum[14].

13 Jah galaiþ aftra faur marein, jah all manageins iddjedun du imma, jah laisida ins. 14 jah ƕarbonds gasaƕ Laiwwi þana Alfaiaus sitandan at motai, jah qaþ du imma: gagg afar mis. jah usstandands iddja afar imma. 15 jah warþ, biþe is anakumbida in garda is, jah managai motarjos jah frawaurhtai miþanakumbidedun Iesua jah siponjam is; wesun auk managai jah iddjedun afar imma. 16 jah [Pg 103]þai bokarjos jah Fareisaieis gasaiƕandans ina matjandan miþ þaim motarjam jah frawaurhtaim, qeþun du þaim siponjam is: ƕa ist þatei miþ motarjam jah frawaurhtaim[15] matjiþ jah driggkiþ? 17 jah gahausjands Iesus qaþ du im: ni þaurbun swinþai lekeis, ak þai ubilaba habandans; ni qam laþon uswaurhtans ak frawaurhtans.

18 Jah wesun siponjos Iohannis jah Fareisaieis fastandans; jah atiddjedun jah qeþun du imma: duƕe siponjos Iohannes jah Fareisaieis fastand, iþ þai þeinai siponjos ni fastand? 19 jah qaþ im Iesus: ibai magun sunjus bruþfadis, und þatei miþ im ist bruþfaþs, fastan? swa lagga ƕeila swe miþ sis haband bruþfad, ni magun fastan. 20 aþþan atgaggand dagos þan afnimada af im sa bruþfaþs, jah þan fastand in jainamma daga. 21 ni manna plat fanins niujis siujiþ ana snagan fairnjana; ibai afnimai fullon af þamma sa niuja þamma fairnjin, jah wairsiza gataura wairþiþ. 22 ni manna giutiþ wein juggata in balgins fairnjans; ibai aufto distairai wein þata niujo þans balgins, jah wein usgutniþ, jah þai balgeis fraqistnand; ak wein juggata in balgins niujans giutand.

23 Jah warþ þairhgaggan imma sabbato daga þairh atisk, jah dugunnun siponjos is skewjandans raupjan ahsa. 24 jah Fareisaieis qeþun du imma: sai, ƕa taujand siponjos þeinai sabbatim þatei ni skuld ist? 25 jah is qaþ du im: niu ussuggwuþ aiw ƕa gatawida Daweid, þan þaurfta jah gredags was, is jah þai miþ imma? 26 ƕaiwa galaiþ in gard guþs uf Abiaþara gudjin jah hlaibans faurlageinais matida, þanzei ni skuld ist matjan niba ainaim gudjam, jah gaf jah þaim miþ sis wisandam? 27 jah qaþ im: sabbato in mans warþ gaskapans, ni manna in sabbato dagis; 28 swaei frauja ist sa sunus mans jah þamma sabbato.

Chap. III. 1 Jah galaiþ aftra in synagogen, jah was jainar manna gaþaursana habands handu. 2 jah witaidedun imma, hailidediu sabbato daga, ei wrohidedeina ina. 3 jah qaþ du þamma mann þamma gaþaursana habandin handu: urreis in midumai. 4 jah qaþ du im; skuldu ist in sabbatim þiuþ taujan aiþþau unþiuþ taujan, saiwala nasjan aiþþau usqistjan? iþ eis þahaidedun. 5 jah ussaiƕands ins miþ moda, gaurs in daubiþos hairtins ize, qaþ du þamma mann: ufrakei þo handu þeina! jah ufrakida, jah gastoþ aftra so handus is.

6 Jah gaggandans þan Fareisaieis sunsaiw miþ þaim Herodianum garuni gatawidedun bi ina, ei imma usqemeina. 7 jah Iesus aflaiþ miþ siponjam seinaim du marein, jah filu manageins us Galeilaia[15] laistidedun afar imma. 8 jah u[Pg 104]s Iudaia jah us Iairusaulymim jah us Idumaia jah hindana Iaurdanaus; jah þai bi Tyra jah Seidona, manageins filu, gahausjandans ƕan filu is tawida, qemun at imma. 9 jah qaþ þaim siponjam seinaim ei skip habaiþ wesi at imma in þizos manageins, ei ni þraiheina ina. 10 managans auk gahailida, swaswe drusun ana ina ei imma attaitokeina, 11 jah swa managai swe habaidedun wundufnjos jah ahmans unhrainjans, þaih þan ina gaseƕun, drusun du imma jah hropidedun qiþandans þatei þu is sunus guþs. 12 jah filu andbait ins ei ina ni gaswikunþidedeina.

13 Jah ustaig in fairguni jah athaihait þanzei wilda is, jah galiþun du imma. 14 jah gawaurhta twalif du wisan miþ sis, jah ei insandidedi ins merjan, 15 jah haban waldufni du hailjan sauhtins jah uswairpan unhulþons. 16 jah gasatida Seimona namo Paitrus; 17 jah Iakobau þamma Zaibaidaiaus, jah Iohanne broþr Iakobaus, jah gasatida im namna Bauanairgais, þatei ist: sunjus þeiƕons; 18 jah Andraian, jah Filippu jah Barþaulaumaiu jah Matþaiu jah Þoman jah Iakobu þana Alfaiaus, jah Þaddaiu jah Seimona þana Kananeiten. 19 jah Iudan Iskarioten, saei jah galewida ina.

20 Jah atiddjedun in gard, jah gaïddja sik managei, swaswe ni mahtedun nih hlaif matjan. 21 jah hausjandans fram imma bokarjos jah anþarai usiddjedun gahaban ina; qeþun auk þatei usgaisiþs ist. 22 jah bokarjos þai af Iairusaulymai qimandans qeþun þatei Baiailzaibul habaiþ, jah þatei in þamma reikistin unhulþono uswairpiþ þaim unhulþom. 23 jah athaitands ins in gajukom qaþ du im: ƕaiwa mag Satanas Satanan uswairpan? 24 jah jabai þiudangardi wiþra sik gadailjada, ni mag standan so þiudangardi jaina. 25 jah jabai gards wiþra sik gadailjada, ni mag standan sa gards jains. 26 jah jabai Satana usstoþ ana sik silban jah gadailiþs warþ, ni mag gastandan, ak andi habaiþ. 27 ni manna mag kasa swinþis galeiþands in gard is wilwan, niba faurþis þana swinþan gabindiþ; jah þan[16] þana gard is diswilwai. 28 amen, qiþa izwis, þatei allata afletada þata frawaurhte sunum manne, jah naiteinos swa managos swaswe wajamerjand; 29 aþþan saei wajamereiþ ahman weihana, ni habaiþ fralet aiw, ak skula ist aiweinaizos frawaurhtais. 30 unte qeþun: ahman unhrainjana habaiþ.

31 Jah qemun þan aiþei is jah broþrjus is jah uta standandona insandidedun du imma, haitandona ina. 32 jah setun bi ina managei; qeþun þan du imma: sai, aiþei þeina jah broþrjus þeinai jah swistrjus þeinos uta sokjand þuk. 33 jah andhof im qiþands: ƕo ist so aiþei meina aiþþau[Pg 105] þai broþrjus meinai? 34 jah bisaiƕands bisunjane þans bi sik sitandans qaþ: sai, aiþei meina jah þai broþrjus meinai. 35 saei allis waurkeiþ wiljan guþs, sa jah broþar meins jah swistar jah aiþei ist.

Chap. IV. 1 Jah aftra Iesus dugann laisjan at marein, jah galesun sik du imma manageins filu, swaswe ina galeiþandan[17] in skip gasitan in marein; jah alla so managei wiþra marein ana staþa was. 2 jah laisida ins in gajukom manag, jah qaþ im in laiseinai seinai: 3 hauseiþ! sai, urrann sa saiands du saian fraiwa seinamma. 4 jah warþ, miþþanei saiso, sum raihtis gadraus faur wig, jah qemun fuglos jah fretun þata. 5 anþaruþ-þan gadraus ana stainahamma, þarei ni habaida airþa managa, jah suns urrann, in þizei ni habaida diupaizos airþos; 6 at sunnin þan urrinnandin ufbrann, jah unte ni habaida waurtins, gaþaursnoda. 7 jah sum gadraus in þaurnuns; jah ufarstigun þai þaurnjus jah afƕapidedun þata, jah akran ni gaf. 8 jah sum gadraus in airþa goda, jah gaf akran urrinnando jah wahsjando, jah bar ain ·l· jah ain ·j· jah ain ·r·. 9 jah qaþ: saei habai ausona hausjandona, gahausjai.

10 Iþ biþe warþ sundro, frehun ina þai bi ina miþ þaim twalibim þizos gajukons. 11 jah qaþ im: izwis atgiban ist kunnan runa þiudangardjos guþs, iþ jainaim þaim uta in gajukom[18] allata wairþiþ, 12 ei saiƕandans saiƕaina jah ni gaumjaina. jah hausjandans hausjaina jah ni fraþjaina, nibai ƕan gawandjaina sik jah afletaindau im frawaurhteis. 13 jah qaþ du im: ni wituþ þo gajukon, jah ƕaiwa allos þos gajukons kunneiþ? 14 sa saijands waurd saijiþ. 15 aþþan þai wiþra wig sind, þarei saiada þata waurd, jah þan gahausjand unkarjans, suns qimiþ Satanas jah usnimiþ waurd þata insaiano in hairtam ize. 16 jah sind samaleiko þai ana stainahamma saianans, þaiei þan hausjand þata waurd, suns miþ fahedai nimand ita. 17 jah ni haband waurtins in sis, ak ƕeilaƕairbai sind; þaþroh, biþe qimiþ aglo aiþþau wrakja in þis waurdis, suns gamarzjanda. 18 jah þai sind þai in þaurnuns saianans, þai waurd hausjandans, 19 jah saurgos þizos libainais jah afmarzeins gabeins jah þai bi þata anþar lustjus innatgaggandans afƕapjand þata waurd, jah akranalaus wairþiþ. 20 jah þai sind þai ana airþai þizai godon saianans, þaei hausjand þata waurd jah andnimand, jah akran bairand, ain ·l· jah ain ·j· jah ain ·r·.

21 Jah qaþ du im: ibai lukarn qimiþ duþe ei uf melan satjaidau aiþþau undar ligr? niu ei ana lukarnastaþan satjaidau? 22 nih allis ist ƕa fulginis þatei ni gabairhtjaidau; [Pg 106]nih warþ analaugn, ak ei swikunþ wairþai. 23 jabai ƕas habai ausona hausjandona, gahausjai.

24 Jah qaþ du im: saiƕiþ, ƕa hauseiþ! In þizaiei mitaþ mitiþ, mitada izwis jah biaukada izwis þaim galaubjandam. 25 unte þisƕammeh saei habaiþ gibada imma; jah saei ni habaiþ jah þatei habaiþ afnimada imma.

26 Jah qaþ: swa ist þiudangardi guþs, swaswe jabai manna wairpiþ fraiwa ana airþa. 27 jah slepiþ jah urreisiþ naht jah daga, jah þata fraiw keiniþ jah liudiþ swe ni wait is. 28 silbo auk airþa akran bairiþ: frumist gras, þaþroh ahs, þaþroh fulleiþ kaurnis in þamma ahsa. 29 þanuh biþe atgibada akran, suns insandeiþ gilþa, unte atist asans.

30 Jah qaþ: ƕe galeikom þiudangardja guþs, aiþþau in ƕileikai gajukon gabairam þo? 31 swe kaurno sinapis, þatei þan saiada ana airþa, minnist allaize fraiwe ist þize ana airþai; 32 jah þan saiada, urrinniþ jah wairþiþ allaize grase maist, jah gataujiþ astans mikilans, swaswe magun uf skadau is fuglos himinis gabauan. 33 jah swaleikaim managaim gajukom rodida du im þata waurd, swaswe mahtedun hausjon. 34 iþ inuh gajukon ni rodida im, iþ sundro siponjam seinaim andband allata.

35 Jah qaþ du im in jainamma daga at andanahtja þan waurþanamma: usleiþam jainis stadis. 36 jah afletandans þo managein andnemun ina swe was in skipa; jah þan anþara skipa wesun miþ imma. 37 jah warþ skura windis mikila jah wegos waltidedun in skip, swaswe ita juþan gafullnoda. 38 jah was is ana notin ana waggarja slepands, jah urraisidedun ina jah qeþun du imma: laisari, niu kara þuk þizei fraqistnam? 39 jah urreisands gasok winda jah qaþ du marein: gaslawai, afdumbn! jah anasilaida sa winds, jah warþ wis mikil. 40 jah qaþ du im: duƕe faurhtai sijuþ swa? ƕaiwa ni nauh habaiþ galaubein? 41 jah ohtedun sis agis mikil, jah qeþun du sis misso: ƕas þannu sa sijai, unte jah winds jah marei ufhausjand imma?

Chap. V. 1 Jah qemun hindar marein in landa Gaddarene. 2 jah usgaggandin imma us skipa suns gamotida imma manna us aurahjom in ahmin unhrainjamma, 3 saei bauain habaida in aurahjom: jah ni naudibandjom eisarneinaim manna mahta ina gabindan. 4 unte is ufta eisarnam bi fotuns gabuganaim jah naudibandjom eisarneinaim gabundans was, jah galausida af sis þos naudibandjos, jah þo ana fotum eisarna gabrak, jah manna ni mahta ina gatamjan[19]. 5 jah sinteino nahtam jah dagam in aurahjom jah in fairgunjam was hropjands jah bliggwands sik stainam. 6 gasaiƕands[20] þan Iesu fairraþro rann jah inwait [Pg 107]ina, 7 jah hropjands stibnai mikilai qaþ: ƕa mis jah þus, Iesu, sunau guþs þis hauhistins? biswara þuk bi guþa, ni balwjais mis! 8 unte qaþ imma: usgagg, ahma unhrainja, us þamma mann! 9 jah frah ina: ƕa namo þein? jah qaþ du imma: namo mein Laigaion, unte managai sijum. 10 jah baþ ina filu ei ni usdrebi im us landa. 11 wasuh þan jainar hairda sweine haldana at þamma fairgunja. 12 jah bedun ina allos þos unhulþons qiþandeins: insandei unsis in þo sweina, ei in þo galeiþaima. 13 jah uslaubida im Iesus suns. jah usgaggandans ahmans þai unhrainjans galiþun in þo sweina, jah rann so hairda and driuson in marein; wesunuþ-þan swe twos þusundjos, jah afƕapnodedun in marein. 14 jah þai haldandans þo sweina gaþlauhun jah gataihun in baurg jah in haimom, jah qemun saiƕan ƕa wesi þata waurþano. 15 jah atiddjedun du Iesua, jah gasaiƕand þana wodan sitandan jah gawasidana jah fraþjandan, þana saei habaida laigaion, jah ohtedun. 16 jah spillodedun im þaiei gaseƕun, ƕaiwa warþ bi þana wodan jah bi þo sweina. 17 jah dugunnun bidjan ina galeiþan hindar markos seinos. 18 jah inngaggandan ina in skip baþ ina, saei was wods, ei miþ imma wesi. 19 jah ni lailot ina, ak qaþ du imma: gagg du garda þeinamma du þeinaim, jah gateih im, ƕan filu þus frauja gatawida jah gaarmaida þuk. 20 jah galaiþ jah dugann merjan in Daikapaulein, ƕan filu gatawida imma Iesus; jah allai sildaleikidedun.

21 Jah usleiþandin Iesua in skipa aftra hindar marein, gaqemun sik manageins filu du imma, jah was faura marein, 22 jah sai, qimiþ ains þize synagogafade namin Jaeirus; jah saiƕands ina gadraus du fotum Iesuis, 23 jah baþ ina filu, qiþands þatei dauhtar meina aftumist habaiþ, ei qimands lagjais ana þo handuns, ei ganisai jah libai. 24 jah galaiþ miþ imma, jah iddjedun afar imma manageins filu jah þraihun ina. 25 jah qinono suma wisandei in runa bloþis jera twalif, 26 jah manag gaþulandei fram managaim lekjam jah fraqimandei allamma seinamma jah ni waihtai botida, ak mais wairs habaida, 27 gahausjandei bi Iesu, atgaggandei in managein aftana attaitok wastjai is. 28 unte qaþ þatei jabai wastjom is atteka, ganisa. 29 jah sunsaiw gaþaursnoda sa brunna bloþis izos, jah ufkunþa ana leika þatei gahailnoda af þamma slaha. 30 jah sunsaiw Iesus ufkunþa in sis silbin þo us sis maht usgaggandein; gawandjands sik in managein qaþ: ƕas mis taitok wastjom? 31 jah qeþun du imma siponjos is: saiƕis þo managein þreihandein þuk, jah qiþis: ƕas mis taitok? 32 jah wlaitoda saiƕan þo þata taujandein. 33 iþ so qino ogandei jah reirandei, witandei þatei warþ bi ija, qam jah draus du imma, jah qaþ imma alla þo sunja. 34 iþ is qaþ[Pg 108] du izai: dauhtar, galaubeins þeina ganasida þuk, gagg in gawairþi, jah sijais haila af þamma slaha þeinamma.

35 Nauhþanuh imma rodjandin qemun fram þamma synagogafada, qiþandans þatei dauhtar þeina gaswalt; ƕa þanamais draibeis þana laisari? 36 iþ Iesus sunsaiw gahausjands þata waurd rodiþ, qaþ du þamma synagogafada: ni faurhtei; þatainei galaubei. 37 jah ni fralailot ainohun ize miþ sis afargaggan, nibai Paitru jah Iakobu jah Iohannen broþar Iakobis. 38 jah galaiþ in gard þis synagogafadis, jah gasaƕ auhjodu jah gretandans jah waifairƕjandans filu. 39 jah innatgaggands qaþ du im: ƕa auhjoþ jah gretiþ? þata barn ni gadauþnoda, ak slepiþ. 40 jah bihlohun ina. iþ is uswairpands allaim ganimiþ attan þis barnis jah aiþein jah þans miþ sis, jah galaiþ inn þarei was þata barn ligando. 41 jah fairgraip bi handau þata barn qaþuh du izai: taleiþa kumei, þatei ist gaskeiriþ: mawilo, du þus qiþa: urreis. 42 jah suns urrais so mawi jah iddja; was auk jere twalibe; jah usgeisnodedun faurhtein mikilai. 43 jah anabauþ im filu ei manna ni funþi þata, jah haihait izai giban matjan.


Chap. II. 1 Warþ þan in dagans jainans, urrann gagrefts fram kaisara Agustau, gameljan allana midjungard. 2 soh þan gilstrameleins frumista warþ at [wisandin kindina Syriais][21] raginondin Saurim Kyreinaiau. 3 jah iddjedun allai, ei melidai weseina, ƕarjizuh in seinai baurg. 4 urrann þan jah Iosef us Galeilaia, us baurg Nazaraiþ, in Iudaian, in baurg Daweidis sei haitada Beþlahaim, duþe ei was us garda fadreinais Daweidis, 5 anameljan miþ Mariin, sei in fragiftim was imma qeins, wisandein inkilþon. 6 Warþ þan, miþþanei þo wesun jainar, usfullnodedun dagos du bairan izai. 7 jah gabar sunu seinana þana frumabaur, jah biwand ina, jah galagida ina in uzetin, unte ni was im rumis in stada þamma. 8 jah hairdjos wesun in þamma samin landa, þairhwakandans jah witandans wahtwom nahts ufaro hairdai seinai. 9 iþ aggilus fraujins anaqam ins jah wulþus fraujins biskain ins, jah ohtedun agisa mikilamma. 10 jah qaþ du im sa aggilus: ni ogeiþ; unte sai, spillo izwis faheid mikila, sei wairþiþ allai managein, 11 þatei gabaurans ist izwis himma daga nasjands, saei ist Xristus frauja, in baurg Daweidis. 12 jah þata izwis taikns: bigitid barn [Pg 109]biwundan jah galagid in uzetin. 13 jah anaks warþ miþ þamma aggilau managei harjis himinakundis hazjandane guþ jah qiþandane: 14 wulþus in hauhistjam guþa jah ana airþai gawairþi in mannam godis wiljins.

15 Jah warþ, biþe galiþun fairra im in himin þai aggiljus, jah þai mans þai hairdjos qeþun du sis misso: þairhgaggaima ju und Beþlahaim, jah saiƕaima waurd þata waurþano, þatei frauja gakannida unsis. 16 jah qemun sniumjandans, jah bigetun Marian jah Iosef jah þata barn ligando in uzetin. 17 gasaiƕandans þan gakannidedun bi þata waurd þatei rodiþ was du im bi þata barn. 18 jah allai þai gahausjandans sildaleikidedun bi þo rodidona fram þaim hairdjam du im. 19 iþ Maria alla gafastaida þo waurda, þagkjandei in hairtin seinamma. 20 jah gawandidedun sik þai hairdjos mikiljandans jah hazjandans guþ in allaize þizeei gahausidedun jah gaseƕun swaswe rodiþ was du im.

21 Jah biþe usfullnodedun[1] dagos ahtau du bimaitan ina, jah haitan was namo is Iesus, þata qiþano fram aggilau, faurþizei ganumans wesi in wamba.

22 Jah biþe usfullnodedun[22] dagos hraineinais ize bi witoda Mosezis, brahtedun ina in Iairusalem, atsatjan faura fraujin, 23 swaswe gamelid ist in witoda fraujins: þatei ƕazuh gumakundaize uslukands qiþu weihs fraujins haitada, 24 jah ei gabeina fram imma hunsl, swaswe qiþan ist in witoda fraujins, gajuk hraiwadubono aiþþau twos juggons ahake. 25 þaruh was manna in Iairusalem, þizei namo Symaion, jah sa manna was garaihts jah gudafaurhts, beidands laþonais Israelis, jah ahma weihs was ana imma. 26 jah was imma gataihan fram ahmin þamma weihin ni saiƕan dauþu, faurþize seƕi Xristu fraujins. 27 jah qam in ahmin in þizai alh; jah miþþanei innattauhun berusjos þata barn Iesu, ei tawidedeina bi biuhtja witodis bi ina. 28 jah is andnam ina ana armins seinans, jah þiuþida guþa jah qaþ: 29 nu fraleitais skalk þeinana, fraujinond frauja, bi waurda þeinamma in gawairþja; 30 þande seƕun augona meina nasein þeina, 31 þoei manwides in andwairþja[23] allaizo manageino, 32 liuhaþ du andhuleinai þiudom jah wulþu managein þeinai Israela. 33 jah was Iosef jah aiþei is sildaleikjandona ana þaim þoei rodida wesun bi ina. 34 jah þiuþida ina Symaion jah qaþ du Mariin, aiþein is: sai, sa ligiþ du drusa jah usstassai managaize in Israela jah du taiknai andsakanai. 35 jah þan þeina silbons saiwala þairhgaggiþ hairus, ei andhuljaindau us managaim hairtam mitoneis. 36 jah was Anna praufeteis, dauhtar Fanuelis, us kunja Aseris; soh framaldra dage managaize [Pg 110]libandei miþ abin jera sibun fram magaþein seinai, 37 soh þan widuwo jere ahtautehund jah fidwor, soh ni afiddja fairra alh fastubnjam jah bidom blotande fraujan nahtam jah dagam. 38 soh þizai ƕeilai atstandandei andhaihait fraujin, jah rodida bi ina in allaim þaim usbeidandam laþon Iairusaulymos. 39 jah biþe ustauhun allata bi witoda fraujins, gawandidedun sik in Galeilaian, in baurg seina Nazaraiþ. 40 iþ þata barn wohs jah swinþnoda ahmins fullnands jah handugeins, jah ansts guþs was ana imma.

41 Jah wratodedun þai birusjos is jera ƕammeh in Iairusalem at dulþ paska. 42 jah biþe warþ twalibwintrus, usgaggandam þan im in Iairusaulyma bi biuhtja dulþais, 43 jah ustiuhandam þans dagans, miþþane gawandidedun sik aftra, gastoþ Iesus sa magus in Iairusalem, jah ni wissedun[24] Iosef jah aiþei is. 44 hugjandona in gasinþjam ina wisan qemun dagis wig jah sokidedun ina in ganiþjam jah in kunþam. 45 jah ni bigitandona ina gawandidedun sik in Iairusalem sokjandona ina. 46 jah warþ afar dagans þrins, bigetun ina in alh sitandan in midjaim laisarjam jah hausjandan im jah fraihnandan ins. 47 usgeisnodedun þan allai þai hausjandans is ana frodein jah andawaurdjam is. 48 jah gasaiƕandans ina sildaleikidedun, jah qaþ du imma so aiþei is: magau, ƕa gatawides uns swa? sai, sa atta þeins jah ik winnandona sokidedum þuk. 49 jah qaþ du im: ƕa þatei sokideduþ mik? niu wisseduþ þatei in þaim attins meinis skulda wisan? 50 jah ija ni froþun þamma waurda þatei rodida du im. 51 jah iddja miþ im jah qam in Nazaraiþ, jah was ufhausjands im; jah aiþei is gafastaida þo waurda alla in hairtin seinamma. 52 jah Iesus þaih frodein jah wahstau jah anstai at guþa jah mannam.


Chap. I.[25] 1 Pawlus apaustaulus Iesuis Xristaus þairh wiljan guþs jah Teimauþaius broþar aikklesjon guþs þizai wisandein in Kaurinþon miþ allaim þaim weiham þaim wisandam in allai Akaïjai. 2 ansts izwis jah gawairþi fram guþa attin unsaramma jah fraujin Iesu Xristau.

[Pg 111]

3 Þiuþiþs guþ jah atta fraujins unsaris Iesuis Xristaus, atta bleiþeino jah guþ allaizo gaþlaihte, 4 saei gaþrafstida uns ana allai aglon unsarai, ei mageima weis gaþrafstjan þans in allaim aglom þairh þo gaþlaiht þizaiei gaþrafstidai sijum silbans fram guþa. 5 unte swaswe ufarassus ist þulaine Xristaus in uns, swa jah þairh Xristu ufar filu ist jah gaþrafsteins unsara. 6 aþþan jaþþe þreihanda, in izwaraizos gaþlaihtais jah naseinais þizos waurstweigons in stiwitja þizo samono þulaine, þozei jah weis winnam, jah wens unsara gatulgida faur izwis; jaþþe gaþrafstjanda in izwaraizos gaþlaihtais jah naseinais, 7 witandans þatei swaswe gadailans þulaine sijuþ, jah gaþlaihtais wairþiþ. 8 unte ni wileima izwis unweisans, broþrjus, bi aglon unsara þo waurþanon uns in Asiai, unte ufarassau kauridai wesum ufar maht, swaswe[26] skamaidedeima uns jah liban. 9 akei silbans in uns silbam andahaft dauþaus habaidedum, ei ni sijaima trauandans du uns silbam, ak du guþa þamma urraisjandin dauþans, 10 izei us swaleikaim dauþum uns galausida jah galauseiþ, du þammei wenidedum ei galauseiþ, 11 at hilpandam jah izwis bi uns bidai, ei in managamma andwairþja so in uns giba þairh managans awiliudodau faur uns. 12 unte ƕoftuli unsara so ist, weitwodei miþwisseins unsaraizos, þatei in ainfalþein jah hlutrein guþs, ni in handugein leikeinai, ak in anstai guþs usmeitum[27] in þamma fairƕau, iþ ufarassau at izwis. 13 unte ni alja meljam izwis, alja þoei anakunnaiþ aiþþau jah ufkunnaiþ; aþþan wenja ei und andi ufkunnaiþ, 14 swaswe gakunnaideduþ uns bi sumata, unte ƕoftuli izwara sijum, swaswe jah jus unsara in daga fraujins Iesuis Xristaus[28].

15 Jah þizai trauainai wilda faurþis qiman at izwis, ei anþara anst habaidedeiþ, 16 jah[29] þairh izwis galeiþan in Makidonja[30] jah aftra af Makidonjai qiman at izwis, jah fram izwis gasandjan mik in Iudaia. 17 þatuþ-þan nu mitonds, ibai aufto leihtis bruhta? aiþþau þatei mito, bi leika þagkjau, ei sijai[31] at mis þata ja ja jah þata ne ne? 18 aþþan triggws guþ, ei þata waurd unsar þata du izwis nist ja jah[32] ne. 19 unte guþs sunus Iesus Xristus, saei in izwis þairh uns wailamerjada[33], þairh mik jah Silbanu jah Teimauþaiu, nih[34] warþ ja jah[35] ne, ak ja in imma warþ. 20 ƕaiwa managa gahaita guþs, in imma þata ja, duþþe jah[36] þairh ina amen, guþa du wulþau þairh uns. 21 aþþan sa gaþwastjands unsis[37] miþ izwis in Xristau jah salbonds[38] uns guþ, 22 jah sigljands uns jah gibands wadi [Pg 112]ahman in hairtona unsara. 23 aþþan ik weitwod guþ anahaita ana meinai saiwalai, ei freidjands izwara þanaseiþs ni qam in Kaurinþon; 24 ni þatei fraujinoma[39] izwarai galaubeinai, ak gawaurstwans sijum anstais izwaraizos; unte galaubeinai gastoþuþ.

Chap. II.[40] 1 Aþþan gastauida þata silbo at mis, ei aftra in saurgai ni qimau at izwis. 2 unte jabai ik gaurja izwis, jah ƕas ist saei gailjai mik, niba[41] sa gaurida us mis? 3 jaþþata[42] silbo gamelida izwis, ei qimands saurga ni habau fram þaimei skulda faginon, gatrauands in allaim izwis þatei meina faheþs[43] allaize izwara ist. 4 aþþan us managai aglon jah aggwiþai hairtins gamelida izwis þairh managa tagra, ni þeei saurgaiþ, ak ei frijaþwa[44] kunneiþ þoei haba ufarassau du izwis. 5 aþþan jabai ƕas gaurida, ni mik gaurida, ak bi sumata[45], ei ni anakaurjau allans izwis. 6 ganah þamma swaleikamma andabet[46] þata fram managizam, 7 swaei þata andaneiþo izwis mais fragiban jag-[47]gaþlaihan, ibai aufto managizein saurgai gasiggqai sa swaleiks. 8 inuþ-[48]þis bidja izwis tulgjan in imma friaþwa. 9 duþþe gamelida, ei ufkunnau kustu izwarana, sijaidu in allamma ufhausjandans. 10 aþþan þammei ƕa fragibiþ, jah ik; jah þan ik, jabai ƕa fragaf, fragaf[49] in izwara in andwairþja Xristaus, 11 ei ni gaaiginondau[50] fram Satanin; unte ni sijum unwitandans munins is.

12 Aþþan qimands in Trauadai in aiwaggeljons[51] Xristaus jah at haurdai mis uslukanai in fraujin, 13 ni habaida gaƕeilain ahmin meinamma, in þammei ni bigat Teitaun broþar meinana; ak twisstandands im[52] galaiþ in Makaidonja[53]. 14 aþþan guþa awiliuþ[54] þamma sinteino ustaiknjandin hroþeigans uns in Xristau jah daun kunþjis seinis gabairhtjandin þairh uns in allaim stadim[55]; 15 unte Xristaus[56] dauns sijum woþi guþa in þaim ganisandam jah in þaim fraqistnandam[57]: 16 sumaim dauns us dauþau[58] du dauþau, sumaimuþ-þan dauns us libainai du libainai; jad-[59]du þamma ƕas wairþs? 17 unte ni sium swe[60] sumai maidjandans waurd guþs, ak us hlutriþai, ak swaswe us guþa in andwairþja guþs in Xristau rodjam.

Chap. III. 1 Duginnam aftra uns silbans anafilhan? aiþþau ibai þaurbum swe sumai anafilhis boko du izwis, [Pg 113]aiþþau us izwis anafilhis? 2 aipistaule unsara jus siuþ[61], gamelida in hairtam unsaraim, kunþa jah anakunnaida fram allaim mannam. 3 swikunþai[62] þatei siuþ[63] aipistaule Xristaus, andbahtida fram uns, inn[64] gamelida ni swartiza[65], ak ahmin guþs libandins, ni in spildom staineinaim, ak in spildom hairtane leikeinaim.

4 Aþþan trauain swaleika habam þairh Xristu du guþa, 5 ni þatei wairþai sijaima þagkjan ƕa af uns silbam, swaswe af uns silbam[66], ak so wairþida unsara us guþa ist, 6 izei jah wairþans brahta uns andbahtans niujaizos triggwos, ni bokos, ak ahmins; unte boka usqimiþ, iþ ahma gaqiujiþ. 7 aþþan jabai andbahti dauþaus in gameleinim gafrisahtiþ in stainam warþ wulþag, swaei ni mahtedeina[67] sunjus Israelis fairweitjan du wlita Mosezis in wulþaus wlitis is þis gataurnandins, 8 ƕaiwa nei mais andbahti ahmins wairþai in wulþau? 9 jabai auk andbahtja[68] wargiþos wulþus, und filu mais ufarist andbahti garaihteins in[69] wulþau. 10 unte ni was wulþag þata wulþago in þizai halbai in ufarassaus wulþaus; 11 jabai auk þata gataurnando þairh wulþu, und filu mais þata wisando in wulþau.

12 Habandans nu swaleika wen managaizos balþeins brukjaima, 13 janni[70] swaswe Mosez[71] lagida hulistr ana andawleizn, duþe ei ni fairweitidedeina sunjus Israelis in andi þis gataurnandins; 14 ak afdaubnodedun[72] fraþja ize, unte und hina dag þata samo hulistr in anakunnainai þizos fairnjons triggwos wisiþ unandhuliþ, unte in Xristau gatairada. 15 akei und hina dag miþþanei siggwada Moses, hulistr ligiþ ana hairtin ize. 16 aþþan miþþanei gawandeiþ du fraujin, afnimada þata hulistr. 17 aþþan frauja ahma ist; aþþan þarei ahma fraujins, þaruh freihals[73] ist. 18 aþþan weis allai andhulidamma andwairþja wulþu fraujins þairhsaiƕandans, þo samon frisaht ingaleikonda af wulþau in wulþu[74], swaswe af fraujins ahmin.

Chap. IV.[75] 1 Duþþe habandans þata andbahti[76], swaswe gaarmaidai waurþum, ni wairþaima[77] usgrudjans, 2 ak afstoþum þaim analaugnjam aiwiskjis, ni gaggandans in warein nih galiug taujandans waurd guþs, ak bairhtein sunjos[78] ustaiknjandans uns silbans du allaim miþwisseim manne in andwairþja guþs. 3 aþþan jabai ist gahulida aiwaggeljo unsara, in þaim fralusnandam ist gahulida, 4 in þaimei guþ þis aiwis gablindida fraþja þize ungalaubjandane, [Pg 114]ei ni liuhtjai im liuhadeins[79] aiwaggeljons wulþaus Xristaus, saei ist frisahts guþs ungasaiƕanins[80]. 5 aþþan ni uns silbans merjam, ak Iesu Xristu fraujan, iþ uns skalkans[81] izwarans in Iesuis. 6 unte guþ saei qaþ ur-riqiza liuhaþ skeinan, saei jah liuhtida in hairtam unsaraim du liuhadein kunþjis wulþaus guþs in andwairþja Iesuis Xristaus.

7 Aþþan habandans þata huzd in airþeinaim kasam, ei ufarassus sijai mahtais guþs jah ni us unsis. 8 in allamma þraihanai, akei ni gaaggwidai; andbitanai, akei ni afslauþidai; 9 wrikanai, akei ni biliþanai; gadrausidai, akei ni fraqistidai, 10 sinteino dauþein fraujins Iesuis ana leika unsaramma[82] bairandans, ei jah libains, Iesuis ana leika unsaramma[83] uskunþa sijai. 11 sinteino weis libandans in dauþu atgibanda in Iesuis, ei jah libains Iesuis swikunþa wairþai in riurjamma leika unsaramma. 12 swaei nu dauþus in uns waurkeiþ, iþ libains in izwis. 13 habandans nu þana saman ahman galaubeinais bi þamma gamelidin: galaubida, in þizei jah rodida, jah weis galaubjam, in þizei jah rodjam, 14 witandans þatei sa urraisjands fraujan Iesu jah unsis þairh Iesu urraiseiþ jah fauragasatjiþ miþ izwis. 15 þatuh þan allata in izwara, ei ansts managnandei þairh managizans awiliud ufarassjai du wulþau guþa. 16 inuh þis ni wairþam usgrudjans, ak þauhjabai sa utana unsar manna frawardjada, aiþþau sa innuma ananiujada daga jah daga. 17 unte þata andwairþo ƕeilaƕairb jah leiht[84] aglons unsaraizos bi ufarassau aiweinis wulþaus kaurei waurkjada unsis. 18 ni fairweitjandam þizei gasaiƕanane, ak þizei ungasaiƕanane; unte þo gasaiƕanona riurja sind, iþ þo ungasaiƕanona aiweina.

Chap. V. 1 Witum auk þatei, jabai sa airþeina unsar gards þizos hleiþros gatairada, ei gatimrjon us[85] guþa habam, gard unhanduwaurhtana aiweinana in himinam. 2 unte jah in þamma swogatjam, bauainai unsarai þizai us himina ufarhamon gairnjandans, 3 jabai sweþauh jah[86] gawasidai, ni naqadai bigitaindau. 4 jah auk wisandans in þizai hleiþrai swogatjam kauridai, ana þammei ni wileima afhamon, ak anahamon, ei fraslindaidau þata diwano fram libainai. 5 aþþan saei jah[87] gamanwida uns du þamma guþ, saei jah gaf uns[88] wadi ahman. 6 gatrauandans nu sinteino jah witandans þatei wisandans in þamma leika afhaimjai sijum fram fraujin; 7 unte þairh galaubein gaggam, ni [Pg 115]þairh siun. 8 aþþan gatrauam jah waljam mais usleiþan us þamma leika jah anahaimjaim wisan at fraujin. 9 inuh[89] þis usdaudjam, jaþþe anahaimjai jaþþe afhaimjai, waila galeikan imma. 10 unte allai weis ataugjan skuldai sijum faura stauastola Xristaus, ei ganimai ƕarjizuh þo swesona leikis, afar þaimei gatawida, jaþþe þiuþ jaþþe unþiuþ.

11 Witandans nu agis fraujins mannans fullaweisjam, iþ guþa swikunþai sijum. aþþan wenja jah in miþwisseim izwaraim swikunþans wisan uns. 12 ni ei aftra uns silbans uskannjaima[90] izwis, ak lew gibandans izwis ƕoftuljos fram uns[91], ei habaiþ wiþra þans in andwairþja ƕopandans jah ni hairtin[92]. 13 unte jaþþe usgeisnodedum, guþa, jaþþe fullafraþjam, izwis. 14 unte friaþwa Xristaus dishabaiþ uns, 15 domjandans þata þatei ains faur allans gaswalt, þannu allai gaswultun, jah faur allans gaswalt, ei þai libandans ni þanaseiþs sis[93] silbam libaina[94], ak þamma faur sik gaswiltandin jah urreisandin. 16 swaei weis fram þamma nu ni ainnohun kunnum bi leika; iþ jabai ufkunþedum bi leika Xristu, akei nu ni þanaseiþs ni kunnum ina[95]. 17 swaei jabai ƕo in Xristau niuja gaskafts, þo alþjona usliþun; sai, waurþun niuja alla. 18 aþþan alla us guþa, þamma gafriþondin uns sis[96] þairh Xristu jah[97] gibandin uns[98] andbahti gafriþonais. 19 unte sweþauh guþ was in Xristau manaseþ gafriþonds sis, ni rahnjands im missadedins ize, jah lagjands in uns waurd gafriþonais. 20 faur Xristu nu airinom, swe at guþa gaþlaihandin þairh uns; bidjam[99] faur Xristu gagawairþnan guþa. 21 unte þana izei[100] ni kunþa frawaurht, faur uns gatawida frawaurht, ei weis waurþeima garaihtei guþs in imma.

(LEAF VII.—ABOUT JOHN VI, 9-13.)[101]

(a 49)—ahun kunnandins fraujins maht jah andþaggkjandins sik is waldufneis. nih Stains ains[102], ak jah Andraias, saei qaþ: ist magula ains her, saei habaiþ ·e· hlaibans barizeinans jah twans fiskans, analeiko swe [Pg 116]Filippus gasakada, ni waiht mikilis hugjands nih wairþidos laisareis andþaggkjands, þairh þoei usbar qiþands: akei þata ƕa ist du swa managaim? iþ frauja andtilonds ize niuklahein (b) qaþ: waurkeiþ þans mans anakumbjan. iþ eis, at hauja managamma wisandin in þamma stada, þo filusna anakumbjan gatawidedun, fimf þusundjos waire inuh qinons jah barna. swe at mikilamma nahtamata anakumbjandans wesun[103] at ni wisandein[104] aljai waihtai ufar þans fimf hlaibans jah twans fiskans, þanzei nimands jah awiliudonds gaþiuþida, jah swa managai ganohjands ins wailawiznai ni þatainei ganauhan þaurftais im fra-(c 50)gaf, ak filaus maizo; afar þatei matida so managei, bigitan was þizei hlaibe ·ib· tainjons fullos, þatei aflifnoda. samaleikoh þan jah þize fiske, swa filu swe wildedun. nih þan ana þaim hlaibam ainaim seinaizos mahtais filusna ustaiknida, ak jah in þaim fiskam; swa filu auk[105] gamanwida ins wairþan, swaei ainƕarjammeh swa filu swe wilda andniman is[106], tawida; jah ni in waihtai waninassu þizai filusnai wairþan gatawida. akei (d) nauh us þamma filu mais siponjans fullafahida jah anþarans gamaudida gaumjan, þatei is was sa sama, saei in auþidai ·m· jere attans ize fodida. þanuh, biþe sadai waurþun, qaþ siponjam seinaim: galisiþ þos aflifnandeins drausnos, ei waihtai ni fraqistnai. þanuh galesun jah gafullidedun ·ib· tainjons gabruko us þaim ·e· hlaibam barizeinam jah ·b· fiskam, þatei aflifnoda at þaim —


[2] usstagg MS.

[3] ƕa ƕazuh MS.

[4] fulhsja MS.

[5] fulhlsnja MS.

[6] in the margin faihuþra.., i. e. faihuþraihna Luke XVI, 13.

[7] gloss wilþi.

[8] usluknans MS.

[9] in the margin þukei wilda.

[10] leita MS.

[11] haimon MS.

[12] fidworin MS.

[13] afleþanda MS.

[14] gaseƕū MS.

[15] Galeilaian MS.

[16] wanting MS.

[17] galeiþan MS.

[18] gajukon MS.

[19] gloss in the margin, gabindan.

[20] gasaisaiƕands MS.

[21] wisandin kindina Syriais is evidently a marginal gloss of the manuscript, which was accidentally put in the text.

[22] usfulnodedun MS.

[23] anandwairþja MS.

[24] wisedun MS.

[25] According to codex B; from verse 8, onward, with the various readings of A.

[26] In A: swaswe afswaggwidai weseima jal liban, and the additional marginal gloss skamaidedeima.

[27] usmetum A.

[28] Xristaus wanting in A.

[29] jaþ A.

[30] Makaidonja, Makaidonjai A.

[31] ei ni sijai B.

[32] jan A.

[33] merjada A.

[34] Timaiþaiu ni A.

[35] jan A.

[36] jaþ A.

[37] uns A.

[38] salbonsd A.

[39] fraujoma B.

[40] Chaps. II. III. according to A, with the various readings of B.

[41] nibai B.

[42] jah B.

[43] faheds B.

[44] friaþwa B.

[45] bi sumata» bi sum ain B.

[46] andabeit B.

[47] jah B.

[48] inuh B.

[49] For fragaf in both cases fragiba B.

[50] marginal gloss ni gafaihondau in A.

[51] aiwaggeljon B.

[52] twistandands imma B.

[53] in in Makidonja B.

[54] awiliud B.

[55] þairh uns after stadim B.

[56] Xristaus wanting in A.

[57] gloss fralusnandam in A.

[58] sumaim auk dauns dauþaus B.

[59] jah B.

[60] sijum B, swe wanting in B.

[61] jus siuþ» jusijuþ B.

[62] swikunþ B.

[63] sijuþ B.

[64] inna B.

[65] swartizla B.

[66] swaswe af uns silbam wanting in A.

[67] mahtededeina B.

[68] andbahti B.

[69] us B.

[70] jah B.

[71] Moses B.

[72] gloss afdaubnodedun in A.

[73] freijhals A.

[74] wulþau B.

[75] Chaps. IV. V. according to B, with the various readings of A.

[76] andbahtei A.

[77] wairþam A.

[78] sunjus A.

[79] liuhadein B.

[80] ungas. wanting in A.

[81] unskalkans A.

[82] unsaram—A stops here.

[83] The words put in Italics are wanting in the manuscript, they are interpolated translations from the Greek original.

[84] ƕeiht MS.

[85] Here A begins again.

[86] jah wanting in A.

[87] jag A.

[88] unsis A.

[89] inuþ A.

[90] gloss anafilhaima in A.

[91] unsis A.

[92] jan-ni in hairtin A.

[93] sis wanting in A.

[94] libainai B.

[95] ina wanting in A.

[96] uns sis» unsis AB.

[97] jag A.

[98] unsis A.

[99] bidjandans A.

[100] ize A.

[101] John VI, 9-13 according to Codex Argenteus: 9. ist magula ains her, saei habaiþ ·e· hlaibans barizeinans jah ·b· fiskans; akei þata ƕa ist du swa managaim? 20. iþ Iesus qaþ: waurkeiþ þans mans anakumbjan. wasuh þan hawi manag ana þamma stada. þaruh anakumbidedun wairos raþjon swaswe fimf þusundjos. 11. namuh þan þans hlaibans Iesus jah awiliudonds gadailida þaim anakumbjandam; samaleiko jah þize fiske, swa filu swe wildedun. 12. þanuh, biþe sadai waurþun, qaþ du siponjam seinaim: galisiþ þos aflifnandeins drauhsnos, þei waihtai ni fraqistnai. 13. þanuh galesun jah gafullidedun ·ib· tainjons gabruko us fimf hlaibam þaim barizeinam, þatei aflifnoda þaim matjandam.

[102] ains interpolated by Uppström.

[103] wesun interpolated by Vollmer.

[104] wisandin MS.

[105] swe after auk in MS.

[106] ist MS.

[Pg 117]


[The figures in parentheses refer to paragrafs of the syntax of my 'First Germanic Bible', when preceded by S.; to paragrafs of this grammar, when preceded by Gr.]


Chap. V, 17. ni hugjaiþ; prohibitiv optativ (S., 91, (2)).—qêmjau; opt. in a final object clause (S., 93).—gataíran, to tear or break completely, destroy; usfulljan, to fulfil. Both gat. and usf. ar infinitivs of purpose (S., 114), the prefixes ga and us being intensiv. 18. usleiþiþ himins jah aírþa; two subj. nominativs with a sg. v. (S., 5, n. 1). 19. saei; rel. prn. (Gr., 157; S., 60).—þizô; dem. prn., not art. (S., 63).—gataíriþ (prs. ind.) .....laisjai (prs. opt.); the first denoting a fact, the second a possibility (S., 99, c): whosoever breaks and 'should' teach.—minnista; an exceptional case of a weak adj. without the art.—þiudangardjai himinê; without the art. (in the Grk. text τῇ....τῶν).

20. managizô (n. compar. uzed as sb.) izwaraizôs garaíhteins, more of your righteousness than of [the righteousness of] the scribes.—þau (conj.), than ...þau (adv.), in any case; ni þau, in no case.—qimiþ in þiudangardjai; the dativ after qiman in and similar vs. of 'motion towards' is distinctivly Gothic (S., 55). 21. qiþan ist; stands for the Grk. aor. (S., 87, n., c) = imperf. in English.—maúrþrjais; the hort. opt. for the second pers. fut. in Grk.—waírþiþ; the prs. for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)).—skula w. dat., a detter or subject to (S., 35, (2)). 22. ik; the personal prn. is uzed with a v. for the sake of emfasis (S., 2, n. 1).—ƕazuh môdags; for πᾶς ὁ w. a ptc.—brôþr seinamma; dat. after môdags: angry with (lit. 'to'; S., 36, (3)).—gaqumþai, council, from gaqiman, to cum together.—dwala (voc.); weak adj. uzed as sb.—skula in gaíaínnan; in denoting 'direction' 'in regard to'; the expression seems to be an imitation of the corresponding Grk. passage: ἔνοχος ἔσται εὶς τὴν γέενναν.

23. jabai nu baírais...gamuneis (Gr., 200, n. 1; and 196); a conditional sentence, the vs. of the protasis being in the opt., those of the apodosis in the imper. (S., 102, e).—aibr; s. 'Vocabulary'.—þeins; attri[Pg 118]butes generally follow their sb. (S., 10, n. 2).—ƕa; here indef. (Gr., 162, n. 2; S., 78, n. 2). 24. Here the apodosis begins.—þô; the art. is uzed, because the sacrifice (aibr) is again mentiond (as giba) (S., 67).—þeina; for its strong inflection, s. Gr. 122, n. 1.—brôþr þeinamma; dat. after gasibjôn (S., 43). 25. andastauin þeinamma; dat. after waíla hugjands (S., 41).—ibai, lest, lit. perhaps, which sense is also exprest by the opt. atgibai.—stauin; from staua, m. (Gr., 108; not f.; Gr., 97).—in karkara gal.; gal. in w. acc., more frequently w. dat.; see qimiþ in, abuv; jah galagjaza, and [then] thou wilt be cast. 26. usgaggis..usgibis; the first prs. expresses the first, the second the past future.—minnistan; this word does not exactly answer ἔσχατον (which Wulfila in other places renders by aftuma, aftumists, spêdiza, spêdists, spêdumists). It is not impossibl, however, that kintus ment not one particular coin (or mezure), but any coin (or mezure) of litl value.

27. For the tenses and opt. mood, see 21, abuv. 28. saei saíƕiþ; ind. in a rel. clause for a Grk. ptc. (S., 99).—du lustôn; inf. of purpose after du (S., 144).—izôs; gen. after lustôn (S., 26).—gahôrinôda (For the Grk. aor.; S., 87, (3)) izai; instrumental dat. of association (S., 52, (1), c). 29. marzjai; opt. necessitated by the sense, not by the conj. jabai (S., 102).—usstigg ita jah waírp; the order of words is Grk.; in Engl. we repeat the object 'it' after the second v. (waírp).—gadriusai in gaíaínnan; gadr. in w. acc.; onse (Lu. 8, 7) it takes the dat.; comp. qiman in, chap. V, 20, abuv. 30. taíhswô þeina handus; comp. the sequence of words (without the art.) with the similar expression (with the art.) in 29, abuv.—þô, this, that; but αὐτήν in Grk.—batizô ist þus ei, etc.; the dependent clause after batizô ist is sumtimes an acc. w. inf. (S., 113); þus is dat. of advantage (S., 36, (4)).—fraqistnai....gadriusai; both optativs imply possibility (S., 103). 31. -uh þan; both particls (= þan alone) ar here continuativ: but farther, also.—saei aflêtai qên; opt. in a rel. clause which does not contain a statement of the speaker, but of sum one else (cp. verse 32, below); qên is less definit here than in the following verse, where seina is emfatic, and qên seina means as much as 'his legitimate wife'.—gibai; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—afstassais bôkôs, a writing (lit. letters; cp. the Latin 'littera': 'litterae') of divorcement (lit. 'standing off'; cp. the G. 'abstand' in the sense of 'desistence'). 32. saei aflêtiþ.....taujiþ; the vs. ar in the ind. mood, because they contain the speaker's statements (as opposed to the preceding ones).—izê; for izei (Gr., 157, n. 3). 33. ufarswarais...usgibais; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—fraujin; without the articl, when signifying God (S., 68, n. 2. The Grk. text has τῷ). 34. swaran; objectiv inf. after qiþan, to say, with the sense of 'commanding' (S., 110).—guþs; gen. in its abbreviated form (Gr., 94, n. 3). 35. baúrgs; without the art., as in Grk. 36. tagl, a singl hair; skuft, the hairs collectivly. 37. sijaiþ-þan (for sijaih þan, for sijai-uh þan; see Gr., 62, n. 3), but ... shall be.—þata (art.) managizô; n. compar. uzed as sb.: lit. 'the more', i. e. what is more.—þaim; dat. as abl. (S., 54, 3), after the compar. managizô (= þau w. nom.; cp. the Grk. gen. and the Lt. abl. in such cases).—ubilin; dat. of the n. sg. ubilô uzed as sb. 38. und, for, in return for, w. dat.; in other senses, and more frequently, w. acc. 39. andstandan;[Pg 119] inf., as in verse 34.—allis; adverbial gen., from the adj. alls, at all, without equivalent in the Grk. text. Wulfila probably inserted it according to verse 34, where the Grk. text shows ὅλως.—þamma unsêljin; weak adj. n. uzed as sb.; see ubilin in 37, abuv.—ƕas; here indef., as in 23, abuv.—stautai; opt., as in 29, abuv; likewise the imper. wandei in the apodosis.—jah, also. 40. jah, and.—þamma wiljandin; a participial construction, as in Grk. (τῷ θέλοντι).—niman; complimentary inf. after wiljandin (as in 42, below; S., 109). 41. ananauþjai..gaggais; the prs. opt. in protasis and apodosis (S., 102, a).—rasta aina; acc. expressing extent of space (S., 15, (2), β); rasta (for μίλιον, the Roman mile), lit. 'rest', place of resting, a stage or station, also the distance between two stages. 42. þamma wiljandin; dat. as abl. after uswandjais (S., 54, (1), where us should be inserted after af).—leiƕan (complementary inf.; S., 109) sis, to borrow; leiƕan, to lend. 43. frijôs...fiais fiand.....frijôþ fijands; these words and several others ar found both with and without j (Gr., 10, n. 4); fiand (fijand), acc. of fiands (fijands), enemy, lit. hating, prsp. of fi(j)an, to hate (Gr., 115). 44. þiuþjaiþ þans wrikandans; bless ye (= treat wel; for the dat. after þiuþjan, s. S., 45, page 246, below).—bi, concerning, for.—usþriutandans; acc. of the prs. ptc. (Gr., 133) of usþriutan, the us- being intensiv; -þriutan = '-trude' in 'obtrude'. 45. ei waírþaiþ sunjus; ei, that, in order that; waírþaiþ, prs. opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).—in himinam; adv. frase uzed substantivly after the art. (þis).—urranneiþ; ur- from us; Gr., 24, n. 2; 78, n. 4.—rigneiþ; from rignjan, factitiv of rign, n., rain. 46. ƕô mizdônô; the interr. ƕô agrees with the following gen. in gender.—niu (i. e. ni-u); interr. particl.—þai þiudô, the (= those) of the Gentiles, = the Gentiles; þiudô is gen. pl. of þiuda, peple. 47. þans frijônds izwarans, the frends (of) yours, = your frends; frijônds is sb. in form (Gr., 115) and meaning, while þans frijôndans stil has its verbal force; izwarans is a poss. prn. acc. pl. agreeing with frijônds, but izwis is a personal prn. acc. pl. guvernd by frijôndans.—ƕê; instr. case of ƕa, n. of ƕas (Gr., 159; S., 51).—managizô; compar. after ƕê (S., 51). 48. jus; for the personal prn. with a vb., see verse 22, abuv.—swaswê atta izwar sa in himinam is the subject, not sa, sa in himinam being an attribute of atta izwar, and may be renderd by a rel. clause in English.

Chap. VI. 1. taujan; complimentary inf. after atsaíƕiþ (2nd pers. pl. imper.).—du saíƕan im prop. a gerundiv construction, to be seen by them, lit. 'for them to see'. The activ inf. in Gothic often has a passiv force (S., 106, n. 3, end).—aiþþau, or else, otherwise. 2. þan, when.—taujais; opt. in a temporal clause (S., 100).—haúrnjais; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—þai liutans; the art. denotes a class of peple (S., 68, (6), n.).—háuhjaindau; prs. opt. pass. in a final clause (S., 96, a, α).—fram, by.—qiþa; without ik; see V, 22, abuv.—andnêmun; pret. expressing completion (= our prs. perf.): they hav receivd (Cp. 5, below). 3. þuk taujandan armaiôn ni witi hleidumei þeina, ƕa taujiþ taíhswô þeina; a puzling construction, indeed! (Cp. O. Luecke, 'Absolute Participia im Gotischen, etc.'; and E. Bernhardt, 'Gotische Grammatik', p. 116). Sum Latin manuscripts hav 'te facientem'. But þuk taujandan probably depends on witi: Let[Pg 120] not thy left hand know thee doing alms, what thy right hand doeth (= when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth.) 4. sijai; prs. opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).—saíƕiþ; ind. in a rel. clause expressing a fact (S., 99).—usgibiþ; prs. ind. for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)). 5. ei gaumjaindau mannam; dat. after gaumjan in the pass. ('to be seen by' = 'to appear' or 'show one's self to').—þatei haband, etc.; cp. andnêmun, etc., in 2, abuv. 6. haúrdai þeinai; instr. dativ after galûkands (S., 52, (4), note). 7. bidjandansuþ; s before the enclitic -uh (-uþ; Gr., 62, n. 3) generally becums z (Gr., 78, c).—þai þiudô; gen. after the art. in the nom.; see V, 46.—im; dat. (of the pers. prn. is) after the impers. þugkeiþ (S., 42, n.).—andhausjaindau; prs. opt. pass. expressing probability (S., 91, (3)). 8. þaim (dem. prn. S., 63); instr. dat. after galeikôþ (S., 51 and 52).—þizei jus þaúrbuþ, of what you ar in need; þizei is gen. of attraction (= þata þizei; S., 70, n. 1; 72); for the inflection of þaúrbuþ, s. Gr., 196.—bidjaiþ; opt. in a temporal clause. 9. bidjaiþ; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—atta unsar þu; voc. accumpanied by þu (for the Greek art. S., 14, ns. 1 and 2).—(9 ... 13) weihnai.. qimai..waírþai.....briggais; opts. expressing a wish, while the imperativs gif....aflêt.....lausei imply what the speaker desires to be done now (S., 91, n. 1). 11. hlaif unsarana þana sinteinan, our bred, the daily = our daily bred; sinteins, continual (= daily) is undoutedly ment to express the 'cotidianum' of the Itala, for the Grk. τὸν ἐπιούσιον means the following [ἡ ἐπιοῦσα (whense ἐπιούσιος), sc. ἡμέρα, the following day].—himma daga; loc. dat. (S., 53, (2)): to day. (For the dem. himma, s. Gr., 155). 12. uns; dat. of the indir. object, as in 14, below.—þatei; acc. after skulans sijaima (S., 15, n. 5). 13. in fraistubnjai; dat. after in, where we should expect the acc., as in V, 20.—þeina ist; the predicate is in the sg., altho it belongs to three coordinate subjects (S., 5, n. 1), the gender of þeina being that of the first subject (S., 9, n. 3).—in aiwins (acc. pl. of the i-declension; see Gr., 91, n. 5), for ages, for ever. 14. aflêtiþ (2nd pers. pl. prs. ind.) ...aflêtiþ (3d pers. sing. prs. ind., for the Grk. future); the ind. in both clauses regarded as statements implying facts (S., 102).—izê, of them = their (S., 60). 15. þau; adv.; see V, 20.—missadêdins; acc. pl. of -dêþs (-dêds; s. Gr., 74, n. 2). 18. mannam; dat., as in 5, abuv.—usgibiþ þus; cp. verse 6, end. 19. frawardeiþ; sg., altho belonging to two subjects connected by jah (S., 5, n. 1). 21. ist; for the Grk. future.—jah, also. 22. lukarn leikis ist augô; the subject is augô; in the Grk. text the art. occurs with each noun.—waírþiþ; for ἔσται. 23. ƕan filu; supply ist from the protasis. 24. twaim fraujam; dat. of the relation of one person towards another (S., 37 and 45); so after the following vbs., ufhauseiþ and frakunnan (S., 41).—jabai; as if for εἰ, but the Grk. text has ἤ; hense the follg. jah means also. 25. duþþê; for du-h-þê (see 'Vocabulary').—saiwalai...leika; dats. of the thing towards which the action of the vb., maúrnaiþ, is directed (S., 40): for your life.—matjaiþ ..drigkaiþ..wasjaiþ; opt. in indir. questions (S., 95).—ƕê; instr. case (Gr., 153 and 159; S., 52, (2)).—fôdeinai..wastjôm; abl. dats. after mais (S., 54, (3)). 26. þei ni saiand, etc.; an object clause depending on insaíƕiþ; þei is conj. (Gr., 218).—mais wulþrizans; a pleonastic use[Pg 121] of the compar. degree (S., 57. n.).—þaim; abl. dat., as fôdeinai in 25. 29. qiþuh; for qiþa-uh (Gr., 4, n. 1). 30. himma daga; s. verse 11.—gistradagis, to-morrow; the corresponding word of the cognate dialects means yesterday. See 'Vocabulary'.—wisandô; prs. ptc. n. (weak infl.; Gr., 133) ...galagiþ; pp. n. (strong infl.; Gr., 134).—guþ; subject. 31. matjam..drigkam; ind.: what shal we eat ... drink [now] ..wasjaima [sc. uns]; opt. (for the Grk. fut.): wherewith shal [= may (S., 91, (3))] we clothe ourselvs [hereafter]? 32. waituh; for wait-uh.


Chap. I. 1. aíwaggêljôns...guþs; contrary to the Greek text, the art. is omitted before these gens. (S., 68, n. 2). 2. gamêliþ ist; for the Grk. perf.—Êsaïin praúfêtau; in the Greek text the art. is uzed before both dats. (S., 68, n. 2); for the different forms of praúfêtus, s. 'Vocabulary'.—sai (Gr., 204, n. 2).—ik; the pers. prn. might here be omitted, as it does not seem to be emfasized (S., 59). Probably for this reason sum MSS. do not hav it.—saei; rel. prn. (Gr., 157).—gamanweiþ; the prs. for the Grk. future (S., 86, (3)).—þeinana; after its sbs., because it is not emfatic (S., 10, n. 2). 3. wôpjandins; gen. sg. of wôpjanda, weak prs. ptc. (Gr., 133).—manweiþ; there is no perceptibl difference between this v. and the compound gamanweiþ in the second verse. 4. du aflageinai; du denotes purpose.—frawaúrhtê; objectiv gen. (S., 20; and 19) with the verbal noun aflageinai. 5. daupidai wêsun; imperf. made up of the pp. and the prt. of wisan (S., 87, n. a).—Iaúrdanê (Grk. dat.); attribute of aƕai.—fram (w. dat.), by.—andhaitandans; w. the dat. of the dir. object (S., 45). 6. wasuþ-þan; for was-uh-þan (Gr., 62, n. 3).—taglam; instr. dat. after gawasiþs (S., 52, (2), b).—gaírda filleina; subj. of was understood.—haiþiwisk, wild, lit. 'pertaining to the heath'. 7. mis; abl. dat. after swinþôza (S., 54, (3)).—sa afar mis; sa seems to hav been added erroneously, or afar should be ufar (?).—ik; emfatic, as opposed to swinþôza, or sa.—andbindan; the prefix and- expresses the contrary of an action (Cp. E. un-in 'unbind').—is, his (Gr., 152; S., 60 et seq.).—; uzed for the sake of emfasis (S., 2). 9. warþ...qam; an asyndetic construction.—Nazaraíþ; indecl. pr. n.—Galeilaias; notice the adj. force of this adnominal gen. (S., 20).—fram; by, as in 5, abuv; —Iôhannê and Iaúrdanê ar Grk. dativs. 10. uslukanans; the emendation is wel grounded; see Bernhardt's large edition. 11. þuzei (= þus-ei; Gr., 78); rel. prn. (Gr., 158; S., 73). 12. sai, ahma, not sa ahma, because ahma, 'Holy Ghost', occurs always without the art. (Bernhardt, note to this passage). 13. dagê; partit. gen. with tiguns (Gr., 142; S., 21).—diuzam; dat. pl. of dius (Gr., 78, b; 94).—imma; dat. with andbahtidêdun (S., 38). 14. Galeilaia; (Grk.) dat. after qam in; see V, 20. 15. usfullnôda...atnêƕida; for the Grk. perfect (S., 87, (2)).—galaubeiþ in; with the dat. (for other constructions after galaubjan, see S., 41 and note). 16. faúr, along, lit. before.—Galeilaias; (Grk.) gen. as in verse 9.—is, his, i. e. Simon's (S., 62). 17. hirjats; dual of hiri (Gr., 20, n. 1).—igqis; dir. obj.—nutans; predicate acc. (S., 18). 18. seina; poss. prn. referring to the subj. of the[Pg 122] sentence; cp. verse 16. 19. inngaggands, going on.—þana Zaíbaídaiaus, [that of Zebedee, = the 'Zebedeean' =] the son of Zebedee. Observ the adj. force of the gen. (S., 19 and 21).—is; see verses 16 and 18, abuv.—manwjandans; weak inflection of the prs. ptc. uzed as sb., and with an obj., natja (Gr., 133. Cp. also Gr., 115; and Mt. V, 47). 20. seinana; this poss. prn. refers to the subj.; cp. the poss. is in v. 19; also v. 16. 21. sabbatô; indecl. sb. for the gen. pl.—synagôgên; acc. 22. usfilmans; this is one of the adjs. that follow the weak infl. only (Gr., 132, n. 2). 23. synagôgên; dat.—in (the second); denotes a condition: in, with. 24. ƕa uns jah þus, what hav we to do with thee, lit. what [is there] to us and to thee (S., 35, n. 1).—Nazôrênai; a Grk. ending, or -ai is an error for -au.—uns; is dat. or acc. with fraqistjan (S., 46).—weiha; weak adj. uzed as sb.—guþs; gen. (Gr., 94, n. 3). 25. ût us þamma, out of him (lit. this, for the Grk. αὐτός. S., 63).—unhrainja; the weak infl. of adjs. in the voc. case is quite common in Gothic. 26. stibnai mikilai; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 27. miþ sis missô, with one another (S., 59, n.).—sijai; prs. opt. in a dir. question implying possibility (S., 91, (3)).—ƕô, of what kind; the copula is omitted, as in Grk.—laiseinô; gen. pl.; s. Mt. V, 46; also Gr., 159.—ahmam þaim unhrainjam; dat. with anabiudiþ (S., 37).—imma; dat. after ufhausjand (S., 38; and 45). 28. is, his.—bisitands, neighbor (lit. sitting, i. e. dwelling, near; for this kind of nouns, see Gr., 115). 29. in garda; in with dat. after qiman; see Mt. V, 20.—Iôhannên; with a Grk. ending. There is no fixt rule for the declension of proper names in Gothic (Gr., 120). 30. in brinnôn; in fever, lit. 'in burning'. 31. im; dat. pl. of is, guvernd by andbahtida (S., 38); refers to Jesus and those with him. 32. andanahtja waúrþanamma; dat. abs. (S., 119).—þan; for δέ, the second þan for ὅτε.—sauil; this word occurs only twice in Gothic, and without the art. (S. 262), the uzual word for 'sun' being sunnô. 34. missaleikaim saúhtim; instr. dat. (or 'with-case'. S., 50) of cause: ubil habandans m. s., (having evil =) being sick with divers diseases. 36. jah galaistans waúrþun imma; imma is instr. dat. of accumpaniment or association, depending on the predicate noun galaistans (S., 52, (1), a). 37. þatei, conj., that, before a dir. quotation. 38. bisunjanê; attributiv adv. preceded by the art. (S., 68, (2)). 40. þrutsfill habands, (a person) having leprosy, for λεπρός, a leper.—kniwam knussjands; an alliterativ expression, kniwam being a superfluous instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 41. imma; dat. guvernd by attaítôk (S., 40).—wiljau; the opt. of this vb. discharges the function of the ind. (Gr., 205).—waírþ, be thou (for the distinction between the imper. and the hort. opt., see S., 91, n. 1). 42. þata..þata; the former is the dem. prn., the latter the art. 43. imma; dir. obj. in the dat., guvernd by gaƕôtjands (S., 40; cp. verse 41, abuv). 44. qiþais; opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).—mannhun; indef. prn. in the dat. (Gr., 163, a).—ataugjan; inf. of purpose (without du, to) after gagg (S., 114).—fram (περί), concerning, for.—þatei; rel. prn., for þata-ei (Gr., 4, n. 1; 157), that which, = giba þôei in Mt. VIII, 4. 45. swaswê, so that.—is, he (= Iesus), while the first is refers to the heald man.

Chap. II. 1. þatei; conj., that (Gr., 157, n. 2).—ist (for ἐστίν); we[Pg 123] should rather expect the prt. 2. swaswê juþan ni gamôstêdun (prt. of gamôtan; Gr., 202) nih at daúra, so that they found no room any more, not even at the door.—im; dat. of the indir. obj. (S., 37).—waúrd; in Gr.: τὸν λόγον. 3. hafanana (acc. sg. of hafans; Gr., 134), pp. of hafjan (Gr., 177, n. 2). 4. imma; dat. guvernd by nêƕa (qiman; cp. nêƕjan sik, S., 39).—faúra (w. dat.), because of.—usgrabandans; for ἐξορύξαντες, digging out; hense breaking up (sc. hrôt).—insailidêdun þata badi jah fralaílôtun (for χαλῶσιν τόν κράβαττον), lit.: they tied the bed to cords and let (it) down. 5. þus; dat. after aflêtanda (S., 37). 6. þagkjandans sis, reasoning with themselvs, the refl. dat., sis, does duty for the Grk. midl (S., 47, n. 1). 7. ƕa (acc. sg. of the interr. prn., = τί, quare), why?sa; dem. prn. (S., 63).—ains, alone. 8. ahmin seinamma; loc. dat. (S., 53, (1), c).—sis; refl. dat., as in verse 6, abuv.—duƕê, = du-ƕê, ƕê being an instr. case proper (Gr., 159, n. 1; S., 51). 9. du qiþan....qiþan; two subj. infs., the former with, the latter without du (S., 107, a and b). 10. mans; gen. sg. (Gr., 117, (1)). 11. nimuh, and take. 12. jah háuhidêdun mikiljandans guþ, and glorifying praised God, for δοξάζειν τὸν θεόν. Similarly in chap. I, v. 27: afsláuþnôdêdun sildaleikjandans, for ἐθαμβήθησαν.—aiw, ever not, = never. aiw is, properly, the acc. sg. of aiws, time, and answers in form and meaning our 'aye'.—gasêƕum; notice change of person. 13. iddjêdun; pl. vb., agreeing with the subj., all, in sense (S., 5 and 82, c). 14. þana Alfaiaus; cp. I, 19. III, 18. 15. warþ...... jah managai, etc. (for a different construction with warþ, s. Mk. II, 23. S., 108, n.; 113), it came to pass [that] ... also many, etc.—Iêsua sipônjam; instr. dat. of accumpaniment (S., 52, 1, c). 16. ƕa, how, as in 7. 17. lêkeis; gen. (as abl.) with þaúrbun (S., 27).—ubilaba (adv.) habandans; for κακῶς ἔχοντες, being sick; cp. Mk. V, 26. 18. Jôhannis..... Iôhannês; these genitivs in the same verse ar a striking exampl of arbitrary inflection of proper names in Gothic (Gr., 120). 19. ibai; an interr. particl, perhaps, or its sense is exprest by our may, a negativ answer being expected. 20. atgaggand...fastand; for the Grk. future (S., 86, (3)).—þan...þan, when, then. 21. ibai afnimai fullôn af þamma sa niuja þamma faírnjin (εἰ δὲ μή, αἴρει τό πλήρωμα ἀπ' αὐτοῦ τὸ καινὸν τοῦ παλαιοῦ). Wulfila took πλήρωμα to be the obj. of αἴρει. The subj. of the Goth. construction is either the preceding plat fanins niujis; with sa niuja as apposition, or sa niuja (sc. plat). In both cases þamma faírnjin is in apposition with af þamma (dem. pron. S., 63). 23. jah warþ þaírhgaggan imma, and it came to pass that he went (Lit.: and it came to pass to him to go. S., 108, n.). Cp. 14, abuv.—sabbatô (indecl., for gen. pl.; sabbatê daga in Mk. XVI, 1.) daga; loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)). 24. sabbatim; dat. as in verse 23. 25. niu (= ni-uh) aiw, never. 26. uf, under, i. e. in the time of.—þanzei (i. e. þans-ei; Gr., 157, n. 4).—matjan; subj. inf. (S., 108).—ainaim gudjam, for the priests alone (S., 108, n.).—sis; refers to the subj. (S., 60). 27. in (for διά with the acc.) mans (gen.; Gr., 117), for man; in sabbatô dagis, for sabbath day.—warþ gaskapans; for the Gr. aor. (S., 87, (4), c). 28. frauja; predicate noun.—jah, also.—þamma sabbatô; dat. depending on frauja (S., 35, (2)).

[Pg 124]

Chap. III. 1. synagôgên; Grk. acc., as in Mk. I, 21. 2. imma; dat. guvernd by witaidêdun (S., 40).—hailidêdiu; the suffix -u introduces the indir. question: whether he would heal, the prt. opt. being uzed after the prt. in the leading clause (S., 95, b).—prt. wrôhidêdeina; opt. in a final clause (S., 96, b, β). 3. in midumai (for εἰς τὸ μέσον); dat. with in after a vb. of motion within limited space (S., 55). 4. skuldu; the suffix -u introduces the question (cp. verse 2, abuv).—sabbatim; for its decl., s. Gr., 120, n. 1. 5. gastôþ (figurativ), was restored, lit. stood. 6. imma; instr. dat. (S., 52, p. 250) of the dir. obj., guvernd by usqêmeina, prt. opt. of purpose (S., 96, b). 7. manageins; partitiv gen. with filu (S., 21).—laistidêdun; its subj., filu manageins, is pl. in sense (S., 5). 9. ei skip habaiþ (n. sg. of the prt. ptc. in the predicate) wêsi (prt. opt. of purpose. S., 96, b), that a ship be redy (lit. had or held).—in, because of.—þraíheina; prt. opt. of purpose, like wêsi. 10. drusun, they prest upon, lit. fel upon.—imma; dir. obj. (S., 40) guvernd by attaítôkeina (prt. opt. of têkan). 11. þaih (i. e. þai-h, for þai-uh; Gr., 154) þan, when they. þatei, conj., that, before a direct quotation, as in Mk. I, 37. 13. ustaig; for usstaig (Gr. 78, n. 5), prt. of us-steigan.—þanzei; see II, 26. 14. sis; refers to the subj. of gawaúrhta (S., 60). 16. Paítrus; predicate nom.; we should rather hav expected the acc. (S., 13, n. 2). 17. þamma Z.; s. I, 19. 18. Seimôna; (Grk.) acc., while the same form in 16 is a regular Goth. dat. 20. gaïddja sik; for συνέρχεται (S., 16, n.). 22. þaim unhulþôm; instr. dat. guvernd by uswaírpiþ (S., 52, (4), and p. 253, n. 2). 23. Satanan; acc. after uswaírpan (cp. v. 22). 27. mag kasa swinþis galeiþands in gard is wilwan, (can rob a strong one's goods, entering into his house =) can enter into a strong man's house and rob his goods. 28. allata þata frawaúrhtê, all that of sins; frawaúrhtê is partitiv gen. after þata (S., 21; and 68, (3)). 29. aiweinaizôs frawaúrhtais, gen. depending on skula (S., 22, p. 235, where dauþus is an error for dauþaus). 31. standandôna...haitandôna, the n. (pl.) is uzed in the predicate (cp. the following verse), because the persons in the subj. ar of different gender (S., 9, n. 3). 32. sêtun; refers to managei, which is pl. in meaning (S., 5).—þeina..þeinai..þeinôs; the attribute (cp. the preceding verse) occurs with each of the sbs. of different gender (S., 10, n. 1). 35. allis; here conj.: for.—waúrkeiþ, for the Grk. future (S., 86, (3)).—sa; dem. prn.—meins; agrees with the nearest sb., and (meina) is understood with the others, swistar, aiþei.—The first jah was added by Wulfila.

Chap. IV. 1. The gen. manageins depends on filu (S., 21), the predicate, galêsun, being in the pl. because of the pl. meaning of the subj. (S., 5).—swaswê; with the acc. (ina galeiþandan, ptc. agreeing with ina) and inf. (gasitan), for ὥστε w. the acc. and inf. (S., 115).—was; here managei takes a sg. v. (S., 5). 2. manag; acc. sg. n. uzed as sb. 3. saiands; prsp. uzed substantivly. For its declension, s. Gr., 133.—du saian; inf. of purpose after urrann, a vb. of motion (S., 114).—fraiwa seinamma; instr. dat. guvernd by saian (S., 52, (4)). 4. þata; for αὐτό. 5. anþaruþ-þan, i. e. anþar-uh-þan (Gr., 62, n. 3).—stainahamma; uzed substantivly: stony ground.—in þizei, because (s. 'Vocabulary', in, (1)).[Pg 125]diupaizôs airþôs; gen. guvernd by habaida (S., 25). 6. at sunnin þan urrinnandin; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 119); þan for δέ.—waúrtins; for the sg. in Grk. 8. For the numeral signs in this verse, see Gr., 1. 9. hausjandôna; for the inf. in Grk., for which we find du hausjan (S., 114) in Lu. VIII, 8.—gahausjai; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)). 10. warþ, was, lit. became (ἐγένετο).—ina...þizôs gajukôns; acc. of the pers. addrest and the gen. of the th. askt about (S., 26), for a dubl acc. in Grk. 11. atgiban (pp.) ist; for δέδοται.—jainaim þaim (art. S., 68, (2)) ûta, to them (the =) that ar without. 12. nibai ƕan (for μήποτε; we should expect ibai ƕan; cp. Mt. V, 25) gawandjaina sik, lest at any time they should be converted (lit.: should convert themselvs).—aflêtaindau (prs. opt. pass.) im frawaúrhteis, their sins should be forgivn (lit.: sins should be forgivn to them. S., 37). 13. þô; dem. prn. ...þôs; art.—kunneiþ; for the Grk. fut. 14. saijands..saijiþ; without the j in verses 3 and 15 (Gr., 22 and n. 1). 15. aþþan þai wiþra wig sind; the Greek text is: οὕτοι δέ εὶσιν οἱ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, but Lu. VIII, 12: οἱ δέ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν εὶσιν.—þan, when.—unkarjans; added by Wulfila from a Lt. MS., for 'negligenter'. 16. jah; sc. þai, dem. prn. 18. þai, dem. prn. ...þai, art. ...þai, art. 19. þai bi þata anþar lustjus, the lusts of (lit.: concerning) other things (lit.: that other, for τὰ λοιπά). 21. ibai; here it introduces a dir. question, a negativ answer being expected.—qimiþ, is brought (lit. does cum).—duþê ei, to that that, i. e. for the purpose that.—satjaidau; opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).—niu (= ni-u = ni-uh), and not? i. e. and (is it) not (brought)? 22. nih (= ni-uh), for not.—allis, at all.—ist ƕa fulginis, is (there) anything hidn (lit.: of anything hidn, the gen. fulginis depending on the indef. prn., ƕa; Gr., 162, n. 2; and S., 21).—gabaírhtjaidau; opt. in a consecutiv rel. clause (S., 99, a).—nih, and not, neither. 23. hausjandôna; prsp. for the inf. in Grk., as in IV, 9.—gahausjai; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)). 24. in þizaiei mitaþ; the noun (mitaþ; dat., Gr., 116) is attracted into the rel. clause, and agrees with the rel. prn. (þizaiei; Gr., 157, and S., 72, n.).—izwis þaim galaubjandam (Gr., 133); þ. g. is in apposition (S., 11) with the dat. izwis (Gr., 150). 25. gibada; for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)).—imma; abl. dat. guvernd by afnimada (S., 54, (1)). 26. fraiwa; instr. dat. guvernd by wairþiþ (S., 52, (4)). 27. slêpiþ..urreisiþ; the ind. for the Grk. subj. (S., 90; and 100, n.).—naht (Gr., 116) jah daga; loc. dat. (S., 53, (2)): night and day.—is; i. e. manna. 28. silbô; weak form (Gr., 156), agreeing with aírþa; it stands for αὐτομάτη, spontaneous, of herself. 29. insandeiþ; its subj. is is, i. e. manna.—atist; the prs. for the Grk. perf. (ἕστηκα; S., 86, (4)). 30. ƕê; instr. of ƕa (Gr., 159; S., 51), guvernd by galeikôm (S., 52, (1), c).—gabaíram, shal we compare, lit. bear or bring together; here ga- has an associativ force. 31. þatei; subj. of ist.—þan, when. 33. swaleikaim managaim gajukôm; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6); in Mk. III, 23 we hav in gajukôm).—im; dat. pl. guvernd by du, while in the following verse im is guvernd by rôdida. 35. andanahtja þan (then) waúrþanamma; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 120).—jainis stadis (S., 30), 'yun' shore, = that shore (towards which the speaker pointed), i. e. to the other side [of the lake]. 36. jah þan; emfatic: and also, besides, moreover.[Pg 126] 37. warþ, arose.—waltidêdun; orig. trans., but here intr. (S., 16, 3). 38. niu (= ni-u, the enclitic -u introducing the question) kara þuk þizei?, is there not care to thee of that (þis) that (ei; Gr., 157), i. e. does it not concern thee that? kara (or kara ist) takes the acc. of the person and the gen. of the obj. (S., 15, (1), n. 4). 39. winda; the dat. is guvernd by gasôk (S., 45).—afdumbn; imper. sing. (Gr., 195, n. 1). 41. sis; refl. dat. for the Grk. midl (S., 47, n. 1).—agis mikil; cognate acc. (with a vb. of kindred signification, ôhtêdun; S., 15, (2), b).—du sis missô, to one another (S., 60, n.).—sa (dem. prn.) sijai; opt. in a dir. question (S., 91, (3), p. 276): may he be.—imma; dat. guvernd by ufhausjand, listen with submission, obey (S., 38).

Chap. V. 1. landa; dat. guvernd by qiman in (S., 55, n.). 2. usgaggandin imma; dat. abs. (S., 119).—imma; dat. guvernd by gamôtida (S., 39). 3. naudibandjôm eisarneinaim; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)), as in the following verse. 4. eisarnam bi fôtuns gabuganaim; the hole frase translates the Greek πέδαις, its literal meaning being: with bent irons for (bi, about, for, = περί) the feet.—naudibandjôm eisarneinaim (for ἁλύσεσιν), with chains, but literally: with iron 'need-bands', i. e. fetters.—naudibandjôs; for ἁλύσεις.—þô ana fôtum eisarna (for τὰς πέδας), the irons on the feet. 5. nahtam jah dagam; adv. frase (S., 53, (2)): night and day (The Greek has the gen. Cp. S., 30).—stainam; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 7. stibnai mikilai; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).—ƕa mis jah þus (the copula ist being understood); dativs denoting relationship (S., 35, n. 1): what is there to me and to thee?, i. e. what hav I to do with thee?sunau; this is the voc. (Gr., 105, n. 2), in apposition with Iêsu.—balwjais; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).—mis; dat. guvernd by balwjais (S., 44). 8. mann; dat. sg. (Gr., 117, (1)). 10. im; instr. dat. pl. (Gr., 152), referring to the subj. of sijum, and guvernd by usdrêbi, for usdribi (Gr., 10, (2), n. 5), (S., 52, (4)). 12. qiþandeins; nom. pl. of the prsp. (Gr., 133). 14. baúrg; dat. (Gr., 116).—haimôm; dat. (Gr., 103, n. 4).—qêmun; its subj. is they, i. e. the peple.—saíƕan; inf. of purpose (without du, to; S., 114).—wêsi, might be; prt. opt. in an indir. question.—þata (art.) waúrþanô (pp. uzed as sb.), 'the being done', i. e. that which was done. 15. atiddjêdun (the prt.) ...gasaíƕand (the prs.); both for the Grk. historical prs. (S., 86, (2)).—þana saei habaida laígaíôn; for τὸν εσχηκότα λεγεῶνα; þana is dem. prn. 17. seinôs, their; refers to the subj. of dugunnun (S., 62; and 60; cp. Mk. III, 14). 18. inngaggandan ina in skip (for ἐμβαίνοντος αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ πλοῖον), him going into the ship; baþ ina saei was wôds, him prayd he that had been (lit. was) possest. 21. usleiþandin Iêsua; dat. abs. (S., 119).—hindar marein; depends on usleiþandin.—gaqêmun sik; for the Grk. midl (S., 16, n. 1).—manageins; gen. with filu, the predicate being here in the pl. (S., 5). 22. qimiþ...gadraus; change of tense, as in V, 15.—namin; dat. of specification (S., 15, (2), n. 2, α). 23. þatei; conj. (Gr., 157, n. 2) before a dir. quotation.—aftumist habaiþ, 'has the last', i. e. lies (or is) at the point of deth.—ei; conj., that, which here introduces an exhortation.—qimands lagjais, cuming thou mayst lay, i. e. cum and lay.—ganisai...libai; opts. of purpose (S., 96, a). 25. suma; indef. prn. uzed substantivly, and with a part. gen. (Gr., 162;[Pg 127] S., 78, (1)). 26. allamma seinamma (uzed as sb. S., 82, (2), c); instr. dat. guvernd by fraqimandei (S., 52, (1), c), lit.: 'cuming away with all hers', i. e. having spent (lit. spending. S., 117) all that she had.—ni waíhtai (instr. dat. denoting mezure of difference. S., 52, (7)), not in anything, in nothing; bôtida (fem. of the pp. Gr., 134), betterd.—mais waírs; mais is pleonastic, as in Mt. VI, 26.—habaida (3d pers. sg. prt. ind., not pp.); cp. Mk. II, 17. 27. wastjai; dat. guvernd by attaítôk (prt. of attêkan. Gr., 181), (S., 40). 28. þatei; conj., as in 23. 29. izôs (Gr., 151, n. 2). 30. mis; so-calld poss. dat. (for the gen. in Grk. S., 48).—wastjôm; dat. as in 27. 32. þô þata taujandein, her that had done this (lit.: the this doing), the prsp. having a prt. meaning, as in 26. 34. ganasida; for the Grk. perf. (S., 87, (2)).—sijais; the opt. for the Grk. imper., the imper. of wisan being wanting (Gr., 204, n. 2). 35. imma rôdjandin; dat. abs. (S., 119).—qêmun; the prt. for the historical prs. in Grk. (S., 87, 3).—þatei; introduces a dir. quotation; cp. verse 23.—ƕa; why? It is uzed like τί (S., 74, n. 2), as in verse 39. 36. rôdíþ; pp. of rôdjan, agreeing with waúrd. 40. allaim; instr. dat. guvernd by uswaírpands (S., 52, 4; and n. 2, p. 253). 41. qaþuh (= qaþ-uh), and said. The first part of the compound sentence stands for a participial frase in Greek.—izai; refers to the natural gender of barn; cp. Lu. II, 27. 28. 42. jêrê twalibê; gen. of quality (S., 24), of twelv years, i. e. twelv years old.—faúhrtein mikilai; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)) which is here (and in Lu. II, 9) uzed with a vb. of kindred signification; hense it resembls the cognate acc. (S., 15, (2), n. 2). 43. ei manna ni funþi (prt. opt. in a final clause, after a prt., anabauþ, in the leading clause. S., 96, b), that a man should not find out, i. e. that no man should find out.—izai...matjan; the former is the indir., the latter the dir. obj. of giban (for the pass. inf. in Grk. S., 84, n. 3), this being the obj. of haíhait (S., 110).


Chap. II. 1. warþ...urrann; asyndetic constructions with warþ ar quite common in Gothic.—in dagans jainans; for the acc. we should rather hav expected the dat. of the Grk. text. 2. at raginôndin Kyreinaiau; abl. abs. introduced by at (S., 120).—Saúrim; dat. (pl.) guvernd by raginôndin (S., 38; 52, 3, n.). 3. ei mêlidai (pp. Gr., 134) wêseina; a final clause for the inf. in Grk.—ƕarjizuh in seinai baúrg (dat. Gr., 116); belongs to mêlidai: every one (of all that went) in his own city. 4. Galeilaia...Nazaraíþ (indecl.); both stand for the dat. (Gr., 120 and notes).—sei; for si-ei (Gr., 157, n. 3). 5. anamêljan (for the inf. pass. in Grk.) to enrol (himself).—sei was imma qeins (for qêns, Gr., 7, n. 2), who was to him a wife, i. e. who was his wife (S., 35, (1)); the rel. clause stands for the Grk. art. with a ptc.—wisandein inkilþôn (w. adj. uzed as sb. in the predicate); in apposition with Mariin. 6. warþ ...usfullnôdêdun; see verse 1.—þô; nom. pl. n. of sa, referring to two persons of different gender (Joseph and Mary. S., 8).—du baíran (for τοῦ τεκεῖν. Cp. the Latin: tempus est abire, for the gen. of the gerund).—izai; dat. of advantage after usfullnôdêdun (S. 47). 7. uzêtin; dat.[Pg 128] after galagida in; see Mt. V, 20.—im; dat. of possession after was (S., 35).—rûmis; gen. as subj.: of room, i. e. room (S., 25, n. 2). 8. wahtwôm; dir. obj. after witandans (S., 40).—nahts (Gr., 116), adv. gen. (S., 30), by night. 9. agisa mikilamma; see Mk. V, 42. 10. waírþiþ; for ἔσται.—allai managein; poss. dat., as in verse 7. 11. himma daga; adv. frase (S., 53, (2)), this day. 12. þata; subj. prns. are not subject to agreement with pred. sbs. (S., 7).—bigitid (d for þ is very common in this gospel. Gr., 74, 1); for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)).—biwundan.. galagid (d for þ, as abuv); acc. sg. n. of the pp. (Gr., 134). 13. warþ, was, lit. became, appeard: it is the pred. (in the sing.) of the collectiv noun managei (S., 5. Cp. Mk. V, 32).—harjis h.; gen. after managei.—hazjandanê..qiþandanê (Gr., 133); attributiv ptcs. agreeing w. harjis in gender and number (in sense. S., 5 and 9, n. 1). 14. in háuhistjam, in the highest, for ἐν ὑψίστοις.—guþa (sc. sijai); dat. of possession (S., 35). 15. himin; dat. guvernd by galiþun in; see Mk. V, 20.—þai haírdjôs; in apposition (S., 11) with mans (Gr., 117).—þaírhgaggaima ...saíƕaima; 1st pers. pl. of the hort. opt., for the more common 1st pers. pl. imper. (S., 91, n. 1). 18. im; refers to allai (S., 61). 19. þagkjandei; prsp. fem. (in -ei. Gr., 133): pondering (sc. them). 20. in allaizê þizêei, because of all that which, the rel. prn. (Gr., 157) being assimilated to the case of its antecedent (S., 71). verse 6. 21. jah biþê... and whendu bimaitan ina; cp. verse 6.—....jah; introduces the principal clause, and remains untranslated. We might rather expect þan which is uzually found after temporal clauses introduced by biþê.—namô is; subj. ...Iêsus; pred. nom. with haitan was (S., 13, b, β).—þata qiþanô; refers to namô.—wêsi; opt. in a temporal clause (S., 100); so always with faúrþizei (S., 100, n.). 22. atsatjan; sc. ina. 23. ƕazuh (Gr., 164); uzed substantivly, and followd by the partitiv gen.—weihs; predicate adj. with haitada (cp. 21, abuv).—fraujins; guvernd by weihs (S., 22). 24. ei gêbeina; prt. opt. in a final clause (S., 96, b), while the coordinate atsatjan (in verse 22) is an 'inf.' of purpose (S., 114).—fram imma, on his behalf (cp. Mk. I, 44; II Cor. V, 12).—juggôns; adj. uzed as sb., followd by a partitiv gen. (S., 21). 25. þaruh; for καὶ ἰδοῦ, and behold.—sa; dem. prn. laþônais; obj. gen. after beidands (S., 26). 27. alh; dat. (Gr., 116) guvernd by qam in; see Mt. V, 20.—ina; refers to the natural gender of barn, as in verse 28, and elsewhere. 28. guþa; dat. guvernd by þiuþida (S., 45). 29. fraleitais (ei for ê. Gr., 7, n. 2); opt. proper (S., 91, (1)). 32. þiudôm (for ἐθνῶν); dat. of advantage after andhuleinai, like managein (for λαοῦ) þeinai after wulþu (S., 34).—Israêla; in apposition with managein (S., 11). 33. sildaleikjandôna; nom. pl. n., referring to two living beings of different gender (S., 9, n. 3). 34. ina; the Grk. text has αὐτούς.—sa; dem. prn. 35. þeina saiwala; the obj. of þaírhgaggiþ.—silbôns (always weak. Gr., 156); intensiv (like the Lt. 'ipsius' preceded by a poss. prn. and followd by the sb.), its gender being that of the noun or prn. to which it refers (here Mariin). 36. sôh (for sô-uh); a compd. dem. (Gr., 154), for αὕτη.—dagê managaizê; emfatic gen. w. framaldra (S., 22).—jêra sibun; acc. of extent of time (S., 15, n. 2, β). 37. sôh þan, and this, and she (sc. was).—ahtáutêhund jah[Pg 129] fidwôr; uninflected (Gr., 143) attribute to jêrê.—sôh; here for ἥ.—fastubnjam...bidôm; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).—blôtandê (ê for ei, fem. ending of the prsp. Gr., 17, n. 1, and 133).—nahtam jah dagam; loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)), like þizai ƕeilai in the next verse. 38. andhaíhait with the dat. (fraujin), to giv thanks to (S., 45).—in allaim (in being added by Wulfila), among all (without in, allaim would be the indir. obj. after rôdida); allaim is attribute to the ptc. usbeidandam, which is uzed substantivly, but with a dir. obj. (S., 15, n. 2), laþôn, redemption. 40. ahmins..handugeins; instr. genitivs guvernd by fullnands, becuming fild with spirit and wisdom (S., 27). 41. jêra ƕammêh (Gr., 164, a); loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)): every year.—at dulþ (acc. Gr., 116) paska (indecl. attribute), at the feast of the passover; at with the acc. always denotes time. 42. 43. usgaggandam þan im...jah ustiuhandam; dat. abs. (S., 119), when they then (þan referring to the preceding clause) went up ... and when they had fulfild.—miþþanê (ê for ei, as in 37) gawandidêdun sik aftra, as they returnd, lit.: as they turnd themselvs back.—wissêdun; here the pl. occurs in an abridged compound sentence (S. 1, n.), sumtimes the sing. (S., 5, n. 1). 44. hugjandôna; n. pl., as in verse 33.—ina wisan; acc. and inf. guvernd by hugjandôna (S., 112).—dagis (adnominal gen. S., 20) wig (acc. of extent of space. S., 15, n. 2, β), a day's way, a day's jurney.—kunþam; weak dat. of kunþs (uzed as sb. Gr., 132). 46. warþ; see verse 1.—in midjaim laisarjaim, in the midst of the teachers (cp. the Lt. 'in media urbe').—im; dat. guvernd by hausjandan, hearing, i. e. listening to (S., 45). 47. is, him, lit. of him; obj. gen. guvernd by hausjandans (S., 26).—ana frôdein; depends on usgeisnôdêdun. 48. magau; voc. for magu (Gr., 105, n. 2).—ƕa; acc. of specification (S., 15, 2, b, n. 2, α): why?uns; dat. of the indir. obj. (S., 37).—sôkidêdum; here and in verse 49 we should rather hav expected the dual (S., 5, n. 4). The subj. being of different persons, the first person is preferd (S., 5, n. 2). 49. in þaim attins meinis; so-calld elliptic expressions like this ar also common in Grk., a noun signifying 'things' or the like being understood with the art.: in, or about, the things of my father. As a matter of fact, however, attins meinis shows the orig. adj. force of the gen. which is here uzed substantivly (S., 19, and 68, (3)). 50. ija; nom. pl. n. (Gr., 152), referring to Joseph and Mary; see verse 6.—þamma waúrda; loc. dat. guvernd by frôþun (S., 53, (1), p. 254; and cp. n. 2, p. 255), prt. of fraþjan (Gr., 177, n. 2). 51. im; dat. after ufhausjands (S., 38). 52. frôdein..wahstau..anstai; loc. dats. of specification (S., 53, 1, c).


Chap. I. 1. aíkklêsjôn; dat., the guverning vb. being omitted.—þizai wisandein; agrees with aíkklêsjôn. 2. Iêsu; for Iêsua which, together with Xristau, is in apposition with fraujin. 3. þiuþiþs; sc. sijai: blessed be.—jah (καί); here emfatic: (who is) even. 4. gaþrafstida...gaþrafstidai sijum; we should have expected the prs., because the statement does not[Pg 130] refer to any particular consolations, but is a statement of 'general truth'.—weis; emfatic (S., 2, n. 1).—in allaim aglôn; a prepositional frase, with the art., uzed as sb. (S., 68, (2)).—þizaiei; instr. dat. guvernd by gaþrafstidai. 5. swaswê...swa jah, as ... so also; the second jah may remain untranslated, or the first jah may be rendered by 'the same' (jah þaírh Xristu, by the same Christ), and the second by also.—ufar filu ist, is beyond much, i. e. abounds. 6. aþþan, but.—jaþþê þr., in...; jaþþe gaþr., in..., whether we ar afflicted, (it is) because of ..., or whether we ar cumforted, (it is) because of. 7. swaswê...jah, as (so) also.—waírþiþ; added by the translator: ye shal be (lit. becum, sc. gadailans, partakers, with the gen. S., 20; and cp. 26). 8. izwis unweisans (sc. wisan); acc. and inf. depending on wileima (S., 112).—brôþrjus (before which we should put a comma); voc.—uns; dat. of interest (S., 47).—ufarassau; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).—ufar maht (acc. Gr., 102), abuv strength; cp. verse 5.—swaswê skamaidêdeima uns (refl. acc. S., 16, n. 1); opt. in a consecutiv clause (S., 97, b): so that we wer ashamed.[107]jah, even. 9. akei silbans in uns silbam andahaft dauþaus habaidêdum, but we ourselvs had the answer of deth in ourselvs, i. e. (according to de Wette.—Bernhardt's large edition, p. 415) the question, whether I should escape deth, I answerd negativly.—sijaima; final opt. (S., 96, a, β). 10. izei; rel. prn. (= saei. Gr., 157, n. 3).—dauþum, deths, i. e. dangers of deth.—galauseiþ (not for ῥύεται. Bernhardt, p. 415) ...galauseiþ; both for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)). 11. at hilpandam jah izwis; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 119): as ye also ar helping.—bidai; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)).—bi; w. acc., for (= ὑπερ w. gen., as in Mt., 44).—in managamma andwaírþja, in (= before) a great presence, i. e. before many persons.—ei sô in uns giba awiliudodau (3d pers. sg. prs. opt. pass. Gr., 189, d), that for the gift (bestowd) on us thanks be givn, lit.: that the gift (bestowd) on us be praizd.—þaírh managans, by many.—faúr uns, on our behalf. 12. þatei; conj., that.—usmeitum; ei for ê (Gr., 7, n. 2).—iþ ufarassau (instr. dat. of manner. S., 52, (6)), and more abundantly (περισσοτέρως δὲ), and beyond mezure. 13. alja; acc. pl. n. of aljis (Gr., 125), here uzed substantivly.—alja (the second); conj., except. 14. unsara; sc. sijuþ ƕôftuli. 15. þizai (dem. prn.) trauainai; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).—habaidêdeiþ; prt. opt. (Gr., 192) in a final clause (S., 96, b). 16. gasandjan mik (an activ vb. with a refl. acc., for a pass. vb. in Grk. (S., 16)): to return. 17. þatuþ-þan; for þata-uh-þan, and this.—ibai auftô, perhaps (a negativ answer being expected).—leihtis; gen. guvernd by brûhta (S., 25).—aíþþau þatei (rel. prn.) mitô bi leika þagkjau, or do I purpose that which I think according to the flesh? There is a notewurthy change of mood in this and other dubl questions (S., 91).—þata ja ja jah þata nê nê (advs. w. the art. uzed substantivly. S., 68, (2)), the yea, yea and the nay, nay? i. e. now yea, now nay? 18. aþþan triggws guþ, an ellipsis: but (as) God (is) tru, [so tru it is]. 19. nih; for ni-h, the -h (= uh) being intensiv.—warþ; here the same as was. 20. ƕaiwa managa gahaita guþs, ín imma, as many promises of God,[Pg 131] [they ar] in him, i. e. all promises of God ar in him (= Christ).—duþþê (for du-uh-þê. Gr., 62, n. 3), to that, for that, therefore. 21. guþ; sc. ist. 22. wadi; predicate acc. (S., 18), as a pledge. 23. weitwôd; like wadi, pred. acc.—izwara; gen. guvernd by freidjands (S., 26). 24. izwarai galaubeinai; dat. guvernd by fraujinôma (S., 38; cp. also 52, (3), n.)—anstais, joy, but probably for χάριτος (not χαρᾶς), which is found in sum manuscripts.—galaubeinai; loc. dat. (S., 53, 1, b), after gastôþuþ, for which we might expect the pres. (S., 86, 4).

Chap. II. 1. gastauida; prt. of gastôjan (Gr., 186).—at, with.—qimau; opt. in an obj. clause expressing possibility (S., 92).—at, to. 2. gailjai; opt. in a rel. clause expressing result (S., 99, a).—sa; art.—gáurida; nom. sg. m. of the weak pp. (Gr., 134).—us, by. 3. jaþ; for jah (Gr., 62, n. 3).—izwis; dat. of the indir. obj. after gamêlida (S., 37).—habau; prs. opt. in a final clause after a prt. in the leading proposition (S., 96, a, β).—fram þaimei (its antecedent being omitted. S., 70, n. 1; and 72); loc. dat. guvernd by faginôn (S., 53, 1, b).—allaizê (uzed substantivly) izwara (pers. prn. in the gen. pl. Gr., 150); sc. fahêþs, the joy of all of you (S., 82). 4. aþþan (γάρ; so in the epistls only), for.—þaírh, with; expresses the situation of the subj.—ni þêei (prop. instr. of the rel. prn. Gr., 157, n. 1); conj. not that.—ufarassau; see I, 8. 5. ƕas; indef. prn. (Gr., 162, n. 2).—bi sumata, ei ni anakaúrjau, allans izwis, in sum mezure, that I may not overcharge (him) you all. 6. þamma swaleikamma (the dat. being guvernd by ganah, which uzually takes the acc. S., 42, n.); uzed substantivly (S., 68, (1), a, α).—andabêt (ê for ei. Gr., 17, n. 1).—managizam; compar. (Gr., 132, n. 4; 135; 136), where we uze the positiv: many. 7. swaei..izwis..fragiban jag (g for h. Gr., 62, n. 3) gaþláihan; acc. with the inf. introduced by swaei to express result (S., 115; cp. Mk. IV, 1).—þata andaneiþô; adverbial acc. (S., 15, (2), n. 2): contrariwise.—managizein (weak compar. adj. fem. Gr., 132, n. 4) saúrgai; instr. dat. of cause (S., 52, 5; cp. also 53, n. 1).—sa swaleiks (for its strong inflection, see Gr., 161), such a one. 8. inuþ (for in-uh, i. e. -uh attacht to the prep. in, which is here uzed with the gen.: because of. The prep. inuh or inu means without) þis, on this account, therefore.—in imma; for εὶς αὐτόν. 9. sijaidu (for sijaiþ-u. Gr., 74, n. 1); opt. in an indir. question depending on ufkunnau, and introduced by the interr. particl -u (S., 95, a, β). 10. aþþan; here for δέ; cp. 4.—ƕa; here indef. prn.; see Mt. V, 23.—jah ik, [to him] I [forgiv] also.—jah þan ik ...fragaf (in both cases for the Grk. perf.), for I hav alredy forgivn.—jabai ƕa (indef.) fragaf, if I hav forgivn anything. 11. gaáiginôndau; 1st pers. pl. prs. opt. (in a final clause. S., 96, a, α) pass. (Gr., 189, d).—munins; gen. after unwitandans (S., 23).—is; pers. prn. for the poss. prn. (S., 62). 12. aþþan; for δέ.—qimands in Trauadai; see Mt. V, 20.—at haúrdai uslukanai; dat. abs. with at (S., 120).—mis; dat. of interest (S., 47). 13. ahmin meinamma; loc. dat. (S., 53, (1), c).—in þammei (for þamma ei. Gr., 4, n.), in that (Gr., 157), because.—im; abl. dat., guvernd by twisstandands (S., 54). 15. dauns wôþi; for εὐωδία. 16. us, of.—jad; for jah (Gr., 62, n. 3). 17. sium; for sijum (Gr., 10, n. 4; 204, n. 1).

[Pg 132]

Chap. III. 1. anafilhis; adnominal gen. after bôkô (S., 20).—bôkô; abl. gen. guvernd by þaúrbum. 2. siuþ; = sijuþ; see II, 17.—gamêlida ..kunþa..anakunnaida; pps. agreeing with aípistaúlê (Gr., 134). 3. swikunþai þatei, siuþ, etc., forasmuch as ye ar known [to be], etc. B has swikunþ: It is manifest that ye ar.—swartiza..ahmin; instr. dats. (S., 52, (2)). 5. ƕa; indef. prn. 6. izei; rel. prn. (Gr., 157, n. 3).—brâhta, with two accs. (S., 18): made. 7. swaei mahtêdeina (Gr., 201); consecutiv clause (S., 97, b).—þis gataúrnandins; belongs to wulþaus, not to the adnominal gen. wlitis. 8. waírþai; potential opt. in a dir. question (S., 91, (3)). 9. andbahtja; dat. of possession, the vb. being understood: For if there be glory to the ministration of, etc. 11. þaírh; denotes here, as in II, 4, a state or condition. 12. managaizôs balþeins; gen. guvernd by brûkjaima (S., 25), hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)). 13. jan; for jah (Gr., 62, n. 3).—duþê (i. e. du + the instr. case of þata. Gr., 153. S., 51) ei (Gr., 157), 'to that that', for the purpose that, in order that, with a final opt. (S., 96, b).—gataúrnandins; gen. sg. of the weak pp. (Gr., 134) uzed substantivly (S., 68, (4)): of the vanishing (glory). 14. wisiþ, remains. 16. gawandeiþ (intr. S., 16, n. 2); its subj. is haírtô izê, to be supplied from the preceding verse. 18. þô samôn frisaht; this acc., with a pass. vb., is an imitation of the corresponding Greek passage: τήν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα, we ar changed into the same image (S., 17 and 18, n. 4, where this passage ought to hav been explaind).

Chap. IV. 1. gaarmaida waúrþum (for the Grk. aor. pass. S., 87, (4), c), wer pitied, receivd mercy.—ni waírþaima; hort. opt. (for the ind. in A).—usgrudjans; only weak (Gr., 132, n. 2). 2. þaim analaugnjam (adj. uzed as sb. S., 68, (1)); abl. dat. guvernd by afstôþum (S., 54,(1)).—galiug (pred. acc. S., 18) taujandans waúrd guþs, falsifying the word of God, lit.: making the word of God a lie.—baírhtein; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 4. ei ni liuhtjai im liuhadeins. Like Bernhardt, I am in favor of liuhadeins (gen. as subj. S., 25, n. 2); cp. ni was im rûmis in Lu. II, 7. Sum editors (cp. Gr., 113, n. 2) prefer liuhadein (in B). Bernhardt remarks that liuhadein may 'allenfalls' be explaind as an acc.: 'damit er ihnen nicht leuchten lasse das licht'. But it may also pass as instrumental dat.: 'damit er ihnen nicht leuchte vermöge des lichtes', lest ther be any light to them thru the light, etc. Cp. similar instr. dativs in Mk. V, 42; Lu. II, 8. 9. 5. aþþan, for; see II, 4. 6.—uns; external obj. after mêrjam.—skalkans izwarans; pred. acc. (S., 18). 6. untê guþ; sc. ist: for it is God who, etc.—ur-; for us (Gr., 78, n. 4).—liuhaþ skeinan; acc. and inf. depending on qaþ (S., 112).—saei jah, and who. 7. aþþan, but. 11. in dauþu; depends on atgibanda. 12. swaei nu (for ὥστε), therefore. 13. gamêlidin; dat. of the pp. n. (Gr., 134) uzed substantivly (S., 68, (4)). 14. jah, also.—urraiseiþ...faúragasatjiþ; for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)). 15. þatuh (for the art. þata and the intensiv particl -uh), immediately followd by þan, allata being uzed substantivly (S., 82, (1), a): for all (the) things.—managizans, more; we uze the positiv: several, many (see II, 6).—ufarassjai; trans., its obj. being awiliud.—guþa; dat. after a sb. (for the Grk. gen. S., 34; and 35, n. 2): for God, i. e. of God. 16. inuh (for in-uh; see II, 8) þis, because of this, for this reason.—ak þáuhjabai (for[Pg 133] ἀλλ' εἰ καί), but even if, but tho.—aíþþau, yet (cp. S., 102, b).—daga jah daga; loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)). 17. þata andwaírþô (adv.) ƕeilaƕaírb jah leiht (for τὸ παραυτίκα πρόσκαιρον καὶ ἐλαφρόν), that (which is) at present, etc., the two uninflected adjs. being uzed substantivly, with an adnominal gen., aglôns unsaraizôs.—waúrkjada; the pass. for the Grk. midl, with the pred. nom. (S., 18, n. 4) kaúrei. 18. faírweitjandam, sc. unsis; dat. abs. (S., 119), or the ptc. is simply in apposition with the preceding dat. unsis.—þizei (ei for ê. Gr., 7, n. 2); gen. pl. of the art. before the following two ptcs. (Gr., 134) uzed substantivly (S., 68, n. 4).

Chap. V. 1. þatei; repeated after the protasis in the form of ei.—jabai; with the ind., for ἐάν with the subj. (S., 102; cp. also 100, n.). 2. ufarhamôn; uzed reflexivly (for the Grk. midl. S., 16, n. 3), and with the instr., bauainai unsarai þizai (S., 52, (2), b). 3. jabai swêþáuh jah, if even tho.—gawasidai; the pass. for the Grk. midl; cp. the preceding verse. 4. ana þammei (for þamma ei), over that that, for the reason that.—afhamôn..anahamôn; for the Grk. midl; cp. verse 2. 5. jah; a strange addition in the Gothic text. Perhaps it is ment to connect gamanwida, etc., with what it is said in the preceding verses to cum from God (or heven), then the second jah means also; or jah..jah = both ... and.—guþ; sc. ist.—wadi ahman; the latter is the external obj. of gaf, the former predicate acc. (S., 18; cp. also n. 1). 8. mais, rather.—anahaimjaim wisan (for ἐνδημῆσαι). Gabelentz and Loebe and Uppström explain the dat. anahaimjaim as being due to unsis understood with waljam. 9. inuh; see IV, 16.—imma; dat. guvernd by galeikan (S., 42), the obj. of usdaudjam (S., 109). 10. skuldai sijum, we ar owing, we must.—þô swêsôna leikis, the body's own, the bodily things, i. e. the things which the body deservs.—afar þaimei; for afar þaim þôei (by attraction. S., 71. Cp. the reverse attraction in Grk. πρός ἅ). 11. swikunþans (pred. adj.) wisan uns (subj.); acc. with the inf. (in Grk. the inf. alone) after wênja (S., 112). 12. ni ei, not that, not as if.—uskannjaima; final opt. (S., 96, a).—ƕôftuljôs; adnominal gen. after lêw (S., 20).—fram, concerning, for, on behalf of (cp. Mk. I, 44; Lu. II, 24). 13. guþa..izwis; dats. of interest (S., 47): (it is) for God ... (it is) for you. 15. þata; dem. prn.—þatei; conj., that.—sis silbam...sik; refers to the subj. of the dependent clause, þai libandans (S., 60).—þamma gaswiltandin jah urreisandin; like the preceding sis, dats. of advantage (S., 36, (4)), the prsp. rendering the Grk. aor. ptc. (S., 117). 16. swaei kunnum; a consecutiv clause, the vb. being in the ind. (cp. S., 97 and 89).—fram þamma nu, lit. from the now (nu with the art. being uzed substantivly. S., 68, 2), i. e. henseforth.—ni ainnôhun; indef. prn. (Gr., 163, c).—; the two negativs strengthen the negation (never make an affirmativ in Goth.) 17. ƕô (indef. prn. f. Gr., 159, n. 3); agrees with gaskafts, and is uzed adjectivly (we might hav expected ƕas: if any man (be) in Christ, he (is) a new creature).—þô alþjôna (the n. adj. uzed as sb. S., 68, (1)) usliþun (apodosis), the old things past away.—niuja (nom. pl. n. Gr., 126); pred. adj. agreeing with alla uzed substantivly (S., 82, (1)). 18. uns (the first), dir. obj. of gafriþôndin.—sis; indir. obj. (S., 43).—uns (the second); dat. 19. untê swêþauh (seems to stand for 'quoniam quidem' of the Lt.[Pg 134] manuscripts.—Bernhardt), because indeed.—im..izê, to them ... their, referring to mankind, world. 20. at guþa gaþlaíhandin; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 120).—guþa; dat. after gagawaírþnan (cp. sis in verse 18). 21. þana (dem. prn.) izei (rel. prn. Gr., 157, n. 3) kunþa (prt. of kunnan. Gr., 199, (4)); for τὸν γνόντα.—gatawida; with an external obj., þana, and a pred. acc., frawaúrht (S., 18).—ei weis waúrþeima (final opt. S., 96, b), that we might becum.


a 49. ...ahun; the remaining part of an unknown word, probably ainahun.—kunnandins; weak inflection of the prsp. (Gr., 133), uzed as sb.—is; refers to fraujins (S., 60).—waldufneis; gen. guvernd by andþaggkjandins.—Stains; i. e. Πέτρος, Peter.—ains (the first), alone.—ains (the second), one.—·e·, five (Gr., 1 and n. 2).—mikilis; gen. depending on waíht (S., 21).—waírþidôs (dignity, greatness); gen. guvernd by andþaggkjands (sik being omitted. S., 26 and 16, n. 2).—þaírh þôei (acc. pl. n. Gr., 157), thru which, i. e. wherefore.—usbar, brought forth, i. e. exclaimd.—niuklahein; dat. guvernd by andtilônds (S., 38). b. þans mans (Gr., 117, (1)) anakumbjan; acc. with the inf., guvernd by waúrkeiþ (S., 112).—at hauja managamma wisandin; dat. abs. introduced by at (S., 120).—þô filusna anakumbjan; acc. with the inf., guvernd by gatawidêdun.—inuh (prep., not in-uh), without.—at ni wisandein (Gr., 133) aljai waíhtai; dat. abs. with at (S., 120).—swa managai; belongs to waílawiznai, instr. dat. (S., 52, 2, a).—ganaúhan; acc. sing. m. of ganaúha (for the inf. ganaúhan, s. Gr., 201), guvernd by fragaf, im being the indir. obj. c. filaus; adv. gen. w. the (acc. sg. n. of the) compar. maizô (S., 30, c).—afar þatei; temporal conj.: after that, when.—managei; here w. a sg. v. (S., 5).—matida (prt. here = our past perfect = Lt. 'postquam' w. the perfect).—bigitan was, there was found; we should expect the pl., but the sense is: there was found a quantity of twelv (·ib· Gr., 1, n. 2) baskets, etc.—þatei, which (i. e. which quantity).—þizei (ei for ê. Gr., 7, n. 2) hlaibê...þizê fiskê; partit. gens. (S., 21).—nih þan, for not.—; change of prep. without change of sense.—ainaim, alone (Gr., 140, 1).—swaei; consecutiv conj., that.—ainƕarjammêh; dat. (Gr., 165, n. 1) guvernd by tawida.—is; I prefer Bernhardt's emendation, izê, of them (i. e. of the fishes). d. naúh us þamma, besides (lit. 'stil from that.')—jêrê; partit. gen. after ·m· (Gr., 1, n. 2).—aflifnandeins; prsp. f. (Gr., 133).—waíhtai; dat. guvernd by fraqistnai (impers.; cp. the Lt. 'mihi invidetur'. S., 49); opt. in a final clause.


[107] afswaggwidai wêseima; evidently a better rendering of ἐξαπορεῖσθαι, to be utterly embarrast.—jal; for jah. Gr., 62, n. 3.

[Pg 135]


Remarks.—The signs ƕ, q, þ follow h, k, t, respectivly.—The figures in () refer to the paragrafs of the Grammar.

Aba, m. (108, n. 1), husband, man; Lu. II, 36.

Abiaþar, pr. n., Abiathar; dat. -a; Mk. II, 26. [< Ἀβιάθαρ.]

Abraham (61, n. 3), pr. n., Abraham. [< Ἀβραάμ.]

af (56, n. 1), prep. w. dat. (217), of, from, out of, away from, off; Mt. V, 18. 42. Mk. III, 22. II. Cor. III, 5. [OE. of, ME. of, off, a, o, NE. of, off, a- (as in 'adown').]

af-aikan, rv. (179), to deny, curse.

afar, prep. (217), (1) w. dat.: after, according to; Mk. I, 7. 17. 20. II. Cor. V, 10. (2) w. acc.: after (only of time); afar dagans, after sum days; Mk. II, 1; afar þatei, after that, when; Mk. I, 14. Skeir. VII, c. [< af + compar. suff. -ar. OHG. avar, abur, MHG. aver, aber, NHG. aber- (in compos.), further, again, aber, conj., but. Cf. OE. eafora, m., posterity, child.]

afar-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go after, follow; w. miþ w. dat.; Mk. V, 37.

af-daubnan, wv. (194), to becum def, grow dul; II. Cor. III, 14.

af-dôjan (26, a), wv. (187), to tire out, vex, harass.

af-dumbnan, wv. (194), to becum dum, hold one's peace; Mk. IV, 39.

af-êtja (56, n. 2), m. (108), voracious eater, glutton. [-êtja < √ of itan + suff. -jan-.]

af-gaggan, stv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go away, depart; w. faírra w. dat.; Lu. II, 37.

*af-haimeis, adj. (127), away from home, absent; II. Cor. V, 6. 9. [-haimeis < haims. Cf. anahaimeis.]

af-hamôn, wv. (190), to take off clothes, to unclothe; II. Cor. V, 4.

af-hlaþan, stv. (177, n. 1), to lade, load.

af-ƕapjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to choke; Mk. IV, 7. 19.

af-ƕapnan, wv. (194), to choke (intr.), be choked; Mk. V, 13.

af-iddja, prt. of afgaggan.

af-lageins, f. (124), a laying aside, remission; Mk. I, 4. [< af-lagjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

af-laílôt, prt. of aflêtan.

af-leiþan, stv. (172, n. 1), to go away, depart; w. af w. dat.; Mk. I, 42; du w. dat.; Mk. III, 7.

af-lêtan (-leitan; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc. of pers. or th., to leav, forsake, put away (a wife); Mt. V, 24. 31. 32; w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th., to let off, forgiv; Mt. VI, 12. 14. 15; to let one hav; Mt. V, 40.

[Pg 136]

af-lifnan (56, ns. 1. 4), wv. (194), to remain, remain over and abuv; Skeir. VII, c.

af-linnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to depart.

af-maitan, stv. (179), to cut off; w. acc. of th.; Mt. V, 30.

af-marzeins, f. (103, n. 1), offense, deceitfulness; Mk. IV, 19. [< af-marzjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

af-môjan (26), wv. (187), to weary, fatigue.

af-niman, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., to take away, remove; II. Cor. III, 16; and dat.; Mk. IV, 25; or af w. dat.; Mk. II, 20. 21.

af-satjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to put away (a wife), divorce; Mt. V, 32.

af-skiuban (56, n. 1), stv. (173, n. 1), to shuv away, put away, reject.

af-slauþjan, wv. (188), to amaze; in pass.: to be in despair; II. Cor. IV, 8.

af-slauþnan, wv. (194), to becum beside one's self, be amazed.

af-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), to fall away, renounce; w. dat.; II. Cor. IV, 2.

af-stass, f. (103, n. 3), a standing off, falling away; afstassais bôkôs, a writing of divorcement; Mt. V, 31. [< stem -stassi- < stat-ti-< stat (< √ of standan +-t) + suff. -ti-.]

af-stôþum, prt. of afstandan.

af-swaggwjan, wv. (188), to make despondent; afswaggwiþs wisan, to despair; II. Cor. I, 8 (note).

afta, adv. (213, n. 2), behind. [< af + suff. -ta. OE. æft, again, behind.]

aftana, adv. (213, n. 2), from behind; Mk. V, 27. [< afta + suff. -na. OE. æftan, ME. æfte, NE. aft; cf. abaft < a, on, + bi, by, + aft.]

aftarô, adv. (211, n. 1), from behind, behind. [< af + adv. compar. suff. -tarô.]

aftra, adv., back, backwards, behind; Lu. II, 43; again; Mt. V, 33. [< af + adv. compar. suff. -tra. OE. æfter, ME. æfter, after, NE. after.]

aftuma, superl. adj. (139), the last. [< af + superl. suff. -tu-ma-n-.]

aftumists, superl. adj. (139, n. 1), the last; aftumist haban, to lie, or be, at the point of deth; Mk. 5, 23. [< aftuma + superl. suff. -ist-a-. OE. ME. æftemest, NE. aftermost (by influence of after and most; s. aftra and maists).]

aggilus, m. (120, n. 1), angel, messenger; Lu. II, 9. 10; dat. -au; Lu. II, 13. 21; acc. -u; Mk. I, 2; pl. nom. -jus; Lu. II, 15; or -eis; Mk. I, 13. [< ἄγγελος, messenger, angel.]

aggwiþa, f. (97), anguish; II. Cor. II, 4. [< aggwus + suff. -iþô-.]

*aggwjan, wv. (188), in ga-aggwjan. [< aggwus.]

aggwus, adj. (68; 131), narrow. [OE. ange, ME. ang, OHG. engi (ja-stem), MHG. enge, NHG. enge, eng, adj. narrow.]

agis, gen. agisis, n. (35; 94), aw, fear; Mk. IV, 41. Lu. II, 9. II. Cor. V, 11. [< agan (s. un-agands) + suff. -is-a-. OE. ege (or i-stem; see Brgm., II, p. 421, § 132, Rem. 2), ME. eᵹe, ON. agi > ME. aghe, awe, NE. aw.]

*agjan, wv. (35), in us-agjan. [< *ags, awful, fearful, < -agan; s. agis.]

aglait-gastalds (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), greedy of filthy lucre, greedy. [-gastalds < ga- + -stalds < √ of staldan.]

aglaiti, n. (95), lasciviousness, unchastity. [< *aglaits, adj., lascivious; cp. agls, adj., indecent.]

aglaiti-waúrdei (88a), f. (113), indecent language, filthy talk. [< aglaiti-waúrds, adj.; -waúrds < waúrd.]

-agljan (14, n. 1), wv. (188), to trubl, in us-a. [< aglus. OE. eglan, ME. eile, NE. ail.]

aglô, f. (112), tribulation, anguish, distress; Mk. IV, 17. II. Cor. I, 4. 8. II, 4. IV, 17. [< aglus.]

aglus, adj. (131), difficult, hard.[Pg 137] [< √ of agis + suff. -lu-. OE. egle (jô-stem), ME. egle, trublsum, < eglan, ME. eile, NE. ail.]

Agustus, pr. n., Augustus; dat. -au; Lu. II, 1. [Αὔγουστος.]

ahaks, f. (103, n. 2), duv; Mk. I, 10. Lu. II, 24.

ahma, m. (108), the Spirit, the Holy Ghost; Mk. I, 8. 10. 12. 23. 25. 26. 27. II, 8. 11. 29. 30. V, 2. 8. 13. Lu. II, 26. 27. 40. II. Cor. I, 22. II, 13. III, 3. 6. 8. 17. 18. IV, 13. V, 5. [< √ of ahjan, to think, + suff. -man-.]

ahs, n. (94), ear (of grain); Mk. II, 23. IV, 28. [OE. êar (< *eaur, *eahur, *ahur), ME. ear, er, NE. ear (of grain; for ear, the organ of hearing, s. ausô).]

ahtau, indecl. num. (141), eight; Lu. II, 21. [OE. eahta, ME. eighte, NE. eight.]

ahtau-têhund, indecl. num. (143), eighty; Lu. II, 37.

ahtuda, ord. num. (146), the eighth. [< aht-au + suff. -u-da-n-. OE. eahtoða, ME. eighte, NE. eighth.]

aƕa, f. (97), river, stream, water; Mk. I, 5. [OE. êa (< *au, *ahu, *ahwu), f., ME. æ, river, water, > OE. îg, iland, lit. 'belonging to the water', and in composition: îgland, ME. iland, NE. iland.]

aibr, n. (94), an offering; Mt. V, 23. [No doubt a corrupt form for *tibr = OE. tifer, n., OHG. zebar, victim, sacrifice; cf. MHG. un-ge-zibere, un-zifer, NHG. ungeziefer, n., vermin, prop. 'an animal unfit for a sacrifice'.]

áigan (áihan), prt.-prs. (203), to own, hav, possess.—Cpd. faíráihan (203). [OE. âgan, ME. aghe, owe, NE. ow.—Prt.: Gothic áihta, OE. âhte, ME. âhte, ouhte, NE. ought.]

áiginôn, wv., in ga-aiginôn. [< aigin (< √ of aigan + suff. -ina-), n., property.]

áihts (20, n. 2), f. (103), property, possession; in pl. goods, things. [< √ of aigan + suff. -ti-. OHG. êht, f., property, goods, in compos. frêht (= Goth. *fra-aihts), gain, wages; cf. LG. fracht, Du. vracht > ME. fraht, fraught, cargo, freight, > frahte, fraughte, to load, pp. fraught, NE. fraught. Of G. or Du. origin is the ML. frecta, fretta, > OF. *freit, fret > ME. freit, freight (the gh being due to 'fraught'), NE. freight.]

aíƕa-tundi (64), f. (98), brambl-bush, bush. [< aíƕa = OE. eoh (< *eohu), m., horse; -tundi < *tindan > the caus. tandjan, to kindl, OE. tendan, ME. tende, NE. tind.]

*aikan, rv. (179), in af-aikan.

aíkklêsjô, f. (111), church. [< ἐκκλησία.]

Aíleisabaíþ (23), pr. n., Elisabeth. [< Ἐλισάβεθ.]

aílôê (6, n. 1), my God! [< Ἐλωί < the Hebrew.]

ainaha, weak adj. (132, n. 2), only. [< ains + suff. -(a)ha-n-.]

ain-falþei, f. (113), simplicity; II. Cor. I, 12. [< ainfalþs.]

ain-falþs, adj. (148), 'one-fold', singl; Mt. VI, 22.

ain-ƕarjizuh, prn. (165, n. 1), every one, each one; Luc. II, 3. II. Cor. V, 10.

ain-ƕaþaruh, prn. (166), each of two.

*ainlif (56, n. 1), num. (141), eleven. [< ains + -lif, left, over. OE. and-, end-leofan, -leofen, (for ân-leofan, etc., -leofan being the dat. of-lif), ME. end-, en-, el-leven, NE. eleven.]

ain(n)ôhun, acc. sg. of ainshun.

ains, num. (140), (I) one, a singl one, (1) alone; II. Cor. V, 15; (2) w. a sb., (a) follg.; Mt. V, 18. 36; (b) preceding; Mt. V, 18. 41; (c)[Pg 138] understood; Mk. IV, 8; (3) w. a partit. gen. follg.; Mt. V, 19. 29. 30. VI, 29; (4) ains—anþar, the one, the other; Mt. VI, 24. (II) indef., one, sum one, an, a, w. a partit. gen. follg.; Mk. V, 22. (III) only, alone, (1) w. a sb., (a) prec.; Skeir. VII, c; (b) follg.; Mk. II, 7. 26; (2) w. a prn. prec.; Mt. V, 46. [OE. ân, one, ME. on, an, ane, a, one, o, (shortend when uzed as a proclitic), one, alone; an, NE. one; an, a.]

ains-hun, indef. prn. (163, c), only in negativ sentences, not any one, none, (1) alone; II. Cor. V, 16; (2) w. a partit. gen. follg.; Mk. V, 37.

aípiskaúpus, m. (120, n. 1), bishop. [< ἐπίσκοπος, bishop.]

aípistaúlê, f. (120, n. 3), epistl, letter; II. Cor. III, 2. 3. [< ἐπιστολή, message, letter.]

áir, adv. (214, n. 1), erly; Mk. I, 35. [OE. *âr > the compar. æ̂r; see áiris.]

áirinôn, wv. (190), to be a messenger, an ambassador; w. faúr w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 20. [< áirus.]

áiris, comp. adv. (212), erlier. [< áir + suff. -is. OE. æ̂r, ME. er, sooner, erlier, before, NE. ere.]

áiriza, comp. adj. (136), of old time, living formerly; in pl. uzed substantivly; Mt. V, 21. 33. [< áir + suff. -iz-an-. OE. æ̂ror, ME. erer, former.]

aírþa, f. (97), erth, ground, land; Mt. V, 18. 35. VI, 10. 19. Mk. II, 10. IV, 5. 8. 20. 28. 31. Lu. II, 14. [OE. eorðe, ME. erthe, NE. erth.]

aírþa-kunds (88a), adj. (124), erthy, born of the erth.

aírþeins, adj. (124), of erth, erthen; II. Cor. IV, 7. erthly; II. Cor. V, 1. [< aírþa + suff. -eina-. ME. eorthen, erthen, NE. erthen.]

áirus (20, n. 2), m. (105), messenger, ambassador. [OE. âr (of the o-declension), m., messenger. Cf. OE. æ̂rende, n., ME. erand, NE. errand.]

aírzeis, adj. (128), astray, led astray. [OE. yrre, eorre, ME. eorre, irre, angry, OHG. irri, MHG. NHG. irre, adj., astray, confused.]

*ais (for which aiz, 78, n. 1; occurs only onse; Mk. VI, 8), n. (94), brass, bronz, muney. [OE. âr, f., brass, bronz, copper, ME. ôr, NE. ore.]

aiþei, f. (113), mother; Mk. III, 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. V, 40. Lu. II, 33. 34. 43. 48. 51. [OHG. eidi, eide, mother.]

aiþs, gen. aiþis, m. (91), oath; Mt. V, 33. [OE. âð, m., ME. oth, NE. oath.]

aíþþau (20, 3; 71, n. 1), conj. (218), or; Mt. V, 17. 18. 36. VI, 31. Mk. III, 4. 33. IV, 17. 21. 30. Lu. II, 24. II. Cor. I, 13. 17. III, 1; jabai ...aíþþau, either ... or; Mt. VI, 24; else, otherwise; Mt. VI, 1. [Cf. OE. oððe, North æththa, or.]

Aiulf, prn. n. (65, n. 1).

aiw, adv. (prop. acc. sing. of aiws, q. v.), ever, always with ni: never; Mk. II, 12. 25. III, 29. [OE. â (for *âw), ME. â, ô, ON. ei > NE. aye.]

aíwaggêljô, f. (112), gospel; Mk. I, 1. 14. 15. [< εὐαγγέλιον.]

aiweins, adj. (124), eternal; Mk. III, 29. II. Cor. IV, 17. 18. V, 1. [< aiws + suff. -ein-a-.]

aiwiski, n. (95), shame, dishonesty; II. Cor. IV, 2. [< *aiwisks (in un-aiwisks, that need not be ashamed). OE. æ̂wisc, ashamed.]

aiws, m. (91, n. 5), time, life-time, age, world, eternity; II. Cor. IV, 4; in aiwins, forever; Mt. VI, 13.—S. also aiw.

aiz; see ais.

ajukduþs (21, n. 2), f. (103), time, eternity. [< ajuk- (perhaps < aiws) + suff. -du-þ-i-.]

[Pg 139]

ak, conj. (218), but, for; Mt. V, 17. 39. VI, 13. 18. Mk. I, 45. II, 17. 22. III, 26. 29. IV, 17. 22. V, 19. 26. 39. II. Cor. I, 9. 12. 19. 24. II, 4. 5. 13. 17. III, 3. 5. 6. 14. IV, 2. 5. 18. V, 4. 12. 15. Skeir. VII, a. c. [OE. ME. ac, but.]

Akaïja, pr. n., Achaja; dat. -ai; II. Cor. I, 1. [< Ἀχαΐα.]

akei, conj. (218), but; II. Cor. I, 9. III, 15. IV, 8. 9. Skeir. VII, a; yet; II. Cor. V, 16. [< ak + ei.]

akeits, m. (? 91, n. 2), vinegar. [< Lt. acêtum, vinegar.]

akran, n. (94), fruit; Mk. IV, 7. 8. 20. 28. 29. [OE. æcern, n., ME. akern, acorn, NE. acorn.]

akrana-laus, adj. (124), fruitless, unfruitful; Mk. IV, 19.

akrs, m. (91, n. 1), field. [OE. æcer, m., field, ME. aker, NE. acre.]

aqizi, f. (98), ax. [OE. æx, eax, f., ME. æx, NE. ax.]

alabalstraún (24, n. 5; 46, n. 2), indecl. sb. n. (120, n. 2), alabaster box. [< ἀλάβαστρον.]

ala-mans, m. (117, n. 1), all men, the hole human race. [For ala-, s. alaþarba; mans is nom. pl. of manna.]

alan, stv. (177), to grow. [OE. alan, to nurish.]

ala-þarba, adj. (132, n. 2), very poor, very needy. [ala- stands for alla- (< alna- < √ of alan + ptc. suff. -na-), stem of alls, all; þarba, needy, < √ of þaúrban.]

Albila (54), pr. n., Albila.

alds (73; 74, n. 3), f. (103), age, generation, life, world. [< √ of alan + suff. -di-. OE. ieldu (orig. i-stem), ME. elde, NE. eld (poet.), age. Cf. alþeis.]

aleina, f. (97), el, cubit; Mt. VI, 27. [OE. eln, f., ME. (< the inflected cases) elne, elle, NE. el.]

alêw, n. (119), oliv, oil; Mk. VI, 13. [< Lt. oleum, oil.]

Alfaius, pr. n., Alpheus; gen. -aus; Mk. II, 14. III, 18. [< Αλφαῖος.]

alhs, f. (116), templ; Lu. II, 27. 37. 46. [OE. alh, ealh, m., templ.]

alja, (1) conj., than, except, unless; II. Cor. I, 13. (2) prep. w. dat. (217), except. [< stem of aljis.]

alja-kuns, adj. (130), foren, strange. [alja < aljis; kuns < kuni.]

alja-leikôs, adv. (212, n. 2), otherwise. [From stems of aljis and -leiks + adv. compar. suff. -ôs.]

aljar, adv. (213, n. 1), elsewhere. [< stem of aljis + suff. -r.]

aljaþ, adv. (213, n. 1), in another direction. [< stem of aljis + suff. .]

aljaþrô, adv. (213, n. 1), from elsewhere. [< stem of aljis + suff. -þrô.]

aljis, adj. (126), other, another; II. Cor. I, 13. Skeir. VII, b. [OE. elles (gen. sg. n.), ME. elles, NE. else.]

allaþrô, adv. (213, n. 2), from all directions, from every quarter; Mk. I, 45. [< stem of alls + suff. -þrô.]

allis, (1) adv. (215), in general, holely, at all; ni—allis, not at all. (2) conj. (218), never at the beginning, for; Mk. III, 35; for neither, for not; Mk. IV, 22. [Prop. gen. sg. n. of alls. OE. ealles, ME. alles, adv., holely.]

alls, adj. (122, n. 1), all, every, hole, (1) alone, w. or without the prec. or follg. art. or dem. prn.; Mt. V, 18. VI, 32. Mk. I, 5. 27. 37. II, 12. IV, 11. 34. V, 20. 40. Lu. II, 3. 19. II. Cor. II, 9. IV, 8. 15. V, 15. 17. 18. (2) w. a pers. prn. prec. or follg.; II. Cor. II, 3. III, 18. V, 10. (3) w. a poss. prn. follg.; Mk. V, 26. (4) w. attraction of a rel. prn. (see 'Explanatory Notes'); Lu. II, 20. (5) w. a ptc.; Mk. I, 32. Lu. II, 18. 38. 47. (6) w. a follg. adj. prec. by the art.; II. Cor. I, 1. (7) w. an adv. frase; Lu. II, 39. (8) w. a sb., w. or without the art.; Mt. VI, 29. Mk. I, 5. 28. 33. 39.[Pg 140] IV, 1. 13. V, 12. 33. Lu. II, 1. 10. 31. 51. II. Cor. I, 1. 3. 4. II, 14. III, 2. IV, 2; and a poss. prn.; Mt. V, 29. 30. VI, 22. 23. (9) in gen. pl. w. a superl.; Mk. IV, 31. 32. (10) all (sing. n.) w. gen. sg.; Mk. II, 13; allata þata w. gen. pl.; Mk. III, 28. [< √ of alan + suff. -la <-no-; cp. fulls. OE. eall, ME. all, NE. all.]

all-waldands, m. (115), all-ruling, almighty. [< all-s + prsp. of waldan.]

-alþan, rv. (179, n. 1), in us-alþan. [Cp. alþeis.]

alþeis, adj. (128), old; n. pl. þô alþjôna, (the) old things; II. Cor. V, 17. [Cp. alds; also OE. eald (w. suff. -do-), ME. ald, old, NE. old.]

Amalaberga, pr. n. (54, n. 2).

Amalafrigda, pr. n. (3, n. 2).

amên, amen, verily; Mt. V, 18. 26. VI, 2. 5. 13. 16. Mk. III, 28. II. Cor. I, 20. [< ἀμήν < the Hebrew.]

ams, m. (91, n. 4), shoulder.

an, interr. particl (216), then.

ana, prep. (217), (1) w. dat., (a) local, in, to, on, upon, over; Mk. I, 45. IV, 5. 16. 20. 38. V, 4. II. Cor. III, 15; (b) of cause, especially w. vs. of 'affection', in, for, at, over; Mk. I, 22. Lu. II, 33. 47. II. Cor. I, 4; ana þammei, for that; V, 4; (c) w. vs. of 'knowing, showing', and the like, on, by, from, in; Mk. V, 29. Skeir. VII, c; (d) in other relations, denoting 'inclination, reference', and the like; Lu. II, 25. 40. II. Cor. I, 23. IV, 10. (2) w. acc., local, on, upon, at, into; Mt. V, 45. VI, 27. Mk. I, 10. 35. II, 21. III, 10. IV, 21. 26. 31. V, 23. Lu. II, 28. II. Cor. III, 13. [OE. an, ǫn, ME. on, o, NE. on.]

ana-aukan, rv. (179), to ad, w. ana w. acc.; Mt. VI, 27.

ana-biudan, stv. (170; 173), to command, instruct, bid, (1) w. dat. of pers.; Mk. I, 27. (2) w. acc. of th.; Mk. I, 44. (3) w. dat. of pers. and an obj. clause w. ei; Mk. V, 43.

ana-busns (15, n. 1), f. (103); command, commandment; Mt. V, 19. [< ana-biudan + suff. -sni- (the radical d being dropt). OE. bysen, bisen, ME. bisne, f., NE. (dial.) byzen, exampl.]

ana-filh, n. (94), commendation; anafilhis bôkôs, epistls of commendation; II. Cor. III, 1. [< ana-filhan.]

ana-filhan, stv. (174, n. 1), to hand down as tradition, commit to, commend, w. acc. (dir. obj.); II. Cor. III, 1; and dat. (indir. obj.); II. Cor. V, 12.

*ana-haimeis, adj. (127), at home, present; II. Cor. V, 8. 9. [-haimeis < haims.]

ana-haitan, rv. (170; 179), w. two accs.; II. Cor. I, 23.

ana-hamôn, w. v. (190), to put on clothes, to clothe; II. Cor. V, 4.

ana-hneiwan, stv. (172, n. 1), to bend down, stoop down; Mk. 1, 7.

ana-kaúrjan, w. v. (193) w. acc., to press upon, overload; II. Cor. II, 5.

anaks, adv., suddenly, at onse; Lu. II, 13.

ana-kumbjan (54, n. 1), wv. (187), to lie down, recline, sit at meat; Mk. II, 15. Skeir. VII, b.

ana-kunnains, f. (103, n. 1), a reading; II. Cor. III, 14. [< ana-kunnan + suff. -ai-ni-.]

ana-kunnan, wv. (193) w. acc., to read; II. Cor. I, 13. III, 2.

ana-qiman, stv. (175, n. 1) w. acc., to cum near, approach; Lu. II, 9.

ana-laugniba, adv. (210), secretly, in secret. [< analaugns + suff. -ba.]

ana-laugns, adj. (130), hidn, secret; Mk. IV, 22. II. Cor. IV, 2. [< ana + -laugns < liugan + suff. -ni-.]

ana-leikô, adv., in like manner; Skeir. VII, a. [< *analeiks (< ana + -leiks; s. also galeikô) + suff. ; = OHG.[Pg 141] analih (anagilîh), MHG. anelîch, NHG. ähnlich, adj., like, similar.]

ana-mêljan, w. v. (187), to write down, enrol for taxation; Lu. II, 5.

-anan (78, n. 4), stv. (177, n. 1), in us-anan, to breath out, giv up the ghost. [< √ an, in OE. andian, to be angry, OHG. andôn, MHG. anden, NHG. ahnden, to punish.]

ana-nauþjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to constrain, force, compel; Mt. V, 41.

ana-niujan, wv. (188), to renew; II. Cor. IV, 16.

ana-praggan (51), rv. (178), to harass, trubl.

ana-silan, wv. (193), to be silent, be stil; Mk. IV, 39.

ana-siuns, adj. (130), visibl.

ana-stôdeins, f. (103, n. 1), beginning; Mk. I, 1. [< ana-stôdjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

ana-stôdjan, wv. (188), intr., to begin; Mk. superscr.

ana-trimpan, stv. (174, n. 1), to tred upon, press upon.

and, prep. w. acc. (217), local, denoting 'motion over', along (orig. opposit), to, into, on, in; Mk. I, 28. 39. and driusôn, down a slope; Mk. V, 13. [Orig. *anda = anda-, uzed w. sbs. and adjs. only; and- also w. vs. and advs. OE. ME. and-, ǫnd-, NE. an- (in answer).]

anda-; s. and.

anda-beit (in B, -bêt in A), n. (94), reproach; II. Cor. II, 6. [< and-beitan.]

anda-hafts, f. (103), answer, reply; sentence; II. Cor. I, 9. [-hafts < hafjan + suff. -ti-.]

anda-nahti, n. (95), the time toward night, evening; Mk. I, 32. IV, 35. [nahti < nahts.]

anda-neiþs, adj. (124), contrary; þata andaneiþô, contrariwise; II. Cor. II, 7. [-neiþs < neiþ, n., envy, OE. nîð, m., ME. nið, OHG. nîd, MHG. nît (nîd-), NHG. neid, m., envy.]

anda-nêm (33), n. (94), a receiving. [< and- (= anda-) niman.]

anda-nêms (33), adj. (130), plezant, acceptabl. [< and-niman; cp. prec. w.]

anda-numts (33), f. (103), a receiving, acceptation. [< and-niman + suff. -ti-; cp. prec. w.]

anda-sêts (34), adj. (130), abominabl. [< and- (s. and) sitan, to fear, regard. Cf. G. entsetzlich, terribl, < (sich) entsetzen, to be amazed, < ent-+ setzen, factit. of sitzen, to sit, +-lich.]

anda-staþjis, m. (92), adversary. [-staþjis < staþs.]

anda-staua, m. (107), adversary; Mt. V, 25.

anda-þâhts, (209), adj. (124), vigilant, cautious. [Prop. an old ptc. in-to-, < and-þagkjan.]

and-augjô, adv., openly, publicly; Mk. I, 45. [< and-augi (+ adv. suff. ), n., face; -augi < aug- (in augô) + suff. -ja-.]

anda-waúrdi, n. (95), answer; Luc. II, 47. [waúrdi < -waúrds (in lausa-waúrds, etc.) < waúrd. OHG. ant-wurti, n. f., MHG. ant-würte, -wurt, NHG. antwort, f., answer.]

anda-wleizn, n. (94) or -wleizns, f. (103), countenance, face; II. Cor. III, 13. [-wleizn < *wleitan (= OE. wlîtan, ME. wlite, to look) + (if f.) suff. -sni-.]

and-bahti, n. (95, n. 1), service, office, ministry, ministration; II. Cor. III, 7. 8. 9. IV, 1. V, 18. [< andbahts.]

and-bahtjan, wv. (187) w. dat. of pers., to serv, minister; Mk. I, 13. 31; w. acc. of th., to perform, administer; II. Cor. III, 3. [< andbahts, andbahti.]

and-bahts, m. (91), servant, minister; II. Cor. III, 6. officer; Mt. V, 25.[Pg 142] [Perhaps < L. ambactus, servant, of Celtic origin.]

and-beitan, stv. (172, n. 1), w. acc., to rebuke, charge; Mk. I, 25. III, 12; in pass., to be perplext; II. Cor. IV, 8.

and-bindan, stv. (174) w. acc., to unbind, loose; Mk. I, 7; to explain; Mk. IV, 34.

and-bundnan, wv. (194), to becum loose, loosen.

andeis, m. (92, n. 1), end; Mk. III, 26; und, or in, andi, to the end; II. Cor. I, 13. III, 13. [OE. ende, m., ME. ende, end, NE. end.]

and-hafjan, stv. (177, n. 2), w. dat. of pers., to answer; Mk. III, 33.

and-haitan, rv. (170; 179), to confess, w. dat. of pers., to confess (one's self) to, to thank; Lu. II, 38; w. dat. of th., to confess sumthing; Mk. I, 5.

and-hausjan, wv. (187), to listen to (and answer favorably), to hear; pers. pass.; Mt. VI, 7.

and-hôf, prt. of andhafjan.

and-huleins, f. (103, n. 1), uncuvering, revelation; illumination; Lu. II, 32. [< and-huljan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

and-huljan, wv. (187), w. acc., to uncuver; Mk. II, 4; to reveal; Lu. II, 35; pp. andhuliþs, uncuverd, open; II. Cor. III, 18.

andi-laus (88a, n. 2), adj. (124), endless.

andizuh, conj. (218), otherwise, else. [< andiz-, perhaps a compar. form of and, anda-, orig. opposit.]

and-niman, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., to take, receiv, partake, accept; Mk. IV, 20. 36. Skeir. VII, c; in the prt. to hav receivd, to hav; Mt. VI, 2, 16; and ana w. acc., to take, take up in; Lu. II, 28.

Andraías, pr. n. Andrew; Skeir. VII, a; gen. -ins; Mk. I, 29; acc. -an; Mk. I, 16. III, 18. [< Ἀνδρέας.]

and-sakan, stv. (177, n. 1), to argue against, speak against; Lu. II, 34.

and-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), w. dat., to stand against, resist; Mt. V, 39.

and-staúrran, wv. (193), to murmur against.

and-tilôn, wv. (189), to serv, accomodate one's self to; Skeir. VII, a.

and-þagkjan (gg; 67, n. 1), wv. (209), prt. -þâhta (5, b), to consider, devise; w. sik and gen. of th., to recollect, remember; Skeir. VII, a; so without sik; Skeir. VII, a.

and-waírþi, n. (95), presence, sight, face; Mt. VI, 16. II. Cor. II, 17. III, 18. IV, 2; person; II. Cor. II, 10; in managamma andwaírþja, before many persons; II. Cor. I, 11. in andwaírþja w. gen., in the presence of, before; Mt. V, 24. VI, 1. Lu. II, 31; faúra a. w. gen., before; Mk. II, 12. [< and-waírþs.]

and-waírþs, adj. (124), present; II. Cor. IV, 17. [-waírþs < waírþan. OE. ǫnd-, and-weard, ME. NE. -ward.]

Anna, pr. n., Anna; Lu. II, 36. [< Ἀννα.]

Annas, pr. n., Annas. [< Ἀννας.]

*ans, m. (91, n. 4), beam. [ON. ǫss, áss (from *ans), beam, pole, > vindáss, windlass, > ME. windas, NE. windlass (the l by influence of windlass, a circuit, < the vb. wind +-lass, for lace).]

ansteigs, adj. (124), gracious, favorabl. [< ansts + suff. -eig-a-.]

ansts, f. (102), favor; Lu. II, 52; grace; Lu. II, 40. II. Cor. I, 2. 12; joy; II. Cor. I, 24. benefit; II. Cor. I, 15. [OE. êst (ê is i-uml. of ô < ǫn for an), m., ME. este, favor, grace.]

anþar, adj. (122, n. 1; 124, ns. 1. 4; 146), another, second, (1) alone, with or without the art.; Mt. V, 39. Mk. III, 21. V, 19; ains... anþar, the one ... the other; Mt. VI, 24; sum...anþaruþ þan, sum ... sum; Mk. IV, 5; (2) w. a sb.;[Pg 143] Mk. IV, 36. II. Cor. I, 15. [OE. ǫ̂ðer (ǫ̂ < ǫn for an), ME. other, NE. other.]

apaústaúlus, m. (120, n. 1; apaústulus, 13, n. 1), apostl, messenger; II. Cor. I, 1. [< ἀπόστολος.]

arbaidjan, wv. (187), to work, labor, toil; Mt. VI, 28. [< arbaiþs.]

arbaiþs, f. (103), work, labor, toil. [< *arban, to work (vB., 78) + suff. -di-. OE. earfoð, earfeðe, n., ME. earfeð-, labor, pains, trubl, OHG. arabeit, MHG. arebeit, arbeit, f., labor, trubl, need, NHG. arbeit, f., work, labor.]

arbi, n. (95), heritage, inheritance. [OE. yrfe, ierfe (ie is i-uml. of ea), n., ME. erfe, OHG. erbi, MHG. NHG. erbe, n., heritage, inheritance.]

arbi-numja (88a), m. (108), one who takes an inheritance, an heir. [-numja < niman +-suff. -jan-.]

arbja, m. (108), heir. [< arb-i + suff. -jan-.]

arbjô, f. (112), heiress. [< arbi + suff. -jôn-. OHG. arbeo (-eo <-jo), erbo, MHG. NHG. erbe, m., heir.]

Ariamirus (61, n. 1), pr. n.

Ariaricus (3, n. 2), pr. n.

arjan, rv. (179, n. 5), to til, plow, cultivate. [OE. erian, ME. ere, NE. ear, to plow.]

ark-aggilus (57), m. (105), archangel. [< ἀρχάγγελος.]

arma-haírtiþa, f. (97), pity, mercy; Mt. VI, 4. [< armahaírts (+ suff. -iþô-), merciful, < arms = OE. earm, ME. arm, OHG. aram, arm, MHG. NHG. arm, adj. poor, miserabl; + -haírts < haírt-ô. Formd after the Lt. misericors.]

armaiô (22, n. 3), f. (112), mercy, pity; alms; Mt. VI, 1. 2. 3. [< arman.]

arman, wv. (192), to show mercy.—Cpd. ga-a. [< arms, adj.; s. armahaírtiþa.]

arms, m. (101), arm; Lu. II, 28. [OE. earm, m., ME. arm, NE. arm.]

arniba, adv. (130, n. 3; 210), surely. [< *arni- (+ suff. -ba) = OE. *ærne- > eorn-ost, ME. ernest, NE. ernest.]

arwjô, adv., without cause, freely, for nought.

asans, f. (103), harvest, harvest time, summer; Mk. IV, 29. [< √ as = OE. ær in earnian, ME. arne, erne, NE. ern.]

Asêr, pr. n., Aser; gen. -is; Lu. II, 36. [< Ἀσήρ.]

Asia, pr. n., f., Asia; dat. -ai; II. Cor. I, 8.

asilus, m. f. (105), yung ass, ass. [Lt. asinus (with change of suff.), OE. esol, m., ass, OHG. esil, MHG. esel, NHG. esel, m., ass.]

asneis, m. (92), servant, hired man, hireling; Mk. I, 20. [< asans. OE. esne, m., servant.]

asts, m. (91), branch, twig; Mk. IV, 32. [OE. *æst (> æstel, m., litl branch, book-mark), OHG. MHG. NHG. ast, m., branch, bough.]

at, prep. (217), (I) w. dat., (1) local, (a) denoting nearness, at, by, with, about; Mk. II, 2. 14. IV, 1. V, 11. for (s. haban); Mk. III, 9; in an abstract sense; Luc. II, 52. II. Cor. I, 12. 17. II, 1 (the first). 17. V, 8; (b) the point or goal at which anything arrives, after vs. of 'cuming, bringing', and the like, to; Mk. I, 33. 40. II, 3. III, 8. II. Cor. I, 15. 16. II, 1 (the second). Skeir. VII, b (the second); (2) temporal, i. e. 'the time within which'; emfatic w. the dat. abs.; Mk. IV, 6. 35. Lu. II, 2. II. Cor. I, 11. II, 12. V, 20. Skeir. VII, b (the first and third). (II) w. acc., only temporal, at, in; at dulþ, at the feast; Lu. II, 41. [OE. æt, ME. NE. at.]

[Pg 144]

at-augjan, wv. (187), (1) w. refl. acc. (sik) and dat. of pers., to bring before the eys, show (one's self to); Mk. I, 44; (2) w. faúra w. dat., to show one's self, appear; II. Cor. V, 10.

at-baíran, stv. (175), w. acc. of th., to bring; Mt. V, 24; to offer; Mk. I, 44.

at-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go to, cum; Mt. V, 24. Mk. II, 18. 20; w. ana w. acc.; Mk. I, 10; du w. dat.; Mk. V, 15; in w. acc.; Mk. III, 20; aftana; Mk. V, 27.

at-giban (56, n. 1), stv. (176), (1) w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), to giv over, deliver up, deliver, put in prison; Mk. I, 14; to bring forth; Mk. IV, 29; and in w. acc., to deliver unto; II. Cor. IV, 11; (2) w. dat. (indir. obj.) and acc. (dir. obj.), to deliver; Mt. V, 25; in pass. w. dat. of pers. (indir. obj.) and an inf. clause (subj.); Mk. IV, 11.

at-haitan (69, n. 2), rv. (170; 179), w. acc., to call to one; Mk. III, 13. 23.

Athanaildus (65, n. 1), pr. n.

Athanaricus (3, n. 2), pr. n.

at-iddja, prt. of at-gaggan.

atisk, n. (94) or m. (91; only acc. sg., atisk, occurs), seed, cornfield; Mk. II, 23.

at-kunnan, wv. (193), w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th., to afford, grant, award, giv.

at-nêƕjan, wv. (188), w. sik, to draw near, (in prt.) to be at hand; Mk. I, 15.

at-saíƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), w. inf., to take heed; Mt. VI, 1.

at-satjan, wv. (186), w. acc. (understood) and faúra w. dat. (fraujin), to present to the Lord; Lu. II, 22.

at-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), to stand near, cum near; Lu. II, 38.

atta (69, n. 1), m. (108), father; Mk. I, 20. V, 40. Lu. II, 48. (= God) Mt. V, 45. 48. VI, 4. 6. 8. 9. 14. 15. 18. 26. 32. Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. I, 2. 3; forefather, ancestor; Skeir. VII, d. [OHG. atto.—< the language of children.]

attaítôk, prt. of attêkan.

attaúhun, prt. of attiuhan.

at-têkan (ei for ê; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. dat.; to tuch; Mk. I, 41. III, 10. V, 27. 28.

Attila, pr. n. (108), prop. 'litl father'.

at-tiuhan, stv. (173), to pul or draw towards, to bring; s. inn-at-tiuhan.

at-þinsan, stv. (174, n. 1), w. acc., to draw towards.

at-wisan, to be present, be at hand; Mk. IV, 29.

aþþan, conj. (218), always at the beginning of the sentence, but, moreover; Mt. V, 22. 28. 34. 44. VI, 16. Mk. II, 10. 20. III, 29. IV, 15. II. Cor. I, 6. 13. 18. 21. 23. II, 1. 5. 10. 14. III, 4. 7. 16. 17. 18. IV, 3. 7. V, 5. 8. 11. 18; for; II. Cor. II, 4. IV, 5; aþþan ik...iþ is, I (indeed) ... but he; Mk. I, 8.

Audericus (25, n. 2), pr. n.

auftô (24, n. 1; 211, n. 1), adv., perhaps, likely, surely; ibai auftô, lest perhaps; Mk. II, 22. II. Cor. I, 17. II, 7.

auga-daúrô (88a), n. (110), window, lit. 'ey-door'. [The pl. f. daúrôns means door; s. also daúr.]

augjan, wv. (187), to show.—Cpd. at-au. [< stem auga- (s. prec. w.). OE. æt-êawan, æt-ŷwan, ME. (at-)ewe, to show.]

augô, n. (110), ey; Mt. V, 29. 38. VI, 22. 23. Lu. II, 30. [OE. êage, n., ME. eᵹe, eye, NE. ey.]

auhjôdus (aúhjôdus?), m. (105), noiz, tumult; Mk. V, 38. [< aúhjôn + suff. -ô-dus.]

auhjôn (aúhjôn?), wv. (190), to make a noiz, cry aloud; Mk. V, 39.

*aúhns, m. (91, n. 2), oven; Mt. VI, 30. [OE. ofen (for the common[Pg 145] orig. of h and f, s. Brgm., I, p. 305 et seq.), m., ME. oven, furnace, oven, NE. oven.]

aúhsa, m. (108, n. 1), ox. [OE. oxa, m., ME. oxe, NE. ox.]

aúhuma, superl. adj. (139), w. a compar. meaning, higher, > aúhumists, aúhmists (a new superl.; 124; 139, n. 1), highest, chief. [OE. ŷmest, highest.]

auk, conj. (in our 'Selections' after the first, or two first closely connected words of the sentence), for; Mt. V, 18. 20. 29. 30. 46. VI, 7. 8. 16. 21. 32. Mk. I, 16. II, 15. III, 10. 21. IV, 28. V, 42. II. Cor. III, 9. 11. V, 1. Skeir. VII, c; jah auk, for; II. Cor. V, 4; auk...-uþ (= uh)-þan, for ... but; II. Cor. II, 16 (in B). [OE. êac, ME. êk, êke, also, likewise, NE. eke.]

aukan, rv. (179), to increase.—Cmpds. ana-, bi-au. [OE. *êacan (pp. êacen), to increase, > the caus. ŷcan, *êcan, ME. eke, eche, to increase, NE. eke (dial.), ech(e) (Shak.).]

Aúnisimus (9, n. 1), pr. n.

aurahi (98, or aurahjô, 111? ? Only dat. pl., aurahjôm, occurs), f., tomb; Mk. V, 2. 3. 5.

aurâli (5, a), n. (98), napkin. [< Lt. orale, napkin.]

Ausila (25, n. 2), pr. n.

ausô, n. (110), ear; Mk. IV, 9. 23. [OE. êare, ME. êre, n., NE. ear.]

Austrovaldus (25, n. 2), pr. n.

auþeis, adj. (127; or auþs, 130, n. 2), desert, waste; Mk. I, 35. 45. [ON. auðr, OHG. ôdi, MHG. œde, NHG. öde, desert, waste.]

auþida, f. (97), desert; Mk. I, 3. 4. 12. 13. Skeir. VII, d. [< auþeis or auþs + suff. -idô-.]

awêþi (17, n. 1), n. (95), flock of sheep. [Perhaps for *aweiþi (7, n. 4), < *awi; s. awistr. OE. eowde, n., ME. eowd, flock of sheep.]

awiliuþ (-d), n. (94), thanks; II. Cor. II, 14. giving of thanks, thanksgiving; II. Cor. IV, 15.

awiliudôn, wv. (190), to thank, giv thanks; Skeir. VII, b; w. faúr w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 11.

awistr (4), n. (94), sheepfold. [< *awi (OE. eowu, a-stem, f., ME. ewe, NE. ewe, yu) + suff. -stra. OE. eowestre, n., sheepfold.]

azêts, adj. (124), easy; compar. azêtizô, n.; Mk. II, 9.

azgô, f. (112), ashes. [Cf. OE. asce, f., ME. asche, pl. -en (reg.) and es, NE. ash, pl. ashes.]

azymus (77), occurs only onse, in gen. pl. azymê, unlevend bred. [< ἄζυμος, adj., unlevend, unmixt, azymê being formd in accordance w. τῶν ἀζύμων, gen. pl. of the n. adj. uzed substantivly.]

Badi, n. (95), bed; Mk. II, 4. 9. 11. 12. [OE. bed(d), n., ME. NE. bed.]

bagms (48, n. 1), m. (91), tree. [Cf. OE. bêam, m., tree, ME. beom, bêm, NE. beam.]

-bahtjan, wv., in and-bahtjan.

bai, num. adj. (140, n. 1), both. [OE. *bâ (for which beᵹen; cp. my Compar. Gloss., p. 583), m., bâ, f., ME. bâ, bô, f. n., NE. bo-, in both.]

Baíaílzaíbul, pr. n. in acc., Beelzebub; Mk. III, 22. [< Βεελζεβούλ.]

baíran, stv. (175), (1) to carry, bring (a person); w. at w. dat.; Mk. II, 3; du w. dat.; Mk. I, 32. (a th.) Mt. V, 23. (2) to bear; bring, bring forth (a child); Lu. II, 6; w. akran, fruit; Mk. IV, 8. 28.—Cpds. at-, ga-, us-b. [OE. beran, ME. bere, NE. bear.]

baírgan, stv. (174, n. 1), w. dat., to hide, keep. [OE. beorgan, ME. berᵹe, to keep, preserv, protect.]

baírhtaba, adv. (210), clearly, brightly. [< baírhts + suff. -ba.]

baírhtei, f. (113), brightness, clear[Pg 146]ness; baírhtein sunjôs, by manifestation of the truth; II. Cor. IV, 2; in baírhtein, openly; Mt. VI, 4. 6. [< baírhts.]

baírhtjan, wv. (187), to make clear, show.—Cpd. ga-b. [< baírhts.]

baírhts, adj. (124), bright, manifest. [OE. beorht, byrht, ME. briᵹt, briht, NE. bright.]

baitrs (20, n. 4), adj. (124), bitter. [< bait (the √-form of the prt. sg. of beitan) + suff. -ra-. OE. ME. NE. bitter < bit-, the √-form of the prt. pl. and pp.]

bajôþs, adj. (117, n. 1; 140, n. 1), both. [Cf. bai.]

balgs, m. (100), lether bag, wine-skin, botl; Mk. II, 22. [Orig. skin of an animal. OE. bælg, m., a lethern bag, pouch, belly, ME. bely, NE. belly.]

balþei, f. (113), boldness; II. Cor. III, 12. [< *balþs, bold, daring, = OE. beald, ME. bald, bold, NE. bold.]

balwjan, wv. (187), w. dat., to torment, plague; Mk. V, 7. [< *balws, pernicious, baleful, = OE. bealu, adj., evil, pernicious, and n. sb., evil, sorrow, ME. bale, sb., bali, adj., NE. bale, misery.]

bandi, f. (96), band, bond. [< bindan. OE. bend, m. f. n., ME. NE. bend.]

bandja (32), m. (108), one being bound, prisoner. [< band-i + suff. -jan-.]

bandwa, f. (97, n. 1), sign, token.

bansts, m. (101), barn. Mt. VI, 26. [Cf. OE. bôs (< *bǫns < *bans), n., stable, ME. bôs, NE. boose.]

barizeins, adj. (124), of barley; Skeir. VII, a. d. [< *baris (+ suff. -eina-), barley, = OE. bere, m. (?), ME. bere, barley, NE. bar-in barley.]

barn (33), n. (93), child; Mk. V, 39. 40. 41. Lu. II, 12. 16. 17. 27. 40. Skeir. VII, b. [OE. bearn, barn, ME. barn, n., child, NE. barn (Shak.).]

barnilô, n. (110), litl child, sun; Mk. II, 5. [< barn + suff. -i-lôn-.]

Barþaúlaúmaius (24, n. 5), pr. n., Bartholomew; acc. -u; Mk. III, 18. [< Βαρθολομαῖος.]

batiza, compar. adj. (138), better, w. dat. of pers. and a subj. clause; Mt. V, 29. 30. [< *bat-, good, + compar. suff. -iz-a-n-. OE. bet(e)ra, ME. betere, bettre, NE. better.]

baþ, prt. of bidjan.

bauains, f. (103, n. 1), dwelling; Mk. V, 3. II. Cor. V, 2. [< bauan + suff. -ai-ni-.]

bauan (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193, n. 1), to dwel, inhabit.—Cpd. ga-b. [OE. bûan, ME. bue, OHG. bûan, MHG. bûwen, to dwel, til, plant, cultivate, NHG. bauen, to build, cultivate, etc. Its √ is containd also in NE. bower and-bor, in neighbor.]

Baúanaírgaís (a by-name of James and John), Boanerges; Mk. III, 17. [< Βοανεργές.]

-bauljan (24, n. 1), wv. (187), to cause to swel, in uf-b. [Cf. OE. bŷle, f., ME. bile, bule, NE. bile, boil, tumor.]

baúr (33), m. (101, n. 2), son. [< baíran. OE. byre (< *buri-), m., son.]

baúrgs, f. (116), town, city; Mt. V, 35. Mk. I, 33. 38. 45. V, 14. Lu. II, 3. 4. 11. 39. [OE. burh, burg, f., ME. burgh, borugh, NE. borough.]

baúrgs-waddjus (88a, n. 3), f. (105), town-wall.

beidan, stv. (172, n. 1), w. gen., to abide, expect; Lu. II, 25.—Cpd. us-b. [OE. bîdan, ME. bide, NE. (a)bide.]

-beistjan, wv. (187, n. 3), to leven, in ga-b. [< beist, n., leven. < √ of beitan.]

[Pg 147]

beitan, stv. (172, n. 1), to bite.—Cpd. and-b. [OE. bîtan, ME. bite, NE. bite.]

bêrusjôs (bi-; 7, n. 3), pl. (sing. *bêruseis; 33), m. (92, n. 2), parents; Lu. II, 27. 41. [Orig. perfect ptc. activ, < √ of baíran.]

Bêþlahaim ( for a in Jo. VII, 42; concerning the h, s. 61, n. 3), indecl. pr. n., Bethlehem; Lu. II, 4. 15. [< Βηθλεéμ.]

bi, prep. (217), (I) w. dat., (1) local, by. Mk. V, 41; (2) in abstr. relations, by, on; Mt. V, 34. 35. 36. Mk. V, 7; after, according to, in; Lu. II, 22. 27. 29. 39. 42. II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 13. V, 16; bi ufarassau, exceedingly; II. Cor. IV, 17. (II) w. acc., (1) local, against, on; Mt. V, 39; about; Mk. I, 6. III, 8. 32. 34. IV, 10. V, 4; (2) in abstr. relations, about, over, for, of, concerning; Mt. V, 44. Mk. I, 30. IV, 19. V, 16. 27. 33. Lu. II, 17. 27. 33. 38. II. Cor. I, 8. 11; against; Mt. V, 23. Mk. III, 6; because of, at, about; Mt. VI, 28. Lu. II, 18.—bi sumata, in part; II. Cor. I, 14. II, 5. [OE. bî, prep., bĭ-, be-, pref. ME. bi, by, bi-, be-, NE. by, be-.]

bi-aukan, rv. (179), to increase; in pass. w. dat. of pers., to ad to, giv more; Mk. IV, 24.

bida, f. (97), request, prayer; Lu. II, 37; the pers. for whom the prayer is made, is exprest by bi w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 11. [< bidjan. OE. bedu, f. (ge-bed, n.), ME. bede, OHG. beta, bita, MHG. bete, bite, NHG. bitte, f., prayer, request.]

bidjan, stv. (176, n. 5), to pray, ask, desire, beseech, call on, beg, (1) abs.; Mt. VI, 5. 6. 7. 9. Mk. I, 35; (2) w. acc. of the pers. addrest; Mt. V, 42. VI, 8. Mk. I, 40. V, 12. 23; (3) w. du w. dat. of the pers. addrest; Mt. VI, 6; (4) the pers. for whom the prayer is made, is exprest by bi w. acc.; Mt. V, 44; (5) w. acc. of pers. and a dependent clause introduced by ei (w. opt.); Mk. V, 10. 18; or an inf. clause; Mk. V, 17. II. Cor. II, 8. V, 20. [OE. biddan, ME. bidde, NE. bid, to pray, which represents also OE. bêodan; s. biudan.]

bi-gaírdan, stv. (174, n. 1), to begird, gird one's self.

bi-gat, bi-gêtun, prt. of bigitan.

bi-gitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to find, meet with, w. acc.; Mk. V, 37. Luc. II, 16. 45; w. two accs., the second being a ptc. in agreement w. the first; Lu. II, 12. 16 (barn). 46; in pass. w. nom.; Skeir. VII, c; or two noms. (one being implied); II. Cor. V, 3.

bi-hlahjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to laf at, laf to scorn; Mk. V, 40.

bi-leiban (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), to remain.

bi-leiþan, stv. (172, n. 1), to leav, forsake, in pp.; II. Cor. IV, 9.

bi-maitan, rv. (179), w. acc., to circumcise; Lu. II, 21.

bi-naúhan, prt.-prs. (201); impers.: bi-nah, it is lawful.

bindan, stv. (174), to bind.—Cpds. and-, ga-b. [OE. bindan, ME. binde, NE. bind.]

bi-raubôn, wv. (190), to rob, strip, despoil.

birusjôs; s. bêrusjôs.

bi-saíƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), w. acc., to look round about on; Mk. III, 34.

bi-sauljan (24, n. 1), wv. (188), to sully, defile.

bi-saulnan (24, n. 1), wv., to becum soild, sullied, defiled.

bi-sitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to sit about or near; only in prsp. uzed substantivly (115): and allans bisitands (acc. pl.) G., to 'all dwellers'[Pg 148] of G., i. e. round about G.; Mk. I, 28.

bi-skeinan, stv. (172, n. 1), w. acc., to shine upon, shine round about; Lu. II, 9.

bi-sunjanê, adv., about, round about, near; Mk. I, 38. III, 34. [-sunjanê, for *sundjanê, gen. pl. of the prsp. of √ es- + suff. -jon- (Feist p. 19); s. im.]

bi-swaírban, stv. (174, n. 1), to wipe.

bi-swaran, stv. (177, n. 1), to swear to, to adjure, w. acc. of pers. and bi w. dat.; Mk. V, 7.

Biþania (9, n. 1), pr. n., Bethany.

bi-þê and bi-þêh (153, n. 2; 154, n. 2; for -h, s. -uh), (1) adv., after that, then, afterward; Mt. V, 24. (2) conj. (218), while, when, as, as soon as; Mt. VI, 16. Mk. I, 42. II, 15. IV, 10. 17. 29. Lu. II, 15. 21. 22. 39. 42. Skeir. VII, d.

-biudan, stv. (170; 173), to offer.—Cpd. ana-b. [OE. bêodan, ME. bede, to offer, command, announce. NE. bid represents both OE. biddan and bêodan; s. bidjan.]

biugan, stv. (173, n. 1), to bow, bend.—Cpd. ga-b. [OE. bûgan (û for êo in the prs. forms), ME. buge, bouwe, NE. bow.]

bi-ûhti, n. (95), custom; Lu. II, 27. 42. [< biûhts.]

bi-ûhts (15), adj. (124), accustomd, wont.

biuþs (74, n. 2), m. (91, n. 2), table. [Apparently < √ of biudan. OE. bêod, m., table.]

bi-windan, stv. (174, n. 1), to wind round, enwrap, swathe, w. acc.; Lu. II, 7. (biwundans, wrapt) 12.

blandan, rv. (179, n. 1), to blend, mix. [OE. blandan, blǫndan, to mix, confused with blendan, to make blind, to mix, ME. blende, NE. blend.]

bleiþei, f. (113), mercy; II. Cor. I, 3. [< bleiþs.]

bleiþs, adj. (130, n. 2), merciful, kind. [OE. blîðe, happy, glad, frendly, ME. bliþe, NE. blithe.]

-blêsan, rv. (179, n. 1), to blow, in uf-b. [OHG. blâsan, MHG. NHG. blasen, to blow.]

bliggwan (68), stv. (174, n. 1), to beat, cut, w. acc. and instr. dat.; Mk. V, 5. [OE. *blêowan (Kluge, W., bläuen) (> ME. blowe, NE. blow, a stroke, hit), OHG. bliuwan, MHG. bliuwe, NHG. bläuen (now connected with blau, blu), to beat.]

-blindjan, wv. (187), to make blind, in ga-b. [< blinds.]

-blindnan, wv. (194), to becum blind, in ga-blindnan. [< blinds.]

blinds, adj. (123), blind. [OE. blind, ME. blind, NE. blind.]

blôma, m. (108), flower; Mt. VI, 28. [< √ blô, to bloom, + suff. -man-. OE. blôma, m., ME. blome, NE. bloom.]

-blôstreis (69, n. 2), m. (92), wurshipper, only in guþ-b. [< *blôstra-, a sacrifice, < blôtan + suff. -stra-.]

blôtan, rv. (179, n. 1), to reverence, wurship, w. acc. of pers. and instr. dat.; Lu. II, 37. [OE. blôtan, to sacrifice.]

blôþ (gen. blôþis; 94), n., blud; Mk. V, 25. 29. [OE. blôd (w. -d), n., ME. blod, n., NE. blud.]

blôþa-rinnands, adj. (prop. prsp.; 133), blud-running. [< stem of blôþ + prsp. of rinnan.]

bnauan (26), stv. (? 179, n. 2), to rub. [For bi-n. ON. *bnûa < b- + nûa =-nûa in gnûa (later nûa), to scrape.]

bôka, f. (97), letter; II. Cor. III, 6; in pl. letters; epistl; anafilhis bôkôs, letters of commendation; II. Cor. III, 1. afstassais bôkôs, writing of divorcement; Mt. V, 31. [Probably nom. pl. of bôk, n., which, at a later period, was mistaken for a nom. sg. f. OE. bôc, n., uzually[Pg 149] f. (pl. bêc, w. i-uml.), ME. bok, NE. book.]

bôkareis, m. (92), scribe; Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 22. II, 6. 16. III, 21. 22. [OE. ME. bôcere, m., scribe, lit. 'booker'.]

bôtjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to boot, profit, advantage. ni waíhtai bôtida, nothing betterd; Mk. V, 26. [< bôta (= OE. bôt, f., ME. bôte, advantage, NE. boot, reparation). OE. bêtan, ME. bête, NE. beet, bete, to mend, make better.]

brâhta, prt. of briggan.

braidei, f. (113), bredth. [< braiþs. OE. bræ̂du (the u for orig. î = Goth. ei), ME. brêde, NE. bredth (the th being due to sbs. w. orig. th = Goth.) -þ- of the ful suff. -iþô-.]

*braiþs, braids (74, n. 2), adj. (124), broad. [OE. brâd, ME. brâd, brôd, NE. broad.]

brakja (33, n. 1), f. (97, n. 1), strugl. [Orig. 'breach' (Brgm., II, § 63), < brikan + suff. -jan-.]

-brannjan (80, n. 1), wv. (187), to burn (tr.), in in-br. [Caus. of brinnan (prt. brann). OE. brennan, bærnan, ME. brenne, NE. burn (tr.).]

briggan (67, n. 2), anv. (174, n. 2; 208), to bring, lead, w. acc. and in w. dat.; Mt. VI, 13; waírþana b., to make or count wurthy; II. Cor. III, 6. [OE. bringan (prt. brǫ̂hte < *branhte = Goth. brâhta < *branhta), ME. bringe, NE. bring.]

brikan (33, n. 1), stv. (175, n. 1), to break.—Cpd. ga-b. [OE. brecan, ME. breke, NE. break.]

brinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to burn (intr.).—Cpd. uf-b. [OE. brinnan, beornan (< birnan for brinnan), ME. berne, birne, NE. burn.]

brinnô, f. (112), fever; Mk. I, 31; in brinnôn ligan, to lie sick of fever; Mk. I, 30. [< brinnan.]

brôþar, m. (114), brother; Mt. V, 22. 23. 24. Mk. I, 16. 19. III, 17. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 1. 8. [OE. brôðor, ME. broðer, NE. brother.]

brôþru-lubô (88a, ns. 2. 3; 210, n. 1), f. (112), brotherly luv.

brûkjan (15), anv. (209), to uze, partake of, w. gen.; II. Cor. I, 17. III, 12. [< brûks.]

-bruknan, wv. (194), to break off (intr.), in us-b. [< pp. stem of brikan.]

brûks (15), adj. (130), useful, profitabl. [OE. brŷce, ME. briche, useful, < √ of Goth. *brûkan, OE. brûcan, ME. brôke, brouke, to uze, enjoy, NE. brook (v.).]

brunjô, f. (112), brestplate. [OE. byrne (-yr-for-ry-), f., ME. brynie, G. brünne, coat of mail.]

brunna, m. (108), wel, spring, issue; Mk. V, 29. [OE. burna (-ur-for -ru-), m., ME. burne, bourne, NE. bourn(e).]

-brunsts (49), f. (103), in ala-brunsts, holocaust, burnd offering. [< brinnan + suff. -sti-.]

brusts, f. (116), brest. [OHG. MHG. NHG. brust, f., brest. Cf. OE. brêost, n., ME. brest, NE. brest.]

brûþ-faþs (88a, n. 1; gen. -fadis), m., (101), bridegroom; Mk. II, 19. 20.

brûþs (15), f. (116), bride, daughter-in-law. [OE. brŷd, ME. bryde, brid, NE. bride.]

bugjan, anv. (209), to buy, sel. [OE. bycᵹan, ME. bugge, bigge, biᵹe, beye, NE. buy.]

-bundnan, wv. (194), in and-b. [< pp. stem of bindan.]

-Daban, stv. (177, n. 1), in ga-d. [OE. *dafan > the verbal adj. dæft, mild, gentl, ME. deft, daft, NE. deft, fit, dexterous, neat.]

daddjan (73, n. 1), wv. (187), to giv suck, suckl. [See Brgm., IV, § 707.]

Dagalaiphus (21, n. 1; 52), pr. n.

[Pg 150]

dags, m. (90), day; Mk. I, 9. 13. II, 20. IV, 35. Lu. II, 1. 6. 21. 22. 36. 44. II. Cor. I, 14; daga jah daga, day by day, daily; II. Cor. IV, 16; afar dagans, after (sum) days; Mk. II, 1; himma daga, to-day; Mt. VI, 11. 30. Lu. II, 11; und hina dag, until (unto) this day; II. Cor. III, 14. 15; naht jah daga, night and day; Mk. IV, 27; nahtam jah dagam, th. s.; Mk. V, 5. Lu. II, 37. [OE. dæg, m., ME. dæi, dai, day, NE. day.]

Daíkapaúlis, pr. n., Decapolis; dat. -ein; Mk. V, 20.

dailjan, wv. (188), to deal. Cpd. ga-d. [< dails. OE. dæ̂lan, ME. dêle, NE. deal, v.]

dails, f. (103), deal, part, portion, share. [OE. dæ̂l, m., ME. deal, dêl, NE. deal, sb.]

dal, n. (? 94, n. 2), dale, valley. [OE. dæl, n., ME. dale, NE. dale.]

dalaþ, adv. (213, n. 2), downward, down. [< stem of dal + suff. .]

dalaþa, adv. (213, n. 2), below. [< dalaþ + suff. -a.]

dalaþrô, adv. (213, n. 2), from beneath. [< stem of dal + suff. -þrô.]

daubiþa, f. (97), defness; d. haírtins, hardness of hart; Mk. III, 5. [< daufs, gen. daub-is, + suff. -iþô-.]

-daubnan, wv. (194, b), to becum def, in af-d. [< *daufs, gen. daubis.]

-daudjan, wv. (188), in us-d. [< -dauþs, zelous, in us-dauþs.]

*daufs (56, n. 1), adj. (124, n. 2), def, hardend. [OE. dêaf, ME. dêf, NE. def.]

daug, prt.-prs. in 3d pers. sg. prs. ind. (198), it is fit, it is of use, it profits. [OE. dêah, inf. dugan, ME. duᵹe, dowe, NE. do (in the frase 'that wil do'), prov. E. dow.]

daúhtar, f. (114), daughter; Mk. V, 23. 34. 35. Lu. II, 36. [OE. dohtor, f., ME. douᵹter, NE. daughter.]

dauns, f. (103, n. 1), odor, savor; II. Cor. II, 14. 15. 16. [ON. daunn, m., odor.]

daupeins, f. (103, n. 1), baptism; Mk. I, 4. [< daupjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

daupjan, wv. (187), to baptize, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 4. (2) w. acc. and in w. dat.; Mk. I, 8. (pass.) Mk. I, 5. 9. [OE. dŷpan (ŷ for ie < êa + -j = Goth. au + -j), to immerge, baptize.]

daupjands, m., prop. prsp. of daupjan (115); sa d., the Baptist.

daúr, n. (94), door, gate; Mk. I, 33. II, 2. [OE. dor, n., OHG. MHG. tor, NHG. thor, n., door, gate; s. also auga-daúrô.]

-daúrsan, prt.-prs. (199), to dare, in ga-d. [OE. *durran, prs. ind. sg. dear (= Goth. -dars), ME. dar, der, NE. dare.]

dauþeins, f. (103, n. 1), the dying; II. Cor. IV, 10. [< dauþjan + (suff. -ei-ni), to kil, < dauþs.]

-dauþnan, wv. (194), to die, in ga-d. [< dauþs.]

dauþs, gen. dauþis, adj. (124), ded; II. Cor. I, 9. [Prop. an old ptc. < √ dau (containd in ON. dó, prt. of deyja (Noreen, § 413), stv., to die, > ME. deye, NE. die) + suff. -þo-. OE. dêad, ME. dêd, ded, NE. ded.]

dauþus, m. (105), deth; II. Cor. I, 9. II, 16. in pl. deths, i. e. dangers of deth; II. Cor. I, 6. III, 7. IV, 11. 12. [< √ dau (s. dauþs) + suff. -þu-. OE. dêað (orig. u-stem), m., ME. deaþ, deð, NE. deth.]

Daweid, pr. n., David; Mk. II, 25. gen. -is: Lu. II, 4. 11. [< Δαυΐδ.]

-dêds; s. -dêþs.

deigan, stv. (172, n. 1), to knead. [< √ dîg, in prt. daig = OE. dâg, seen in dâg (Goth. daigs), dâh, m., ME. dah, dogh, NE. dough.]

-dêþs, -dêds (74, n. 2), f. (103), deed, only in cpds.; cf. missa-dêþs. [< √ (: dô > OE. dôn, ME. dô,[Pg 151] NE. do) + suff. -þi-. OE. dæ̂d, f., ME. dede, NE. deed.]

diabaúlus, diabulus (13, n. 1), m. (105), devil. [< διάβολος, slanderer, devil.]

dis-, inseparabl particl prefixt to vs. (and verbal sbs.), (1) asunder, apart; (2) uzed intensivly (cf. dis-haban). [In meaning = Lt. dis- (> NE. dis- and OE. des-)> NE. de- (different from de-< Lt. de).]

dis-haban, wv. (192), w. acc., to constrain (s. dis-); II. Cor. V, 14.

dis-hniupan, wv. (173, n. 1), to break to pieces.

dis-kreitan, stv. (172, n. 1), to tear asunder, rend (tr.).

dis-skritnan, wv. (194), to rend (intr.).

dis-taíran, stv. (175, n. 1), w. acc., to tear asunder, burst; Mk. II, 22.

dis-wilwan, stv. (174, n. 1), to plunder (completely), spoil; Mk. III, 27.

diupei, f. (113), depth, deep. [< diups.]

diups, adj. (124), deep; Mk. IV, 5. [OE. dêop, ME. dêp, NE. deep.]

dius, gen. diuzis, n. (94), beast; Mk. I, 13. [OE. dêor, n., ME. dêr, der, (wild) animal, NE. deer.]

diwan, stv. (176, n. 2), to die; þata diwanô, that which is mortal, mortality; II. Cor. V, 4. [Cp. dauþs.]

-dôjan (26), wv. (187), in af-d.

dômjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to deem, judge; II. Cor. V, 14. [< dôms, m., judgment (= OE. dôm, m., ME. dôm, NE. doom). OE. dêman, ME. dême, deme, NE. deem.]

-draban, stv. (177, n. 1), in ga-d.

dragan, stv. (177, n. 1), to carry, load. [OE. dragan, ME. drawe, draᵹe, NE. draw.]

dragk (32; -ggk; 67, n. 1), n. (94), drink. [< drigkan, prt. dragk.]

dragkjan, wv. (188), to giv to drink. [Caus. of drigkan. OE. drencan, ME. drenche, NE. drench.]

draibjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to trubl; Mk. V, 35. [Caus. of dreiban. OE. -dræ̂fan, OHG. MHG. treiben, wv., to drive.]

draúhsna (drausna; 62, n. 4), f. (97), crum, fragment. Skeir. VII, d. [OE. drosn, ME. drosne, dregs.—?]

draúhtinassus, m. (105), warfare. [< draúhtinôn + suff. -assu-, to war, < stem of -draúhts (ga-draúhts, m., soldier), < √ of driugan + suff. -ti-.]

-drausjan, wv. (188), to cause to fall, in ga-dr. [Caus. of driusan.]

dreiban (-drêbi; 10, n. 5), stv. (172, n. 1), to drive, in us-dr. [OE. drîfan, ME. drive, NE. drive.]

drigkan (gg for g; 67, n. 1), (stv. 174, n. 1), to drink, (1) abs.; Mk. II, 16. (2) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 25. 31. [OE. drincan, ME. drinke, NE. drink.]

driugan, stv. (173, n. 1), to perform military service, to war. [OE. drêogan, ME. drege, dreᵹe, NE. dree, to endure, suffer.]

driusan, stv. (173, n. 1), to fall, fall down, w. ana w. acc.; Mk. III, 10; du w. dat.; Mk. III, 11. V, 33.—Cpd. ga-d. [OE. drêosan (> drêor n., gore, blud, > drêorig, gory, sad, ME. drery, NE. dreary), ME. drese, to fall, > the NE. frequ. drizl.]

driusô (31), f. (112), slope; Mk. V, 13. [< driusan.]

drôbnan (56, n. 4), wv. (194), to becum trubld. [< *drôfs = OE. drôf, trubld, > OE. drêfan, ME. dreve, to trubl, afflict, = Goth. drôbjan, to stir up, trubl, OHG. truoben, MHG. trüeben, NHG. trüben, to make turbid, to afflict.]

drugkanei (32), f. (113), drunkenness. [< pp. stem of drigkan.]

-drugkja (32), m., in weindrugkja. [< drugk- (s. drugkanei) + suff. -jan-.]

drus, m. (101, ns. 1. 2), fall; Lu. II,[Pg 152] 34. [< driusan, pp. drusans. OE. dryre, m., fall.]

drusun, prt. of driusan.

du, prep. w. dat., (1) local (especially after vs. of 'saying, speaking', and the like, denoting the pers. or th. addrest), to, into, at, on, towards; Mt. V, 23. VI, 6. 26. Mk. I, 5. 32. 37. 38. 40. 44. 45. II, 5. 8. 10. 11. 13. 14. 16. 17. 18. 24. 25. III, 3. 5. 7. 11. 13. 23. 31. 32. IV, 1. 13. 21. 24. 33. 35. 38. 39. 40. 41. V, 9. 15. 19. 21. 22. 31. 33. 34. 36. 39. 41. Lu. II, 10. 15. 17. 18. 20. 34. 48. 49. 50. II. Cor. I, 18. III, 7. 16. (2) abstr., to, unto, toward, for; Mt. VI, 6. Mk. I, 4. 44. Lu. II, 32. 34. II. Cor. I, 18. 20. II, 4. III, 1. IV, 2. 6. 15. V, 5. Skeir. VII, a; in; II. Cor. I, 9. 10. III, 4. (3) w. inf., to; Mt. V, 28. VI, 1. Mk. II, 9. III, 14. 15. IV, 3. Lu. II, 6. 21. [In meaning (not in form) identical w. OE. tô, ME. to, NE. to, prep. (too, adv.).]

-dûbô (15), in hraiwa-dûbô. [OE. dûfe, f., ME. douve, NE. duv.]

du-ginnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to begin, w. inf.; Mk. I, 45. II, 23. IV, 1. V, 17. 20. II. Cor. III, 1.

du-ƕê, adv., wherefore; Mk. II, 8. 18. IV, 40.

dulþs, f. (116 and n. 1), feast; Lu. II, 41. 42. [OHG. tuld, MHG. tuld, dult, f., NHG. (Bavarian) dult, a fair.]

-dumbnan, wv. (194), in af-d. [< dumbs.]

dumbs, adj. (124), dum. [OE. dumb, ME. domb, dum, NE. dum.]

du-stôdjan, wv. (188), to begin; II. Cor. superscr.

du-þê (duþþê, for duhþê, i. e. du-h-þê, for du-uh þê; s. 62, n. 3), adv. and conj. (153, n. 2), therefore; Mt. VI, 25. Mk. I, 38. II. Cor. I, 20. II, 9. IV, 1; duþê ei w. indic., for, because; Lu. II, 4; w. opt., that, in order that; Mk. IV, 21. II. Cor. III, 13.

dwals, adj. (124), foolish; dwala, m. (107; cp. also 132, n. 2), fool. [OE. dwal, dwol, dol, ME. dwal, dul, adj., foolish, NE. dul.]

Ei, (1) conj. (218), (a) before subj. clauses, that; Mt. V, 29. 30. VI, 7. II. Cor. I, 18; (b) before obj. clauses, after vs. of 'perceiving, knowing, believing, hoping, saying, commanding', and the like, that; Mt. V, 17. Mk. I, 44. III, 9 (first). 12. V, 43. II. Cor. I, 10. 13. 23. II, 1 (appositional). V, 1; (d) before final clauses, after vs. of 'willing, praying', and the like, that, in order that; Mt. V, 45. VI, 2. 4. 5. 16. 18. Mk. I, 38. II, 10. III, 2. 6. 9 (second). 10. 14. IV, 12. 21. 22. V, 10. 12. 18. 23. Luc. II, 3. 20. 24. 27. 35. II. Cor. I, 4. 9. 11. 15. 17. II, 3. 4. 5. 9. 11. III, 13. IV, 4. 7. 10. 11. 15. V, 4. 10. 12. 15. 21; (e) causal, sinse, for; Mk. I, 27. (2) enclitic, forming, (a) rel. prns. (157, 158; S., 69): saei, ikei, etc.; (b) rel. advs.: þarei, þadei, etc.; (c) conjs.: akei, faúrþizei, etc.; (d) adv. particls: waitei, wainei, etc. [Cp. sai.]

Eila (65, n. 1), pr. n.

eils = hails (21, n. 1; 61, n. 1).

eisarn, n. (94), iron. See note to Mk. V, 4. [OE. îsern, îren, n., ME. iren, NE. iron. Of Keltic orig.]

eisarneins, adj. (124), of iron, iron; Mk. V, 3. 4. [< eisarn + suff. -eina-.]

ei-þan, conj. (218), therefore.

Erelieva (54, n. 2), pr. n.

Ermanaricus (20, n. 3), pr. n.

Ermenberga (20, n. 3), pr. n.

Esaeias, pr. n. m., Esaias; dat. Esaïin; Mk. I, 2. [< Ἠσαΐας.]

[Pg 153]

Fadar, m. (114), father. [OE. fæder, m., ME. fader, NE. father (th for d may be due to the influence of ON. faðir and to 'brother', which hav orig. th).]

fadrein, n. (94, n. 4), paternity, family. [Prop. adj. uzed as sb., < fadar + suff. -eina-.]

fadreins, f. (103), lineage, family; Lu. II, 4. [< fadar + suff. -eini-.]

faginôn (66, n. 1), wv. (190), to rejoice, w. fram w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 3. [< a lost adj. (cp. aiginôn). OE. fæᵹnian (< fæᵹen, adj., glad), ME. faine, to rejoice, NE. fain (obs.), to wish, desire.]

fagrs, adj. (124), suitabl, fair. [OE. fæᵹer, adj., fair, beutiful, ME. fæiᵹer, fayr, NE. fair.]

fâhan (5 b), rv. (179), to cach, seiz. [OE. fôn (< fôan < fôhan < fǫnhan < fanhan; prt. fêng), ME. fon, fong (by influence of the prt. forms w. ng), to cach, > OE. ME. fang, NE. fang (sb.).]

fahêþs (fahêds; acc. faheid; 7, n. 2), f. (103), joy, gladness; Mk. IV, 16. Lu. II, 10. II. Cor. II, 3. [< fah- (cp. fag-inôn) + suff. -êdi-.]

-fahjan, wv. (188), in fulla-f. [< fah-; s. fahêþs.]

faian (22, n. 2), rv. (? 182, n. 1), to find fault with. [Cp. fijan.]

fáih (20, n. 2), n., fraud, deception.

-fáihôn, wv. (190), in ga-f. [< fáih. Cp. OE. fâh, adj., hostil, ge-fâh, m., foe, ME. fâ, fô, adj., hostil, (i-) fâ, (i-) fô, m. (sb.), NE. foe. See also ga-fáihôn.]

faíhu (53), n. (106), catl, property, muney. [OE. feoh, n., ME. fê, NE. fee.]

*faíhu-þraíhns, m. (91, or -þraíhn, n.; 94?), plenty of catl, riches. [-þraíhns < þreihan + suff. -na-.]

faír-, inseparabl particl, w. vs. and verbal derivativs which it intensifies. [OE. for-, intensiv prefix, ME. NE. for- (except in forfeit, where it is) < Lt. foris, out of doors.]

faír-áihan, prt.-prs. (203), to partake.

faír-greipan, stv. (172), w. acc., to take hold of, take; Mk. V, 41.

faírguni, n. (95), mountain; Mk. III, 13. V, 5. 11. [OE. firgen-, n., mountain, in f.-bêam, m., mountain-tree; f.-holt, n., mountain-wood, etc.]

-faírƕjan, wv. (188), in wai-f. [< faírƕus.]

faírƕus, m. (105), the world; II. Cor. I, 12. [OE. feorh, m. n., ME. vor, life.]

faírina, f. (97), charge, cause; Mt. V, 32. [< faír- + suff. -inô- (?). OE. firen (< *firenu), f., crime, sin.]

faírneis, adj. (128), old; Mk. II, 21, 22. [< *faírna- (< *faír-; cp. faírra) + suff. -na. OE. fyrn (cp. Siev., § 302), ME. furn, former, OHG. firni, MHG. virne, NHG. firn, old.]

faírra, adv. (213, n. 2; 217), far, far off; uzed as prep. w. dat.; Lu. II, 15. 37. [< faír- + suff. -ra. OE. feor(r), ME. feor, fer, adv. and adj., NE. far.]

faírraþrô, adv. (213, n. 2), far from, afar off; Mk. V, 6. [< faírra + -þrô.]

faír-weitjan, wv. (187), to look at, behold stedfastly, fix the eys upon, w. gen.; II. Cor. IV, 18; w. du w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 7; in w. acc.; II. Cor. III, 13.

falþan, rv. (179), to fold. [OE. fealdan, ME. falde, folde, NE. fold.]

-falþs, adj. (148), -fold, in ain-f., fidur-f. [< falþan. OE. -feald, ME. -fald, -fold, NE. -fold.]

fana, m. (108), a small piece of cloth, a pach; Mk. II, 21. [OE. fana, a piece of cloth, banner, ME. fane, vane, NE. vane, flag.]

Fanuêl, pr. n., Phanuel; gen. -is; Lu. II, 36. [< Φανουήλ.]

[Pg 154]

faran, stv. (177, n. 1), to fare, go. [OE. faran, to go, travel, ME. fare, NE. fare.]

Fareisaius, m., Farisee; nom. pl. -eis; Mk. II, 16. 18. 24. III, 6; gen. pl. ; Mt. V, 20. [< Φαρισαῖος.]

fastan, wv. (193), to hold fast, observ, keep; to fast; Mt. VI, 16. 17. 18. Mk. II, 18. 19. 20.—Cpd. ga-f. [< *fasts (= OE. fæst, adj., firm, strong, ME. NE. fast). OE. fæstan, ME. faste, to fasten, fast, NE. fast (also fasten, ME. fæstne, OE. fæstnian < OE. fæst).]

fastubni, n. (95), (1) a keeping, observance. (2) fasting; Lu. II, 37. [< fastan + suff. -ubnja-. OE. fæsten, n., ME. fasten, festen, fasting.]

-faþs, m. (101), master; s. brûþ-, synagôga-, þûsundi-faþs.

faúr, prep. w. acc. (217), (1) of space, before, along, by; Mk. I, 16. II, 13. IV, 4. (2) in abstr. relations, for, for ... sake, concerning; II. Cor. I, 6. 11. V, 15. 20.—Occurs also in composition w. other words. [OE. for, prep., before, for, ME. NE. for.]

faúra, faúr-, (1) adv. of space and time, before. (2) prep. w. dat. (217), (a) of space, before; Mt. VI, 2. Mk. I, 2. V, 21. Lu. II, 22. II. Cor. V, 10; (b) in abstr. relations, for, because of; Mk. II, 4. f. andwaírþja w. gen., before; Mk. II, 12.—Occurs also in composition w. other words. [OE. ME. fore, prep., for, before; cp. faúr.]

faúra-gaggja (67, n. 1), m. (108), 'fore-goer', guvernor, steward. [< -gaggja < *gaggi < gaggan + suff. -ja.]

faúra-ga-satjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to set before, to present; II. Cor. IV, 14.

faúr-hâh (5 b), n. (94), curtain. [< -hâh < hâhan.]

faúrhtei, f. (113), fright, fear; Mk. V, 42. [< faúrhts. OE. fyrhtu (u for orig. î), f., ME. frigt, friᵹt, NE. fright.]

faúrhtjan, wv. (188), to fear, be afraid; Mk. V, 36. [< faúrhts. OE. fyrhtan, ME. friᵹte, a-friᵹt, pp., NE. fright (poet.), affright.]

faúrhts, adj. (124), fearful; Mk. IV, 40. [OE. forht, timid.]

faúr-lageins, f. (103, n. 1), a laying before; hlaibôs faúrlageinais, show-bred; Mk. II, 26. [< faúr-lagjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

faúr-mûljan (15), wv. (188), to bind up one's mouth, to muzl.

faúrþis, adv., first, beforehand, before; Mt. V, 24. Mk. III, 27. II. Cor. I, 15. [< faúr + adverbial compar. suff. -þis (< -þiza-). OE. furðor, ME. furðer, NE. further.]

faúrþiz-ei, conj. (218), before; Mt. VI, 8. Lu. II, 21. faúrþizê (6, n. 4); Lu. II, 26.

*faus, adj. (124, n. 3), few. [OE. fêa(w-), ME. fêwe (the-we is due to the inflected forms), NE. few.]

-feinan, wv. (193), in in-f., to be moved with compassion, to pity; Mk. I, 41.

fêra (8), f. (97), region, side, part. [OHG. feara, fiara, side, part.]

fidur- (15, n. 1; 24, n. 2; 141, n. 1), num. (only in cpds.), four. [< *fiþur. OE. fyðer-, ME. feðer-, four; cp. fidwôr.]

fidur-falþs, adj. (148), four-fold.

fidwôr, num. (141), four; Lu. II, 37; dat. -im; Mk. II, 3. [For *fidwôr(i)z. OE. fyðer-, ME. feðer-. Cp. OE. fêower (< *fewur, for *fehwur = O. Icel. fjogor, fjugur, n., < an erlier *kwekur-< *kwetur-; cp. Brugm., III, p. 11), ME. foure, NE. four. Cp. fidur.]

fidwôr-taíhun, num. (141). [OE. fêower-tene, ME. fourtene, NE. fourteen.]

fidwôr tigjus (cp. tigus), num. (142),[Pg 155] forty; Mk. I, 13. Skeir. VII, d (= ·m·). [OE. fêowertiᵹ, ME. fowwerrtiᵹ, vourti, NE. forty.]

figgra-gulþ (88a), n. (94), 'finger-gold', finger-ring.

figgrs, m. (91), finger. [OE. finger, m., ME. finger, NE. finger.]

fijan (fian; 10, n. 4), wv. (193), to hate, w. acc.; Mt. V, 43. VI, 24. [OE. fêon (< *fi(j)ǫn). Cp. fijands.]

fijands (fiands), m. (115), enemy; Mt. V, 43. 44. [Prop. prsp. of fijan, uzed as sb. OE. fêond (< fi(j)ǫnd), m., ME. fênd, NE. fiend.]

filhan, stv. (174, n. 1), to hide, conceal.—Cpd. ana-f. [OE. feolan (< *feolhan), to hide, be-feolan, to commit, ME. fele, to hide, be-fele, to commit, OHG. bifel(h)an, to commit, trust, recommend, also to hide, bury, MHG. bevel(he)n, to trust, commit, command, NHG. be-fehlen, to command, commend, commit.]

Filippus, pr. n., Philip; Skeir. VII, a; acc. -u; Mk. III, 18. [< Φίλιππος.]

-fill, n. (94), skin, hide, in þrûts-fill. [< Germanic fella- (i. e. fel-la-; -la- < orig. -no-; cp. Brgm., I, § 67). OE. fel(l), n., skin, hide, ME. NE. fel.]

filleins, adj. (124), made of skin, lethern; Mk. I, 6. [< fill + suff. -eina-.]

filu, adj. (131, n. 3), much, very; II. Cor. I, 5; w. a sb. in the gen.; Mk. III, 7. 8. IV, 1. V, 21. 24; as adv., much, greatly; Mk. I, 45. III, 12. V, 10. 23. 38. 43; w. a compar.: filu mais, much more; Skeir. VII, d; filaus (gen.) maizô, (sumthing) much greater; Skeir. VII, c; und filu mais, much more, stil more; II. Cor. III, 9. 11; ƕan filu, how much, how great; Mt. VI, 23. Mk. III, 8. V, 19. 20. w. advs.: swa filu, so much; Skeir. VII, c. swa filu swê, as much as; Skeir. VII, c. [OE. feolu, feola, ME. fela, fele, OHG. filu, MHG. vil(e), NHG. viel, much.]

filusna, f. (97), abundance; Skeir. VII, c (the first); multitude; Skeir. VII, b. c (the second). [< filu + suff. -s-nô-; cp. Brgm. II, p. 141.]

filu-waúrdei, f. (113), much talking; Mt. VI, 7. [< *filu-waúrds, adj.; -waúrds < waúrd.]

filu-waúrdjan, wv. (188), to uze many words, to speak much; Mt. VI, 7. [< *filuwaúrds; s. prec. word.]

fimf, num. (141), five; Skeir. VII, b; fimf-taíhun (141), fifteen. fimf tigjus (142), fifty. fimf þûsundjôs waírê, five thousand (of) men; Skeir. VII, b. [OE. fîf (< *fimf), ME. fif, vive, NE. five.—OE. fîftene, -tyne, ME. fiftene, NE. fifteen.—OE. fîftiᵹ, ME. fifti, NE. fifty.]

fimfta-taíhunda, ord. num. (146), the fifteenth. [OE. fîftêoða (< fîfta-têoða, -têogeða), the fifteenth.]

finþan, stv. (174, n. 1), to find, find out, know, w. acc.; Mk. V, 43. [OE. findan, ME. finde, NE. find.]

fiskja, m. (107), fisher; Mk. I, 16. [< fisks + suff. -jan-.]

fiskôn, wv. (190), to fish. [< fisks.]

fisks, m. (91), fish; Skeir. VII, a. b. c. d. [OE. fisc, m., ME. fiss, fish, NE. fish.]

fitan, stv. (? 176, n. 1), to travail (in birth), to bear (children).

flôdus, f. (? 105, b), flud. [< √ flô (also seen in OE. flôwan, ME. flowe, NE. flow) + suff. -du-. OE. flôd, m., ME. flôd, flod, NE. flud.]

flôkan, rv. (179 and n. 4), to lament, bewail. [OS. -flôkan (stv.) in far-flôkan, to curse, OHG. (far-)fluohhôn (wv., but pp. farfluahhan), MHG. (ver-)fluochen, NHG. (ver-)fluchen (wv.), to curse.]

fôdeins, f. (103, n. 1), food; Mt. VI, 25. [< fôdjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

[Pg 156]

fôdjan, wv. (188), to feed, nurish, bring up, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 26. Skeir. VII, d. [OE. fêdan (< *fôdian), ME. fede, NE. feed.]

fôn (12, n. 3), n. (118), gen. funins, dat. funin, fire; Mt. V, 22. [< √ fû (Goth. ô for û) + suff. -na, -n-an-. In West-Germanic the suff. -r-is added. OE. fŷr (< fû-ir), ME. fir, NE. fire.]

fôtu-baúrd (88a), n. (94), foot-board, foot-stool; Mt. V. 35. [< fôtus + baúrd = OE. bord, n., board, shield, table, ME. bord, NE. board.]

fôtus, m. (105), foot; Mt. V, 35. Mk. V, 4. 22. [Stem fôtu-, orig. fôt- (consonantal stem). OE. fôt, pl., fêt, m., ME. fôt, fot, pl. fêt, NE. foot.]

fra-, an inseparabl particl uzed w. vbs. and verbal nouns. It chiefly signifies 'separation, destruction, loss, change', and the like. [A variant of faír-.]

fra-gaf, prt. of fra-giban.

fra-giban (56, n. 1), stv. (176), w. acc. of th. (dir. obj.) and dat. of pers. (indir. obj.), to forgiv; II. Cor. II, 7. 10; to giv, grant; Skeir. VII, b. [OE. for-giefan, ME. forgive, NE. forgiv.]

fra-gifts (56, n. 4), f. (103), a giving away; espousal; Lu. II, 5. [< fra-giban; s. -gifts.]

fraíhnan, stv. (176, n. 4), to ask, w. acc. of the pers. askt and gen. of the th. askt for; Mk. IV, 10; for the gen. a dir. question; Mk. V, 9; to ask questions; Lu. II, 46. [OE. frignan, ON. fregna > ME. freine, to ask; cp. OHG. frâgên, MHG. vrâgen, NHG. fragen, to ask.]

fraisan, rv. (179), to tempt; Mk. I, 13. [Cp. OE. frâsian, wv., to tempt.]

fraistubni, f. (98), temptation; Mt. VI, 13. [< fraisti- (< fraisan + suff. -ti-) = ON. freisti, f., temptation; + suff. -ubnjô-.]

fra-itan, stv. (176, n. 3), to eat up, devour, w. acc.; Mk. IV, 4. [OE. fretan (< *for-etan), to eat up, devour, ME. frete, to devour, consume, corrode, NE. fret, to eat away.]

fraiw, n. (94, n. 1), seed; Mk. IV, 3. 26. 27. 31. [ON. fræ̂ (dat. fræ̂wi), n., seed.]

fra-kunnan, prt.-prs. (199, n. 1), to despise, w. dat.; Mt. VI, 24.

fra-qiman, stv. (175, n. 1), to expend, spend, consume, w. dat.; Mk. V, 26.

fra-qistjan, wv. (188), to destroy; Mk. I, 24. II. Cor. IV, 9.

fra-qistnan, wv. (194), to perish; Mt. V, 29. 30. Mk. II, 22. IV, 38. II. Cor. II, 15. Skeir. VII, d.

fra-laílôt, prt. of fralêtan.

fra-lêtan (-leitan; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc., to let free, dismiss, send away; Lu. II, 29; to let down; Mk. II, 4; w. dat. of pers. and an inf., to permit, suffer; Mk. I, 34. V, 37; fralêt (imper.), let be, let alone; Mk. I, 24.

fra-lêts, m. (91; or -lêt; n.; 94?), forgivness; Mk. III, 29. [< fra-lêtan.]

fra-liusan, stv. (173, n. 1), to lose. [OE. for-lêosan, ME. forlêse, NE. *forleese (s. -liusan), pp. forlorn.]

fra-lusnan, wv. (194), to perish; II. Cor. II, 15 (gloss). IV, 3.

fra-lusts, f. (103), loss, destruction. [< fraliusan + suff. -ti-.] [OHG. vir-lust, MHG. verlust, f., NHG. verlust, m., loss.]

fram, prep. w. dat. (217), (1) local, denoting, (a) 'separation', from, away from; II. Cor. V, 6; (b) 'motion, direction', from; Mk. I, 9. V, 35. (2) temporal, from, sinse; Lu. II, 36. II. Cor. V, 16. (3) in other relations, (a) after vs. of[Pg 157] 'hearing, knowing, receiving, lerning', of, from, about; Mk. III, 21; (b) of 'cause or motiv', from; II. Cor. II, 3; (c) denoting the 'source' whense anything cums, from; Lu. II, 1. II. Cor. I, 2. on the part of, of; Mt. VI, 1; (d) concerning, on behalf, for; Mk. I, 44. Lu. II, 24. II. Cor. V, 12; (e) w. a pass. v., of, by; Mt. VI, 2. Mk. I, 5. 9. 13. II, 3. Lu. II, 18. 21. 26. II. Cor. I, 4. II, 6 (where a pp. may be added). 11. III, 2. 3. V, 4; or an act. v. w. a pass. meaning; Mk. V, 26. II. Cor. I, 16.—Occurs also in composition w. other words. [OE. frǫm, fram, ME. from, vram, NE. from.]

fram-aldrs, adj. (124), advanced in age, very old; Lu. II, 36. [-aldrs < *aldr, n. (= OE. ealdor, n., OHG. altar, MHG. NHG. alter, n., age), age, < alan + suff. -dra-.]

framis, compar. adv. (212), further, onward; Mk. I, 19. [< fram + -is, the adv. ending of the compar.]

fram-wigis, adv. (214), continually, ever more, [-wigis is gen. sg. of wigs.]

fra-slindan, stv. (174, n. 1), to swallow up; II. Cor. V, 4.

fraþi (74, n. 3), n. (95), mind; II. Cor. III, 14. IV, 4. [< fraþ- (in fraþjan).]

fraþjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to understand, know; Mk. IV, 12; be in right mind; Mk. V, 15; w. dat., to understand; Lu. II, 50. [Cp. frôþs (w. ablaut).]

-fraþjan, wv. (185), in fulla-f. [< -fraþjis.]

-fraþjis, adj. (126), thinking, minded. [< fraþ- (in fraþjan, stv.) + suff. -ja-.]

frauja (1, n. 4), m. (108), lord, master; Mt. V, 33. Mk. I, 3. II, 28. V, 19. Lu. II, 29. II. Cor. I, 2. 3. III, 17. IV, 5. [OE. frêa (for *frêa(j)a), m., lord (especially Christ, God), OHG. frô, MHG. vrô, lord, king, God, NHG. frohn- (< OHG. frôno, gen. pl.) in cpds.]

fraujinôn, wv. (190), to be lord, be king, rule over; Lu. II, 29; w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 24. [< frauja.]

fraujinônds, m. (115), ruler. [Prop. prsp. of fraujinôn.]

fra-waírþan, stv. (174, n. 1), to go to ruin, to corrupt (intr.).

fra-wardjan, wv. (188), to ruin, corrupt, w. acc. (exprest or understood); Mt. VI, 19. 20; to disfigure; Mt. VI, 16; in pass. to perish; II. Cor. IV, 16.

fra-waúrhts, adj. (124), evil-working, sinful; (in our 'Selections') uzed as m. sb., sinner; Mk. II, 15. 16. 17. [Prop. pp. of fra-waúrkjan.]

fra-waúrhts, f. (103), sin; Mk. I, 4. 5. II, 5. 7. 9. III, 28. 29. IV, 12. II. Cor. V, 21. [< fra-waúrkjan, to work il, do evil, sin, + suff. -ti-. OE. -wyrht (< *wurhti-), f., ME. -wurht, deed, work.]

fra-weitan, stv. (172. n. 1; 197, n. 1), to avenge, revenge.

fra-weitands, m. (115), revenger. [Prop. prsp. of fra-weitan.]

frêhun, prt. of fraíhnan.

freidjan, wv. (188), to spare, w. gen.; II. Cor. I, 23. [OHG. frîten, to luv, foster, protect, > frît-in frîthof, MHG. vrîthof, churchyard, cognate with vride, enclosure, > NHG. friedhof, m., churchyard, graveyard. Cp. friaþwa, -friþôn.]

frei-hals (88a), m. (91, n. 4), liberty, freedom; II. Cor. III, 17. [< freis + hals. OE. frêols (< *frêoheals < *frîoheals, for *frijo-hals), liberty, freedom, lit. the state of having a free neck.]

freis, adj. (126, n. 2), free. [OE. frêo (< frîo, *frijo), ME. frê, NE. free.—See also friaþwa.]

frêtun, prt. of fra-itan.

frijaþwa, friaþwa (10, n. 4), f. (97),[Pg 158] luv; II. Cor. II, 4. 8. V, 14. [< frija-, stem of freis, free, orig. dear, (cp. Brugm., II, 61) + suff. -þwô.]

frijôn (10, n. 4), wv. (190), to luv, w. acc.; Mt. V, 43. 44. 46. VI, 24; w. inf.; Mt. VI, 5. [< stem of freis; s. also frijaþwa. Cp. OE. frêogan, to luv and to make free, ME. freoie, to 'free', MHG. (prop. LG., Kl. W.) vrîen, NHG. freien, to woo, marry.]

frijôndi, f. (98), a female frend. [< frijônds.]

frijônds, m. (115), frend; Mt. V, 47. [Prop. prsp. of frijôn. OE. frêond (< fri(j)ǫnd), ME. frend, NE. frend.]

-fri-sahtjan, wv. (188), to make an image, in ga-f. [< fri-sahts.]

-fri-sahtnan, wv. (194, n. 1), to be formd, in ga-f. [< frisahts.]

fri-sahts, f. (103), image, exampl, ridl; II. Cor. III, 18. IV, 4. [< fri- (allied to faír-?) + -sahts (= OE. saht, sæht, f., ME. sahte, sæhte, reconciliation, peace) < sakan + suff. -ti-.]

-friþôn, wv. (190), in ga-f. [< *friþus (= OE. frioðu-< friðu-, m., later frið, n., ME. frið, peace, luv, protection, = G. friede, m., peace), < √ fri (cp. friaþwa) + suff. -þ-. OE. friðian, to make peace, treat kindly, protect, ME. friðie, to keep in peace, preserv. Cp. freidjan.]

frius, n. (94; or m., 91?), frost, cold. [< *friusan = OE. frêosan, ME. frêse, NE. freez.]

frôdei (74, n. 3), f. (113), wisdom, understanding; Lu. II, 47. 52. [< frôþs.]

frôþs (35), adj. (124, n. 2), wise, prudent, skilful. [< fraþjan (prt. frôþ). OE. frôd, wise.]

frôþun, prt. of fraþjan, stv.

fruma, superl. adj. (139 and n. 1), the first (146). [< the adv. stem fru- (cp. OHG. fru-o, MHG. vruo, NHG. fruh, früh (by influence of the adj. früh), erly), + suff. -ma-n-. Cp. frum, n. (or frums, m.?), and OE. fruma, m., ME. frume, frome, beginning.]

fruma-baúr (88a), m. (101, n. 2), a first-born; Lu. II, 7.

frumists, superl. adj. (139 and n. 1), foremost, first (146); frumist, adv. (212, n. 3), first. [< fruma + suff. -ista-.]

fugls, m. (91), fowl, bird; Mk. IV, 4. 32. [OE. fugol, m., ME. foᵹel, fowel, NE. fowl.]

fulgins (66, n. 1), adj. (124), hidn; Mk. IV, 22. [< the stem of the pp. of filhan.]

fulhsni, n. (95), that which is hidn, a secret; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 18. [< filhan + suff. -snja- < -sni- + -ja-. ON. fylsne, fylgsne, a hiding-place.]

fulla-fahjan, wv. (188), to please fully, to satisfy, w. acc.; Skeir. VII, d.

fulla-fraþjan, wv. (185), to be fully in right mind, be sober; II. Cor. V, 13.

fulla-tôjis (88a), adj. (126), perfect; Mt. V, 48.

fulla-weisjan, wv. (188), to inform fully, to persuade, w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 11. [< fullaweis < stem of fulls + -weis (s. un-weis).]

fulleiþ(s), f. (? 103, n. 2), fulness; Mk. IV, 28.—Cpds. ga-, us-f. [< fulljan + suff. -þi (for -ei-, cp. vB., 79). OE. fylleð, f. (?), fulness.]

fulljan, wv. (188), to fil, fulfil.—Cpds. ga-, us-f. [< fulls.]

fullnan, fulnan (80), wv. (195), to becum ful, to fil (intr.), w. gen.; Lu. II, 40.—Cpds. ga-, us-f. [< fulls.]

fullô, f. (112), fulnes; Mk. II, 21. [< fulls.]

fulls, adj. (122, n. 1), ful. [< an old pp. in-no-, fulla- < ful-no-. OE. ME. full, NE. ful.]

fûls (15), adj. (124), foul. [OE. fûl, ME. foul, NE. foul.]

funins; s. fôn.

[Pg 159]

Ga-, inseparabl particl prefixt to vs., sbs., adjs., and advs. For its various meanings, s. my 'Comparativ Glossary', p. 113, or 'First Germanic Bible', p. 343. [OE. ge-, ME. ᵹe-, i- (in handiwork), e- (in enuf).]

ga-aggwjan, wv. (188), to constrain, distress; II. Cor. IV, 8.

ga-aiginôn, wv. (190), to take possession of, get an advantage of; II. Cor. II, 11.

ga-arman, wv. (192), to hav pity on, to pity, w. acc.; Mk. V, 19; in pass., to be pitied, receiv mercy; II. Cor. IV, 1.

ga-baíran, stv. (175), w. acc., to bring together, compare; Mk. IV, 30; to bear (a child); Lu. II, 7; in pass. the nom.; Lu. II, 11.

ga-baírhtjan, wv. (188), to make bright or clear, to manifest, show, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 14; in pass. the nom.; Mk. IV, 22.

ga-bar, prt. of gabaíran.

ga-bauan (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193, n. 1), to dwel; Mk. IV, 32.

ga-baúr, m. (91, n. 4), a festiv meal. [Lit. that which is brought together, < ga-baíran, to bring together.]

ga-baúrþs, f. (103), birth. [< ga-baíran, to bear, + suff. -þi-. OE. ge-byrd, f., ON. burðr > ME. burth, birth, burþ, NE. birth.]

gabei (34), f. (113), riches; Mk. IV, 19. [< giban.]

ga-beistjan, wv. (187, n. 3), to levn.

gabigs, gabeigs (17, n. 3), adj. (124), rich. [< giban + suff. -i-ga-, -ei-ga-.]

ga-binda (32), f. (97), band, bond. [< ga-bindan.]

ga-bindan, stv. (174), to bind, w. acc.; Mk. III, 27. V, 4 (gloss); and instr. dat.; Mk. V, 3; in pass. w. a subj. nom.; Mk. V, 4.

ga-biugan, stv. (173, n. 1), to bow, bend; Mk. V, 4 (s. note).

ga-blindjan, wv. (187), w. acc.; to make blind, to blind, w. acc.; II. Cor. IV, 4.

ga-blindnan, wv. (194), to becum blind; II. Cor. III, 14 (gloss in A).

ga-brak, prt. of gabrikan.

Gabriêl (6), pr. n., Gabriel. [< Γαβριήλ.]

ga-brikan (33, n. 1), stv. (175, n. 1), w. acc., to break; Mk. V, 4.

ga-bruka (33, n. 1), f. (97), a broken bit, fragment; Skeir. VII, d. [< ga-brikan.]

ga-bundi (32), f. (98), bond. [< ga-bindan.]

ga-daban, stv. (177, n. 1), to becum, fit, befall, happen.

ga-daila, m. (108), partaker; II. Cor. I, 7. [< *ga-dails, adj., partaking; -dails < sb. dails.]

ga-dailjan, wv. (188), to divide, separate, w. acc. (in pass. the nom.); Mk. III, 26; w. wiþra w. acc.; Mk. III, 24. 25.

ga-daúrsan, prt.-prs. (199), to dare.

ga-dauþnan, wv. (194), to die; Mk. V, 39.

Gaddarênus, pr. n. [< Γαδαρηνός.]

*ga-dôfs (56, n. 1), adj. (130, n. 2), becuming, fit. [< ga-daban (prt. gadôf). OE. ge-dêfe, adj.; suitabl, fit. See also -daban.]

ga-draban, stv. (177, n. 1), to hew out.

ga-draus, prt. of gadriusan.

ga-drausjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to thrust down, cast down; pp. gadrausiþs; II. Cor. IV, 9.

ga-driusan, stv. (173, n. 1), to fall, w. ana (upon) w. dat.; Mk. IV, 5; du (at) w. dat.; Mk. V, 22; faúr wig, by the way side; Mk. IV, 4; in w. acc., into, among, on; Mk. IV, 7. 8; so in a pass. sense, to be cast; Mt. V, 29. 30.

gaf, prt. of giban.

[Pg 160]

ga-fâhs (5 b), m. (91), a cach, haul. [< ga-fâhan.]

ga-fáihôn, wv. (190), to defraud; II. Cor. II, 11. [< *gafáihs adj., deceitful, hostil, < ga + -fáihs (= OE. fâh, adj., hostil; ge-fâh, m.) < fáih; s. also -fáihôn.]

ga-fastan, wv. (193), to hold fast, keep; Lu. II, 19. 51.

ga-fáurs, adj. (130), sober, wel behaved.

ga-fraíhnan, stv. (176, n. 4), to find out by inquiry, w. an obj. clause; Mk. II, 1.

ga-frêhun, prt. of gafraíhnan.

ga-frisahtjan, wv. (188), to make an image, engrave; II. Cor. III, 7.

ga-frisahtnan, wv. (194, n. 1), to be formd.

ga-friþôn, wv. (190), to make peace, reconcile, w. dat. of the pers. to whom one is reconciled, and acc. of the pers. reconciled; II. Cor. V, 18. 19.

ga-friþôns, f. (103, n. 1), reconciliation; II. Cor. V, 18. 19. [< ga-friþôn.]

ga-fulljan, wv. (188), to fil, w. acc., the th. w. which anything is fild, occurs in the gen., Skeir. VII, d.

ga-fullnan, wv. (194), to becum ful, to fil (intr.), fil up (intr.); hense to be fild; Mk. IV, 37.

ga-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to cum together, gather together; so w. the refl. sik; Mk. III, 20.

ga-ga-waírþnan, wv. (194, n. 1), w. dat., to reconcile one's self to, be reconciled to; II. Cor. V, 20. [< *ga-waírþs; s. gawaírþi.]

gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go, go one's way, walk, cum; Mk. II, 9. III, 6. V, 42; w. inf.; Mt. V, 24. Mk. I, 44; w. afar w. dat. (to go after, follow); Mk. II, 14. 15. V, 24; du w. dat.; Mk. I, 38. 45. II, 11. 13. V, 19; in w. dat.; II. Cor. IV, 2; or acc.; Mt. VI, 6. Mk. V, 34; miþ w. dat.; Mt. V, 41. VI, 6. Lu. II, 51; þaírh w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 7; a final clause; Lu. II, 3.—Cpds. af-, afar-, at-, du-at-, inn-at-, ga-, þaírh-, us-g. [OE. gǫngan, gangan, ME. gange, NE. (Sc.) gang.]

ga-grêfts, f. (103), decree; Lu. II, 1. [-grêfts < √ grêf (+ suff. -ti-) seen in OHG. grâvo, MHG. grâve, NHG. graf, m., erl, count.]

ga-gudei, f. (113, n. 2), piety, godliness. [< gaguþs, adj., godly, pious, < ga- + -guþs < guþ.]

ga-haban, wv. (192), to hav, possess, hold; to lay hold on; w. acc.; Mk. III, 21.

ga-hâhjô (5 b), adv., in order, connectedly. [< *gahâhs, adj., connected, lit. hanging together, < ga- + *-hâhs < hâhan.]

ga-hailjan, wv. (188), to heal, w. acc. of pers.; Mk. I, 34. III, 10.

ga-hailnan, wv. (194), to becum hole, be heald; Mk. V, 29.

ga-hait, n. (94), promise; II. Cor. I, 20. [< ga-haitan. OE. ge-hât, n., promise, ME. hat, hôt, promise, OHG. gaheiȥ, m., MHG. geheiȥ, m., geheiȥe, n., NHG. geheiss, n., command.]

ga-hardjan (14, n. 1), wv. (197), to harden.

ga-hausjan, wv. (187), to hear; Mk. II, 17. IV, 9. 15. Lu. II, 18; w. acc.; Mk. V, 36. Lu. II, 20 (s. note); bi w. acc.; Mk. V, 27.

ga-hôrinôn, wv. (190), to whore, commit adultery with, w. dat.; Mt. V, 28.

ga-hraineins, f. (103, n. 1), a clenzing; Mk. I, 44. [< ga-hrainjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

ga-hrainjan, wv. (188), to clenz; Mk. I, 40.

-gâhts (5 b), f. (103), a going, in cpds. [Stem -gâhti- (for-ganhti-) < gangan + suff. -ti-.]

[Pg 161]

ga-hugds (81, n. 1), f. (103), thought, mind; conscience. [< (*ga-)hugjan + suff. -di- (cp. Brgm., I, p. 405). OE. gehygd, f. n., thought, mind.]

ga-huljan, wv. (187), to cuver, hide, conceal, w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), II. Cor. IV, 3.

ga-ƕeilains, f. (103, n. 1), a staying for a while, rest; II. Cor. II, 13. [< ga-ƕeilan + suff. -ai-ni-.]

ga-ƕôtjan, wv. (188), to threten, rebuke, charge, w. dat.; Mk. I, 43.

ga-iddja, prt. of ga-gaggan.

Gaíaínna, m. (108), Gehenna; Mt. V, 22. 29. 30. [< γέεννα.]

gailjan, wv. (187), to make glad, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 2. [< *gails, adj., = OE. gâl, ME. gal, gol, adj., proud, wanton, OHG. MHG. geil, wanton, merry, gay, NHG. geil, adj., lascivious, lewd, fat.]

Gaina (21, n. 1; 65, n. 1), pr. n.

Gaínnêsaraíþ (23), pr. n., Gennesaret. [< Γεννησαρέθ.]

gaírda, f. (97), girdl; Mk. I, 6. [< √ of -gaírdan. ON. gjǫrð, f., girdl, girth, > ME. gerth, NE. girth.]

-gaírdan, stv. (174, n. 1), to gird, in bi-g. [Cp. OE. gyrdan, wv., ME. girde, NE. gird.]

gaírnjan, wv. (188), to yern for, cuvet, desire, wish; II. Cor. V, 2. [< -gaírns (= OE. georn, adj.) (georne, adv.), ME. ᵹern, adj., zelous, eager (ᵹerne, adv.), OHG. MHG. gern, adj., desirous, eager, > OHG. gernô, MHG. gerne, NHG. gerne, gern, adv., (gladly, willingly, eagerly.) OE. geornian, ME. ᵹerne, NE. yern.]

gairu (cp. 20, n. 2), n. (106, n. 1), sting.

-gaisjan, wv. (188), in us-g. [ME. (< Scand.) gâse, NE. gaze. Cp. aghast for agast for agasted, pp. of ME. agasten [Sk.] < OE. â- (= Goth. us-) + gæ̂stan, to terrify, < a lost sb. gæ̂st < *gâs- (= Goth. gais-) + suff. -ti-.]

ga-juk, n. (94), that which is joind in a yoke, a pair; Lu. II, 24.

ga-jukô, f. (112), that which is put together for the sake of comparison, hense a comparison, parabl; Mk. III, 23. IV, 2. 10. 11. 13. 30. 33. 34. [< gajuk.]

ga-jukô, f. (110, n. 3), a female cumpanion. [< gajuk.]

ga-kannjan, wv. (188), to make known, w. acc. of pers. and dat. of th.; Lu. II, 15; to make known abroad, w. bi w. acc.; Lu. II, 17.

ga-krôtôn (12, n. 1), wv. (190), to crush, grind.

ga-kunnan, prt.-prs. (199, n. 1), to acknowledge one's inferiority or subjection, to subject one's self.

ga-kunnan, wv. (193; 199, 1), to recognize, know, consider, w. acc., Mt. VI, 28. II. Cor. I, 14.

ga-kusts, f. (103), proof, test. [< ga-kiusan, to prove, test, + suff. -ti-. -kusts = OE. cyst, f., ME. cust, choice, quality.]

ga-qêmun, prt. of gaqiman.

ga-qiman, stv. (175, n. 1), to cum together; Mk. II, 2; w. sik and du w. dat.; Mk. V, 21.

ga-qiss, adj. (124, n. 1), consenting. [< ga-qiþan + suff. -ta- (qissa- < *qiþ-to-).]

ga-qiujan (42), wv. (187), to quicken, giv life; II. Cor. III, 6.

ga-qiunan (42, n. 3), wv. (194), to becum alive.

ga-qumþs, f. (103), a cuming together, assembly, council; Mt. V, 22; synagog; Mt. VI, 2. 5. [< gaqiman + suff. -þi-. -qumþs = OHG. MHG. kumft, kunft (w. eufonic f before which m changed to n), a cuming, arrival, NHG. -kunft (in cpds.).]

ga-lagjan, wv. (188), to lay, lay down, w. acc. and in w. dat.; Lu.[Pg 162] II, 7. 12; or acc., to cast into; Mt. V, 25. VI, 30.

ga-laista, m. (108), follower, cumpanion; g. waírþan w. dat., to follow; Mk. I, 36. [< *ga-laists, adj., following; -laists < the sb. laists; s. laistjan.]

ga-laiþ, prt. of ga-leiþan.

ga-laubeins (31), f. (103, n. 1), belief, faith; Mk. II, 5. IV, 40. V, 34. II, Cor. I, 24. IV, 13. V, 7. [< galaubjan + suff. -eini-.]

ga-laubjan (31), wv. (188), to believ, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 24. V, 36. II. Cor. IV, 13. (2) w. in w. dat.; Mk. I, 15.—leitil galaubjands, litl-believing, of litl faith; Mt. VI, 30.

*ga-laufs (56, n. 1), adj. (124), precious, valuabl. [Cp. liufs.]

ga-lausjan, wv. (188), to loose, loosen, w. acc. of th. and af w. dat.; Mk. V, 4; to deliver, w. acc. of pers. and us w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 10.

ga-leikan, wv. (193), to please; waíla g., w. dat., to please, be acceptabl to; II. Cor. V, 9; or in w. dat., to take great plezure in, be wel pleased in; Mk. I, 11.

ga-leikô, adv. (211), like, alike. [< ga-leiks (= OE. ge-lîc, ME. i-lik, lik, NE. like, similar) < ga + -leiks (= OE. -lîc, ME. -lich, -li, NE. -ly) < leik. OE. ge-lîce, ME. iliche, ylyke, NE. like.]

ga-leikôn, wv. (190), (1) tr., w. acc. of th. and ƕê (whereunto), to liken; Mk. IV, 30. (2) intr., w. dat., to be like unto, be conformd to; Mt. VI, 8.

Galeilaia, pr. n., f., Galilee; gen. -as; Mk. I, 9. 16. 28; dat. -a; Mk. I, 14. III, 7. Lu. II, 4; acc. -an; Mk. I, 39. Lu. II, 39. [< Γαλιλαία.]

ga-leiþan, stv. (172, n. 1), to go, cum; Mk. V, 20; w. afar w. dat.; Mk. I, 20; ana w. acc.; Mk. I, 35; du w. dat.; Mk. III, 13; faírra w. dat.; Lu. II, 15; faúr w. acc.; Mk. II, 13; hindar w. acc.; Mk. V, 17; in w. acc.; Mk. I, 21. 45. II, 1. 26. III, 1. 27. IV, 1. V, 12. 13. 38. Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. I, 16. II, 13; miþ w. dat.; Mk. V, 24; inn; Mk. V, 40.

ga-lêsun, prt. of galisan.

ga-lêwjan, wv. (188), w. acc., to betray; Mk. III, 19.

ga-ligri, n. (95), consummation of marriage, lit. a lying-together. [< *ga-ligrs, having the same bed with, < ga + the sb. ligrs. OE. geligere, adultery.]

ga-lisan, stv. (176, n. 1), to gather, gather up; Skeir. VII, d; w. sik and du w. dat., to gather, congregate unto; Mk. IV, 1.

ga-liþun, prt. of galeiþan.

ga-liug, n. (94), a lie; g. taujan, to falsify; II. Cor. IV, 2.

ga-lûkan (15), stv. (173, n. 2), to shut, close, w. (instr.) dat.; Mt. VI, 6.

ga-mainduþs, f. (103), communion, fellowship. [< ga-mains + suff. -du-þi-.]

ga-mains, adj. (130), common. [OE. ge-mæ̂ne, ME. (i-) mene, NE. mean.]

*ga-maiþs (74, n. 2), adj. (124), (bodily) weak, bruised.

ga-man, n. (94; 117, n. 1), fellow-man, cumpanion, partner, communion.

ga-manwjan, wv. (188), to prepare, make redy, w. acc.; Mk. I, 2. Skeir. VII, c; and du w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 5.

ga-marzjan, wv. (188), to offend; Mk. IV, 17.

ga-maudjan, wv. (188), to remind, w. acc. of pers. and an inf.; Skeir. VII, d.

ga-mêleins, f. (103, n. 1), a writing, the scripture; II. Cor. III, 7. [< ga-mêljan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

ga-mêljan, wv. (187), to write, (1), w. dat. of the pers. addrest; II. Cor. II, 4. (2) the th. writn is in[Pg 163]dicated by the acc., to enrol for taxation, to tax; Lu. II, 1. (3) w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th.; II. Cor. II, 3. (4) w. in w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 2; and swê; Mk. I, 2; or swaswê; Lu. II, 23. (5) w. a final clause w. duþþê...ei; II. Cor. II, 9; or ei; II. Cor. II, 3. (6) inn g., to inscribe; II. Cor. III, 3.—þata gamêlidô (pp. uzed as sb.), that which is writn; II. Cor. IV, 13.

ga-môstêdun, prt. of gamôtan.

ga-môtan, prt.-prs. (202), to hav or find room, hav place; Mk. II, 2.

ga-môtjan, wv. (188), to meet, w. dat.; Mk. V, 2.

ga-munan, prt.-prs. (200, n. 1), to mind, remember, w. þatei; Mt. V, 23.

ga-nasjan, wv. (185), to make hole, to heal, save; Mk. V, 34.

ga-naúha, m. (108), sufficiency, contentment; Skeir. VII, b. [< ga-naúhan.]

ga-naúhan, prt.-prs. (201), to suffice; ganah; it is enuf, it is sufficient, w. dat. of pers.; II. Cor. II, 6.

ga-niman, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., to take, take with one; Mk. V, 40; to receiv; II. Cor. V, 10; to conceiv; Lu. II, 21 (pass.).

ga-nisan, stv. (176, n. 1), to becum hole, be heald; Mk. V, 23. 28; to be saved; II. Cor. II, 15.

ga-nists (34), f. (103), a becuming hole, recuvery, salvation. [< ga-nisan + suff. -ti-.]

ga-niþjis, m. (92), kinsman; Lu. II, 44.

ga-nôhjan, wv. (188), to satisfy, w. acc. of pers. and (instr.) dat.; Skeir. VII, b. [< ga-nôhs.]

ga-nôhs, adj. (122, n. 1), enuf. [Cf. ga-naúhan. OE. ge-nôh, ME. inôh, inough, inow, NE. enuf.]

ga-raíhtei, f. (113), righteousness; Mt. V, 20. II. Cor. III, 9. V, 21. [< garaíhts.]

ga-raíhts, adj. (124), right, righteous, just; Mt. V, 45. Lu. II, 25. [OHG. gi-reht, right (not righteous), MHG. gereht, NHG. gerecht, adj., right, righteous.]

*ga-raiþs (-raids; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), commanded, appointed. [OE. (ge-)ræ̂de (w. umlaut), ME. rede, adj., redy, > (or < the Scand.) ME. (i-) rædi, rædiᵹ, redy, w. suff. -iᵹ, -i, OE. (ig), NE. redy.]

*ga-raþjan?, stv. (177, n. 2), to reckon, number.

garda-waldands (88a, n. 2), m. (115), master of the house. [-waldands is prsp. of waldan.]

gards, m. (101), house, yard, household, family; Mk. I, 29. II, 1. 11. 15. 26. III, 20. 25. 27. V, 19. 38. Lu. II, 4. II. Cor. V, 1. [Properly an enclosure, with or without a building; < √ of -gaírdan. OE. geard, m., enclosure, yard, dwelling, ME. ᵹerd, ᵹard, yard, garden, NE. yard (for yard, a mezure s. gazds).]

ga-rinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to run together, cum together, gather together, w. at w. dat.; Mk. I, 33.

*ga-riuþs (-riuds; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), honest, honorabl, wel behaved. [Prop. shamefully blushing; < √ of rauþs.]

ga-rûni, n. (95), counsel, consultation; Mk. III, 6. [< ga + rûna extended by suff. -ja-.]

ga-runs, f. (103, n. 3), a place where peple run together, street; Mt. VI, 2. [< ga-rinnan + suff. -si-.]

ga-saƕ, prt. of ga-saíƕan.

ga-saíƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), to see, behold, w. acc. (sumtimes understood); Mk. I, 10. 16. 19. II, 5. 12. 14. 16. III, 11. V, 6. 15. 16. 38. Lu. II, 17. 20 (s. note). 48; in pass., to appear, w. pred. nom.; Mt. VI, 16. 18; —þô gasaíƕanôna, the things seen; II. Cor, IV, 18.

ga-sakan, stv. (177, n. 1), to reprove,[Pg 164] ebuke, w. dat.; Mk. IV, 39; in pass. w. nom.; Skeir. VII, a.

ga-sandjan (74, n. 3), wv. (187), to unite in sending; hense to accumpany, w. acc. of pers. and in w. acc. of place; II. Cor. I, 16.

ga-satjan, wv. (187), to set, place, w. acc.; namô g. w. dat. (indir. obj.), to giv a name or surname; Mk. III, 16 (s. note). 17.

ga-sêƕum, prt. of gasaíƕan.

ga-sibjôn, wv. (190), w. dat., to reconcile one's self to, be reconciled to; Mt. V, 24.

ga-siggqan, stv. (174, n. 1), to sink (said of the sun); Mk. I, 32; w. (instr.) dat., to sink under, be swallowd up; II. Cor. II, 7.

ga-sinþja (gasinþa), m. (108), (traveling) cumpanion, in pl. cumpany (for the Grk. συνοδία); Lu. II, 44. [< *ga-sinþs, adj.; -sinþs < the sb. sinþs. OHG. gi-sindo (for gasindjo), MHG. gesinde, m., traveling cumpanion, servant, while OHG. gi-sind, MHG. gesint(d), OE. ge-sîd (s. sinþs), m., cumpanion, attendant, are strong sbs.]

ga-sitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to set one's self down, sit down, sit, w. in w. dat.; Mk. IV, 1.

ga-skafts (51, n. 2), f. (103), creation, creature; II. Cor. V, 17.

ga-skaidnan, wv. (194), to becum parted, to depart.

ga-skapjan, stv. (177, n. 2), w. acc., to shape, make, create; in pass. w. nom.; Mk. II, 27.

ga-skeirjan, wv. (188), to make clear, explain, interpret; Mk. V, 41.

ga-slawan, wv. (193), to be silent; Mk. IV, 39.

ga-smeitan, stv. (172, n. 1), to besmear, annoint.

ga-sôk, prt. of gasakan.

ga-staldan, rv. (179), to win, gain, possess.

ga-standan, stv. (177, n. 3), (1) lit., to stand, stand stil, stop; w. in w. dat., to tarry, stay behind; Lu. II, 43. (2) trop., (a) to take position, rize up, w. ana w. acc.; Mk. III, 26 (the first); to stand; Mk. III, 26 (the second); w. (loc.) dat.; II. Cor. I, 24; (b) to be restored; Mk. III, 5.

gasti-gôþs (88a), adj. (124), good to a stranger, hospitabl.

ga-stôjan (26), wv. (186), to judge, determin, w. acc. and at w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 1.

ga-stôþ, prt. of gastandan.

gasts, m. (101), stranger. [OE. gæst, ME. gest, stranger, gest, enemy, NE. gest.]

ga-suljan, wv. (188), to found, ground.

ga-swalt, prt. of ga-swiltan.

ga-swikunþjan, wv. (188), to make known, manifest, w. acc.; Mk. III, 12.

ga-swiltan, stv. (174, n. 1), to die; Mk. V, 35. II. Cor. V, 15 (the second); w. faúr w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 15 (three times).

ga-taíhun, prt. of ga-teihan.

ga-taíran, stv. (175, n. 1), to tear, tear to pieces, break, destroy; Mt. V, 17. 19; in pass., to be dissolvd; II. Cor. V, 1; to be destroyd, be done away; II. Cor. III, 14.

ga-tamjan (33), wv. (187), w. acc., to tame; Mk. V, 4.

ga-taujan (26), wv. (187), to do, make, commit, (1) w. acc.; Mk. II, 25. II. Cor. V, 10 (s. note); astans g., to shoot forth branches; Mk. IV, 32; garûni g., to take counsel, w. bi w. acc.; Mk. III, 6; w. two accs., to make; Mt. V, 36; and faúr w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 21; to do. (2) w. dat. of pers. and ƕan filu; Mk. V, 19. 20. (3) w. acc. and inf., to make; Mk. I, 17. Skeir. VII, b. c.

ga-taúra, m. (108), tear, rent; Mk. II, 21. [< ga-taíran.]

ga-taúrnan, wv. (194), to rend (intr.),[Pg 165] becum void, be done away, be abolisht; þata gataúrnandô, that which is transitory or void; II. Cor. III, 7. 11. 13.

ga-taúrþs, f. (103), destruction. [< ga-taíran + suff. -þi-.]

ga-teihan, stv. (172, n. 1), to tel, report, announce; w. in w. dat. of place; Mk. V, 14; w. dat. of pers. and a clause introduced by ƕan filu; Mk. V, 19; or, in the pass., an inf. frase as subj.; Lu. II, 26.

ga-têmiba (33), adv. (103, n. 3; 210), fitly. [< *ga-têms (= OHG. gi-zâmi, MHG. gezæ̂me, adj., fit, suitabl) + -ba; < √ of ga-timan.]

ga-timan, stv. (175, n. 1), to suit.

ga-timrjô, f. (112), building; II. Cor. V, 1. [-timrjô < -timra (w. suff. -ra-) = OE. timber (w. inorganic b), n., ME. NE. timber, wood for building; +-suff. -jôn-.]

ga-trauan (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193), to hav confidence, be confident, to trust; II. Cor. V, 6. 8; w. in w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 3.

ga-tulgjan, wv. (188), to confirm, establish; pp. gatulgiþs, firm, stedfast; II. Cor. I, 6.

gatwô, f. (112), street. [ON. gata (acc. gǫtu), f., street, > ME. gate, NE. (Sc.) gate, way, path.]

ga-þaírsan, stv. (174, n. 1), to wither; Mk. III, 1. 3.

ga-þaúrbs (56, n. 3), adj. (124), temperate. [< √ of (*ga-)þaúrban.]

ga-þaúrsnan (32), wv. (194), to dry up, wither away; Mk. IV, 6. V, 29.

ga-þiuþjan, wv. (187), w. acc., to bless; Skeir. VII, b.

ga-þláihan, rv. (179, n. 1), to cumfort, console; II. Cor. II, 7; to exhort; II. Cor. V, 20.

ga-þláihts, f. (103), a pleasing with kind words, cumfort; consolation; II. Cor. I, 3. 4. 6. 7. [< ga-þláihan + suff. -ti-.]

ga-þlaúhun, prt. pl. of ga-þliuhan.

ga-þliuhan, stv. (173, n. 1), to flee; Mk. V, 14.

ga-þrafsteins, f. (103, n. 1), cumfort, consolation; II. Cor. I, 5. [< gaþrafstjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

ga-þrafstjan, wv. (188), to cumfort, console, w. acc. of pers. and ana w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 4; or þaírh w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 4; in pass. the nom. (exprest or implied), w. (instr.) dat.; II. Cor. I, 4; or in w. gen.; II. Cor. I, 6.

ga-þrask (32), n. (94), threshing floor. [< √ of (*ga-)þriskan.]

ga-þulan, wv. (193), to suffer, endure, w. acc. and fram w. dat.; Mk. V, 26.

ga-þwastjan, wv. (188), to confirm, restore, establish, w. acc. and in w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 21.

gaumjan, wv. (188), to see, perceiv, observ, behold, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 12. (2) w. a clause w. þatei; Skeir. VII, d.—in pass., to appear, be seen, w. dat.; Mt. VI, 5. [OHG. goumen and goumôn, MHG. goumen, to pay attention to, observ.]

gaunôn, wv. (189), to lament.

gáurjan, to make sorry, to griev, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 5 (the second); also abs., to cause grief; II. Cor. II, 5 (the first).—sa gáurida (pp.; 134), he who is made sorry, w. us w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 2. [< gáurs.]

gáurs (24, n. 3), adj. (124), sorry, sorrowful, sad, grievd; w. in w. gen.; Mk. III, 5; of a sad countenance; Mt. VI, 16. [< √ gau, in gau-n-ôn, to mourn, lament. Cp. OHG. gôrag (w. suff. -a-ga-), adj., wreched.]

ga-waírþi, n. (95, n. 1), peace; Mk. V, 34. Lu. II, 29. II. Cor. I, 2. [< *ga-waírþs, adj., taking the same turn; hense agreeing, < (*ga)-waírþan (waírþan, orig., to turn) = OE. geweorðan, to please, agree, OHG. giwerdan, MHG. gewerden, NHG.[Pg 166] (dial.) gewäede, w. 'lassen', to let alone.]

ga-waknan (35), wv. (194), to awake, awaken.

ga-wandjan, wv. (188), to turn, cause to cum back, (1) intr., w. du w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 16. (2) tr., w. sik, to turn, turn back; Mk. V, 30; to be converted; Mk. IV, 12; to return; Lu. II, 20; w. in w. acc.; Lu. II, 39. 45; w. aftra; Lu. II, 43.

ga-wasjan, wv. (187), to clothe, w. sik, to clothe one's self; Mt. VI, 29; gawasiþs (pp.), clothed; Mk. V, 15. II. Cor. V, 3. gawasiþs wisan, to be clothed, w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. I, 6.

ga-waúrki, n. (95), work, business. [< ga- + waúrk extended by suff. -ja-.]

ga-waúrkjan, anv. (209), to work, make to do; w. acc. of pers. and du w. inf., to appoint, ordain; Mk. III, 14.

ga-waúrstwa, m. (108), fellow-worker; II. Cor. I, 24. [< ga- + waúrstw extended by suff. -an-.]

gawi, n. (95), region, district, province, cuntry. [OHG. gewi, gouwi, MHG. göu, gou, n., NHG. gau, m., district.]

ga-widan, stv. (176, n. 1), to join together.

ga-wigan, stv. (176, n. 2), to shake, shake together.

ga-wiljis, adj. (126), willing, unanimous. [-wiljis < wiljan.]

ga-wiss, f. (103), connection, joint. [< ga-widan, to join together, (s. -widan) + suff. -ti- (ss < dt).]

ga-wrisqan, stv. (174, n. 1), to produce fruit.

gazds, m. (91), sting. [OE. gierd (stem geardjâ-< gardjâ-, while gazds is an a-stem), gird, f., ME. yerde, twig, rod, NE. yard.]

-geisnan, wv. (194), in us-g., to becum amazed. [Cp. -gaisjan.]

Gelimêr, pr. n. (6, n. 2).

giba, f. (96), gift; Mt. V, 24. II. Cor. I, 11. [< giban. OE. giefu, gifu, f., ME. gife, gift; cp. -gifts.]

giban (56, n. 1), stv. (176), to giv, w. acc. of th.; Mk. IV, 7. 8. Lu. II, 24; two accs.; II. Cor. I, 22; w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th.; Mt. V, 31. VI, 11. II. Cor. V, 12. 18; or two accs.; II. Cor. V, 5; for the acc. an inf.; Mk. V, 43; w. dat. of pers.; Mt. V, 42. Mk. II, 26; so in pass.; Mk. IV, 25.—Cpds. at-, fra-, us-g. [OE. giefan, gifan, ME. gyve, NE. giv.]

gibands, m. (115), giver. [Prop. prsp. of giban.]

gif, imper. of giban.

-gifts (56, n. 4), f., a giving, in fra-g. [< giban and suff. -ti-. OE. gift, f. n., ME. NE. gift.]

-gildan, stv. (174, n. 1), to pay, in cpds. only. [OE. gyldan, geldan, to pay, requite, ME. ᵹelde, NE. yield.]

gilstr (75, n. 1), n. (94), tribute. [< -gildan + suff. -tra (st < dt.)]

gilstra-mêleins, f. (103, n. 1), enrolment for taxation; Lu. II, 2. [< stem of gilstr + -mêleins < mêljan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

gilþa, f. (97), sickl; Mk. IV, 29. [Cf. ON. gelda > ME. gelde, NE. geld.]

-ginnan, stv. (174, n. 1), in du-g., to begin. [OE. -ginnan, ME. ginne, NE. gin (obs.), cpd. begin (be-) = Goth. bi-.]

Gisaleicus (21, n. 1), pr. n.

gistra-dagis, adv. (214), to-morrow; Mt. VI, 30. [Either an error, for afar-daga, or it means both yesterday and to-morrow; cp. ON. ígær, to-morrow, yesterday; OHG. êgestern, day after to-morrow, day before yesterday; gistra < gis- (cp. Lt. hes-ternus, yesterday) + -tra; dagis is gen. of dags.]

-gitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to get, in[Pg 167] bi-g. [OE. gietan, getan, ME. gete, NE. get (also in cpds.).]

giutan, stv. (173, n. 1), to pour, w. acc. and in w. acc.; Mk. II, 22. [OE. gêotan, ME. ᵹete, to pour, OHG. gioȥan, MHG. gieȥen, NHG. giessen, to pour, cast.]

glaggwô, adv., (211), diligently, perfectly, accurately, wel. [< *glaggwus + adv. suff. .]

glaggwuba (4, b), adv. (131, n. 2; 210 and n. 1), diligently, accurately. [< glaggwus + -ba.]

*glaggwus (68), adj. (131, n. 2). [OE. glêaw, ME. gleu, adj., sagacious, skild.]

glitmunjan, wv. (187), to glitter, shine. [< *glitmuni, shine, splendor, < *glitmun- (+ suff. -ja), splendor, < *glit- (= glit-in E. glit-ter) + suff. -mun-.]

gôljan, wv. (188), to greet, salute, welcum, w. acc.; Mt. V, 47.

gôþs (gen. gôdis), adj. (124, n. 2; 138), good, meet, suitabl; Mt. V, 45. Mk. IV, 20. Lu. II, 14. [OE. gôd, ME. gôd, god, NE. good.]

graba (35), f. (97), dich, trench. [< √ of graban.]

graban (56, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), to dig.—Cpds. uf-, us-g. [OE. grafan, ME. grave, to dig, NE. grave, to entomb (obs.), to cut, engrave.]

gras (gen. grasis), n. (94), grass, blade of grass, herb; Mk. IV, 28. 32. [OE. græs, n., ME. gras, gress, NE. grass.]

grêdags, adj. (124), greedy, hungry; Mk. II, 25. [< grêdus (= OE. græ̂d, orig. u-stem, m., greed), m., greed, hunger, + suff. -a-ga-. OE. græ̂dig (w. suff. -ig-), ME. gredi, NE. greedy.]

greipan, stv. (172), to seiz, take.—Cpds. faír-, und-g. [OE. grîpan, ME. gripe, NE. gripe.]

grêtan, rv. (181), to weep, lament; Mk. V, 38. 39. [OE. græ̂tan, ME. grête, NE. greet, to weep, lament.]

grêts, m. (101, n. 1), weeping. [< grêtan.]

grinda-fraþjis, adj. (126), feebl-minded, pusillanimous.

*griþs (grids; 74, n. 2), f. (103), step, grade, degree.

grôba (35), f. (97), hole. [< √ of graban. OHG. gruoba, MHG. gruobe, NHG. grube, f., pit, hole, dich.]

guda-faúrhts (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), God-fearing, devout; Lu. II, 25.

guda-laus (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), godless, without God.

gud-hûs (88a, n. 1), n. (94), house of God, templ.

Gudi-lub (56, n. 1; 88a, n. 2), pr. n.

gudja, m. (108), priest; Mk. I, 44. II, 26. [< guþ + suff. -jan-.]

gulþ, n. (94), gold. [OE. gold, n., ME. gold, NE. gold.]

guma, m. (107), man. [OE. guma, ME. gome, NHG. -gam (in bräutigam, bridegroom) < MHG. gome, OHG. gomo, m., man.]

guma-kunds (88a), adj. (124), of the male kind, male; Lu. II, 23.

Gumundus (65, n. 1), pr. n.

-gutnan, wv. (194), to pour (intr.), in us-g. [< pp. stem of giutan.]

guþ (1, n. 4), m. (94, n. 3; 118, n. 1), God (in pl. guda, gods); Mt. V, 34. Mk. II, 7. IV, 11. 26. 30. Lu. II, 13. 20. 28. 40. 52. II. Cor. I, 1. 2. 3. 9. 12. 19. II, 15. 17. III, 4. IV, 2. 4. 6. 7. 15. V, 1. 5. 11. 18. 19. 20. 21. [OE. god, m., God; n., god, ME. god, NE. God, god.]

guþa-skaunei (88a, n. 1), f. (113), the form of God. [-skaunei < skauns.]

guþ-blôstreis (88a, n. 1; cp. 69, n. 2), m. (92), wurshipper of God.

[Pg 168]

Haban, wv. (192), (1) to hav, possess, (a) abs.; Mk. IV, 25; (b) w. acc.; Mt. V, 46. VI, 5. Mk. I, 22. 32 (s. unhulþô). 40. III, 1. 3. 11. 15. 22. 26. 29. 30. IV, 5 (the first). 6. 9. 23. 40. V, 15. II. Cor. I, 15. II, 13. III, 4. 12. IV, 1. 7. 13. Skeir. VII, a; and bi w. acc.; Mt. V, 23; fram w. dat.; Mt. VI, 1. II. Cor. II, 3; in w. dat.; Mk. IV, 17. V, 3. II. Cor. I, 9; miþ w. dat.; Mk. II, 19; us w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 1; wiþra w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 12. (2) to hold, take, take hold of, keep; habaiþ wisan, to be held, be redy for; Mk. III, 9. (3) to 'hav evil', be sick; Mk. I, 32 (the first). 34. II, 17; waírs h., rather to be wurse; Mk. V, 26; aftumist h., to lie at the point of deth; Mk. V, 23; ufarassau h., to hav in abundance; II. Cor. II, 4.—Cpds. dis-, ga-h. [OE. habban, ME. habbe, have, NE. hav.]

hafjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to heav, lift up, bear; Mk. II, 3.—Cpds. and-, us-h. [OE. hebban, ME. hebbe, heve, NE. heav.]

-hafnan (35), wv. (194), to heav (intr.), in ufar-h. [< pp. stem haf-ans < hafjan.]

hâhan (5, b), rv. (179), to hang. [OE. hôn (< *hôan < *hôhan < *hanhan; prt. hêng, pp. hangen; cf. hangian, wv.), ME. *hôn (prt. heng, pp. hange), and hange, NE. hang (by infl. of the forms w. ng and ang).]

Haíbráius (23; 61), pr. n., Hebrew. [< Ἑβραῖος.]

haíhait, prt. of haitan.

háihs (20, n. 2), adj. (124), with one ey.

hailags (21, n. 1), adj. (124), holy. [< hails + suff. -ga-. OE. hâliᵹ (w. suff. iᵹ for eᵹ), ME. hali, holi, NE. holy.]

hailidêdi-u, prt. of hailjan + -u.

hailjan, wv. (188), to heal, (1) abs.; Mk. III, 2. (2) w. acc. of disease; Mk. III, 15.—Cpd. ga-h. [< hails. OE. hæ̂lan, ME. hele, NE. heal.]

-hailnan, wv. (194), to heal (intr.), in ga-h. [< hails.]

hails, adj. (124), hale, hole, sound, w. af w. dat.; Mk. V, 34. [OE. hâl, ME. hol, NE. hole.]

haims, f. (103, n. 4), village, town, cuntry; Mk. I, 38. V, 14. [OE. hâm, m., ME. hôm, home, dwelling, in acc. uzed as adv., NE. home, -ham, Ham-, in names of places.]

háiraísis (23), heresy, in nom. pl. -eis. [< αἵρεσις, pl. -εις.]

haírda, f. (97), herd, flock; Mk. V, 11. 13. Lu. II, 8. [OE. heord, f., ME. herde, NE. herd.]

haírdeis, m. (90), herd, shepherd; Lu. II, 8. 15. 18. 20. [< haírda. OE. hierde, hyrde, and heorde (without uml.), ME. herde, NE. herd, -herd (in shepherd = 'sheep-herd').]

haírtô, n. (109), hart; Mt. V, 28. VI, 21. Mk. II, 6. 8. III, 5. IV, 15. Lu. II, 35. II. Cor. I, 22. II, 4. III, 2. 3. 15. IV, 6. V, 12. [OE. heorte, f., ME. herte, hert, NE. hart.]

haírus, m. (105), sword; Lu. II, 35. [OE. heoru, m., ME. here, sword.]

haitan, rv. (170; 179), to name, call; to call, bid, invite; Mk. I, 20. III, 31; to command, w. inf.; Mk. V, 43; in pass., to be calld, w. pred. nom.; Mt. V, 19. Lu. II, 21. 23.—Cpds. ana-, and-, at-h. [OE. hâtan (in pass. hât-te = Goth. haitada), prt. heht (= Goth. haíhait), ME. hate, hote, prt. hêt, (for)heht, hight (< OE. *hiht; i for ie < eo by influence of the palatal, orig. guttural, h; eo < e before ht) > NE. hight (poet.); hense, prop., a prt. form.]

[Pg 169]

haiþi, f. (98), heath, field; Mt. VI, 28. 30. [OE. hæ̂ð, f., ME. hêth, NE. heath.]

haiþiwisks, adj. (124), wild; Mk. I, 6. [< haiþi + suff. -i-ska- (= E. -ish), the w between the two vowels being intrusiv.]

halba, f. (97), the half, a part; in þizai halbai, in this respect, in this behalf; II. Cor. III, 10. [Prop., f. of halbs uzed as sb. OE. healf (< *half), ME. half (behalfe, for be halfe, NE. behalf), NE. half, side.]

halbs, adj. (122, n. 1), half. [OE. healf, ME. half, NE. half.]

haldan, rv. (179), to hold, keep, feed; Mk. V, 11. 14. [OE. healdan, ME. halde, holde, NE. hold (notice its various meanings).]

haldis, adv. (212), rather, more. [Prop. compar. adv. Cp. OE. ge-healdre, ME. helder, G. halt (w. loss of suff.), rather, more.]

halja, f., (97, n. 1), hel. [Apparently < √ of *hilan (s. huljan) + suff. -jô-. OE. hell (< *halja), f., ME. helle, NE. hel.]

hals, m. (91, n. 4), neck. [OE. heals, hals, m., ME. hals, NE. halse (obs.), OHG. MHG. NHG. hals, m., neck.]

hamfs (53), adj. (124), maimd. [OHG. hampf, adj., maimd.]

-hamôn, wv. (190), to clothe, in af-, ana-, ufar-h. [< a sb. = OE. hǫma, hama, m., ME. hame, coat, cuvering (lic-hame, OE. lîc-hama, body), NHG. -am, for ham, in leichnam, m., corpse, MHG. lîchname, OHG. lîhhinamo (lîhhin is gen. of *lîhho, prop. weak adj. = Goth. -leika, in man-leika, m., OE. man-lica, m., ME. manliche, human form; Goth. -leika < -leiks; s. ga-leikan), m., corpse.]

hana, m. (108), cock. [OE. hǫna, hana, m., cock, ME. *hane, han- (in cpds.), OHG. hano, MHG. han, NHG. hahn, m., cock.]

handugei, f. (113), wisdom; Lu. II, 40. II. Cor. I, 12. [< handugs.]

handugs, adj. (124), wise. [< hand- (not allied to handus; s. Kluge, Stammbildungslehre, 203) + suff. -u-ga (the u by influence of handus). OE. hendig (w. suff. -ig), ME. hendi, NE. handy (a for e by influence of hand), adj. skilful.]

handus, f. (105), hand; Mt. V, 30. Mk. I, 31. 41. III, 1. 3. 5. V, 23. 41. [OE. hǫnd, hand, f., ME. hand, NE. hand.]

hansa, f. (97), multitude, cumpany, band of men. [OE. hôs (ô < ǫn < an), f., band of men, OHG. hansa, f., multitude, MHG. hanse, a commercial leag, NHG. hanse, f., Hanseatic leag.]

hardjan (14, n. 1), wv. (187), to harden, in ga-h. [< hardus.]

harduba, adv. (210 and n. 1), hard, severely, grievously. [< hardus + -ba.]

hardu-haírtei, f. (113), hard-hartedness. [< stem of hardus + haírtei < -haírts, adj.; s. armahaírtiþa.]

hardus, adj. (131), hard, severe. [OE. heard, ME. hard, NE. hard, -ard (as in drunkard).]

harjis, m. (90), army, multitude, legion; Lu. II, 13. [OE. here (< *heri < *hæri < *hari), m., army, multitude, ME. here, host, army, NE. her- (in heriot), har- (in harbor).]

hatis, n. (gen. hatizis; 94 and n. 5), hate, hatred, wrath, anger. [< hatan + suff. -iz-a. OE. hete (i-stem, orig. iz-stem; s. however Brugm., II, 421), m. (orig. n.), hate, persecution, ME. hete, hate, NE. hate.]

hatizôn (78), wv. (190), to be angry. [< hatis.]

hatjan (and hatan; 193, n. 1), wv. to hate, w. acc.; Mt. V, 44. [< hat-, consonantal stem of hatis. OE. hatian, ME. hate, NE. hate.]

[Pg 170]

haubiþ, n. (93), hed; Mt. V, 36. VI, 17. [OE. heafod, n., ME. heaved, heved, NE. hed.]

háuhei, f. (113, n. 1), height. [< háuhs. OHG. hôhi, MHG. hœhe, NHG. höhe, f., height.]

háuheins, f. (103, n. 1), lit. a heightening, a raizing on high; hense honor, glory, praise. [< háuhjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

háuhis, compar. adv. (212), higher. [< háuhs.]

háuhisti, n. (95), the highest height, the highest; Lu. II, 14. [< háuhista-, superl. stem of háuhs.]

háuhjan, wv. (188), to raiz on high, exalt, glorify, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 2. Mk. II, 12. [< háuhs. OE. hêan, hêgan, ME. heie, OHG. hôhjan, hôhen, MHG. hœhen, NHG. (er-)höhen, to make high, raiz.]

háuhs, adj. (124), high; superl. háuhista, the highest; Mk. V, 7. [OE. hêah, ME. heigh, NE. high.]

háuns, adj. (130, n. 2), humbl, base. [OE. hêan, ME. hêne, adj., base, vile, poor; cp. G. hohn, m., scorn, disgrace.]

haúrds, f. (103), door; Mt. VI, 6. II. Cor. II, 12. [OHG. hurt, pl. hurdi, f., hurdl, MHG. hurt, pl. hürte, hürde, f., hurdl, door, > NHG. hürde, f., hurdl, pen, fold; cp. also OE. hyrdel (w. l-suff.), m., ME. hurdel, NE. hurdl.]

haúrn, n. (94), horn. [OE. ME. NE. horn, n.]

haúrnja, m. (108), horn-blower, trumpeter. [< haúrn + suff. -jan-.]

haúrnjan, wv. (187), to blow a horn; Mt. VI, 2. [< haúrn.]

hausjan, wv. (187), to hear, listen, harken, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 3. 9. 12. 23. (2) w. gen. of pers.; Lu. II, 47. (3) w. dat. of pers. (to listen to, hear); Lu. II, 46. (4) w. acc. of th.; Mk. IV, 16. 18. 20. 24. (5) w. fram w. dat.; Mk. III, 21. (6) w. þatei; Mt. V, 21. 27. 33. 38. 43.—Cpds. and-, ga-, uf-h. [OE. hîeran, hŷran, hêra(n) (ie, etc., < êa (= Goth. au) before orig. j), ME. here, NE. hear.]

hausjôn, wv. (187, n. 3; 190), to hear; Mk. IV, 33. [= hausjan having gone over to the second weak conjugation.]

hawi, n. (dat. hauja; 95), grass; Mt. VI, 30. Skeir. VII, b. [Prop., a thing to be cut (< √ hau, seen in OE. hêawan, rv., ME. hewe, NE. hew). OE. hêg, n., ME. hei, hai, NE. hay.]

hazeins, f. (103, n. 1), praise. [< hazjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

hazjan, wv. (187), to praise, w. acc.; Lu. II, 13; and in w. gen.; Lu. II, 20. [OE. herian, ME. herie, NE. herry (obs.), to praise.]

hêr (8), adv. (213, n. 1), here, hither. [OE. hêr, ME. hêr, NE. here.]

Hêrôdês (61), pr. n., Herod. [< Ἡρώδης.]

Hêrôdianus, pr. n. m., Herodian; dat. pl. -um; Mk. III, 6. [< Ἡρωδιανός.]

hêþjô, f. (112), chamber; Mt. VI, 6.

hidrê, adv. (213, n. 1), hither. [< pronominal stem hi-, in himma, + suff. -drê. Cp. OE. hider, ME. hider, ON. heðra (to which seems due the th of) NE. hither.]

Hildericus (61, n. 1), pr. n.

Hildibald (54, n. 2; 61, n. 1).

hilpan, stv. (174, n. 1), to help; w. (instr.) dat. and bi w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 11. [OE. helpan, ME. helpe, NE. help.]

himina-kunds (88a), adj. (124), hevenly; Lu. II, 13.

himins, m. (91), heven; Mt. V, 18. 19. 20. 34. 45. 48. VI, 1. 9. 10. 14. 20. 26. 32. Mk. I, 10. IV, 32. Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. V, 1. 2. [ON. himinn, m., heven. Cp. OHG. himil (w. suff. -l-), MHG. himel, NHG. himmel, m., heven.]

himma, hina, hita (155), forms of a[Pg 171] defectiv prn., this; himma daga, to-day; Mt. VI, 11. 30. Lu. II, 11; und hina dag, until this day; II. Cor. III, 14. 15. [< a pronominal stem hi-, this, as in OE. him, dat.; hine, acc. m.; hit, n., ME. hin and him (by confusion with the dat.), hit, it, NE. him, it.]

hindana, adv., uzed as a prep. w. gen., behind, on the further side of, beyond; Mk. III, 8. [< hin- (= OE. hin-, in cpds., = G. hin, away) + -dana; hin- < a pronominal stem hi-, as in himma. OE. hindan, adv. (be-hindan, adv., behind, and prep., behind, after), ME. hinde- (in cpds. behinde, adv. and prep.), NE. hind, hind- (in cpds.; behind, adv. and prep.).]

hindar, prep. (217), behind, on the further side of, on that side of, beyond, (1) w. dat.; so after qiman; Mk. V, 1. (2) w. acc.; Mk. V, 17. 21. [< hin- (s. hindana) + compar. suff. -dar. OE. hinder, adv. and prep., behind, ME. hinder- (in cpds.), hind, OHG. hintar, MHG. NHG. hinter, prep., behind.]

hindumists, superl. adj. (149, n. 1), hindmost, uttermost. [A dubl superl. form, < hinduma (+ suff. -ist-a-) < hin- (s. hindana) + suff. -dum-a(n)-. OE. hin-dema, superl. adj., hindmost, last. NE. hindmost < hind (s. hindana) +-most, for *-mest; s. aftumists.]

-hinþan, stv. (174, n. 1), to cach, in cpds. only. [Cf. OE. hendan (wv.), ME. hende, NE. hend (obs.), to seiz.]

hiri (20, n. 1), interjectional imper. (187, n. 4; 219), cum here! dual hirjats, cum here (you two); Mk. I, 17. [< *hirjan (cp. Brgm., 'Morph. Unters.', p. 414 et seq.) < *hir, adv., < hi- (+ suff. -r); s. himma.]

hiufan, stv. (173, n. 1), to mourn, lament. [OE. hêofan (str. and wv.), to lament.]

hiuhma (hiuma; 62, n. 4), m. (108), crowd, multitude. [< √ of háuhs + suff. -man-.]

hlahjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to laf.—Cpd. bi-h. [OE. hliehhan (ie < ea, by i-uml., < a before h, which was dubld before the orig. j), hlæhhan, ME. laghe, laughe, lauᵹwe, NE. laf.]

hlaifs (gen. hlaibis; 56, n. 1), m. (90), bred, loaf of bread; Mt. VI, 11. Mk. II, 26. III, 20. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. d. [OE. hlâf, m., ME. lôf, NE. loaf.]

hlaiw (42), n. (94), tomb, grave. [Stem hlaiwa-, orig. *hlaiwaz, -iz. OE. hlâw and (w. i-uml.) hlæ̂w, ME. lawe, lowe, mound, hil, cave, NE. low, hil. Its √ appears (w. abl.) in OE. hli-n-ian, intr., hleonian, to lean, hlæ̂nan, tr., to make to lean, ME. leonie; læne, lene, NE. lean, to incline.]

-hlaþan, stv. (177, n. 1), in af-h. [OE. hladan, ME. lade (stv.), NE. lade (wv., but str. is the pp. laden).]

-hlaupan, rv. (179, n. 1), in us-h. [OE. hlêapan, ME. lêpe, lepe (stv.), NE. leap (wv.).]

hleiduma, superl. adj. (139), left; uzed as sb., left hand; Mt. VI, 3. [Lit. hanging down most, < √ hlei (cp. hlaiw). For the suff., s. hindumists.]

hleis, m., (only in acc. pl., hlijans), tent, tabernacl. [< √ hlei; cp. hlaiw. Cp. OE. hlêo, hlêow, m., protection, roof, ME. lêwe, lew, shelter, NE. lee, lew (prov.), a shelterd place, a place defended from the wind, (a nautical term, probably due to) ON. hlé, lee (of a ship).]

hleiþra, f. (97), hut, tent; II. Cor. V, 1. 4. [< √ hlei (cp. hlaiw) + suff. -þrô-. ON. hleiþra, tent.]

hleiþra-stakeins (88a), f. (103, n. 1), feast of tabernacls, lit. 'tent-stick[Pg 172]ing' [-stakeins < a lost v. *stakjan (= OHG. MHG. NHG. stecken, wv., to stick, put, set), to stick, put, put up.]

hlifan, stv. (176, n. 1), to steal; Mt. VI, 19.

hlijans; s. hleis.

hliuma, m. (108), hearing, ear. [< hliu- (+ suff. -man-) = OE. hlêo-, in hlêoðor, n., that which is herd, a sound, voice. Its √ is containd also in OE. hlûd (orig. pp., herd), ME. lud, loud, NE. loud; and in OHG. Hludwîg (-wîg < √ of Goth. weihan), NHG. Ludwig, Louis.]

hlûtrei, f. (113), purity, sincerity; II. Cor. I, 12. [< hlûtrs. OHG. hlût(t)rî, lût(t)ri, MHG. liuter, f., purity.]

hlûtriþa, f. (97), purity, sincerity; II. Cor. II, 17. [< hlûtrs + suff. -i-þô-.]

hlûtrs (15), adj. (124), pure. [< √ hlût + suff. -ra-. OE. hlût(t)or, ME. lutter, OHG. (h)lût(t)ar, MHG. lûter, NHG. lauter, adj., pure, clean, etc.]

hnaiwjan, wv. (187), to abase. [Caus. of hneiwan (prt. hnaiw). OE. hnæ̂gan (< hnâg, prt. of hnîgan), OHG. MHG. NHG. neigen, wv., to bend, press down.]

hnaiws, adj. (124), low, humbl. [< √ of hneiwan (prt. hnaiw).]

hnasqus, adj. (131, n. 1), soft, tender. [OE. hnæsce, hnesce, ME. NE. nesh (obs.), soft, tender.]

hneiwan, stv. (172, n. 1), to bend downwards, decline, bow.—Cpd. ana-h. [OE. hnîgan (For Goth. w and OE. g, s. Brgm., I, §§ 443 and 444). OHG. nîgan (for hnîgan), MHG. nîgen, stv., to bow, incline, NHG. neigen, wv. (due to neigen = Goth. hnaiwjan.)]

-hniupan, stv. (173, n. 1), in dis-hn., to tear or break to pieces, to break.

hnûþô (15; hnûtô in B), f. (112), thorn, sting. [ON. hnúða.]

hôrinôn, wv. (190), to whore, commit adultery; Mt. V, 27. 32.—Cpd. ga-h. [< hôrs.]

hôrs, m. (91), whoremonger, adulterer. [ON. hórr, m., adulterer, hóra, f., adulteress, > ME. hôre, NE. whore (w. inorganic w).]

hraineins, f. (103, n. 1), purification; Lu. II, 22. [< hrainjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

hrainja-haírts (88a, n. 2), adj. (124), pure in hart, pure-harted. [-haírts < hairt- in haírtô; s. armahaírtiþa.]

hrainjan, wv. (187), to purify, clenz.—Cpd. ga-h. [< hrains. OHG. hreinnan (for hreinjan), reinen, MHG. reinen, to make clean. NHG. MHG. reinigen, to clean, < reinic(g), adj., < reine + suff. -ic, -g; s. hrains.]

hrains, adj. (130), pure, clean; h. waírþan, to becum clean, be clean; Mk. I, 41. to be clenzd; Mk. I, 42. [OHG. reini (r for hr), MHG. reine, NHG. rein, adj., clean.]

hraiwa-dûbô, f. (112), turtl-duv; Lu. II, 24. [Stem hraiwa- is in form = OE. hrâ(w), beside hræ̂(w), OHG. hrêo (ê before w = Goth. ai; o < w final), rê(o), MHG. rê, corpse.]

hrôpjan, wv. (188), to call, cry, cry out; Mk. III, 11. V, 5; w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. I, 26. V, 7.—Cpd. uf.-h. [< hrôps, m., outcry, clamor. (< √ of OE. hrôpan, rv., ME. rôpe, NE. (Sc.) roup, to cry, shout, OHG. ruofan, MHG. ruofen, NHG. rufen, to call, cry). OHG. ruofen, MHG. rüefen, wv., to call, cry out.]

hrôt, n., (94), roof; Mk. II, 4. [Cf. OE. hrôst (st < t-t), m., ME. rôst, NE. roost, a perch (for fowls).]

hrôþeigs, adj. (124), victorious, triumfant; II. Cor. II, 14. [< *hrôþi- (< √ hrô, seen in OHG. (h)ruom, MHG. ruom, NHG. ruhm,[Pg 173] m., fame, glory, + suff. -þi-) = OE. hrêð, f., fame, + suff. -ei-ga-. OE. hrêðig, adj., triumfant.]

hrûkjan (15), wv. (188), to crow. [Cf. OE. hrôk, m., ME. rôk, NE. rook, a kind of crow.]

huggrjan (66, n. 1; 67, n. 1), wv. (188), to hunger. [< stem hungru-; s. hûhrus. OE. hyngran, ME. hungre, NE. hunger.]

hugjan, wv. (188), to think, be minded, believ, w. acc.; Skeir. VII, a; w. acc. and inf.; Lu. II, 44; w. ei; Mt. V, 17; waíla h., to think wel towards, agree with, w. dat.; Mt. V, 25. [< hugs, m. (= OE. hyge, m., ME. hyᵹe, hiᵹe, mind, thought). OE. hycgean (< *huggjan), ME. huᵹie, to think.]

hûhrus (15; 66, n. 1), m. (105), hunger. [< stem *hunhru- (*hungru-; s. huggrjan). OE. hungor (transferd to the a-declension), m., ME. hunger, NE. hunger.]

hulistr, n. (94), a cuvering, veil; II. Cor. III, 13-16.—Cpds. and-, ga-h. [< huljan + suff. -s-tra-. ON. hulstr, m., case, cuvering, Du. holster, case for a pistol, > NE. holster.—OE. heolstor, cuvering, cave, is a primary formation < √ of helan; s. huljan.]

huljan, wv. (187), to cuver, veil. [< *hulja (= OHG. hulla, MHG. hülle, f., cuvering, raiment, NHG. hülle, f., cuvering, veil, < *hilan, OE. helan, ME. hele, OHG. helan, MHG. heln, stv., NHG. hehlen, wv., to conceal, but verhohlen, adj., orig. pp., conceald, unverhohlen, unconceald, frank). OHG. hullan, MHG. NHG. hüllen, to envelop, cuver, veil.]

-hun, enclitic particl (163), any. [Cp. -gin = OE. -gen in hwergen, hwærgen (ƕær, where), anywhere. OHG. *hwargin, wergin, io (= aiw) wergin > iergen, MHG. (MG.) iergen, NHG. irgend (w. inorganic d), anywhere. Cp. Kl. W., irgend.]

hund, n. (144), a hundred; occurs in the pl. only, hunda; cp. also hunda-faþs, chief of hundred men, centurion. [OE. ME. hund, NE. hund-, in hundred, < ME. OE. hundred (-red = Goth. *raþ in raþjô).]

hunsl, n. (94), sacrifice; Lu. II, 24. [OE. hûsl (< *hunsl), n., offering, eucharist, ME. hûsel, NE. housel.]

hunsla-staþs (88a), m. (101), a place where sacrifices ar offerd, an altar; Mt. V, 23. 24. [< stem of hunsl + staþs.]

hups, m. (101), hip, loin; Mk. I, 6. [OE. hype, m. f., ME. hupe, hipe, NE. hip.]

-hûs (15), n. (94), house, in gud-hûs, house of God. [OE. hûs, n., ME. hus, hous, NE. house.]

huzd, n. (94), trezure; Mt. VI, 19. 20. 21. II. Cor. IV, 7. [OE. hord, n. m., ME. hord, NE. hoard, store, trezure.]

huzdjan, wv. (188), to lay up trezure, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 19. 20. [< huzd.]

Ƕa, n. of ƕas.

ƕaírban, stv. (174, n. 1), to walk. [OE. hweorfan (eo < e = Goth. ), ME. hwerfe, to walk about, OHG. werban, MHG. werben, to walk about, pursue, NHG. werben, to sue for, woo, etc.]

ƕaírnei, f. (113), skul. [Cf. the meaning of OHG. hirni (< *hirzni), MHG. hirne, NHG. hirn, n., brain.]

ƕaiteis, m. (92), wheat. [OE. hwæ̂te, m., ME. whete, NE. wheat.]

ƕaiwa, adv. (and conj.; 218), how; Mt. VI, 28. Mk. II, 26. III, 23. IV, 13. 40. V, 16; ƕaiwa mais, how much more; Mt. VI, 30; rel.: ƕaiwa managai (-ôs, -a), how many, as many as; II. Cor. I, 20. [< stem of ƕas. OHG. (h)wêo (< hwêwu), later (h)weo, wio, MHG. NHG. wie, adv. and conj., how, as.]

[Pg 174]

ƕammêh, dat. sg. m. n. of ƕazuh.

ƕan, adv. (214, n. 1), (1) in negativ sentences: ibai, or nibai, ƕan, lest at any time; Mt. V, 25. Mk. IV, 12. (2) w. adjs. and advs., how, (a) in dir. questions or exclamations: ƕan filu, how great; Mt. VI, 23; (b) in indir. questions: ƕan filu, how much, what great things; Mk. III, 8. V, 19. 20. [< stem of ƕas. Cf. OE. hwanne, hwænne, ME. hwanne, whan, hwen, NE. when.]

ƕan-hun, adv. (163), ever, at any time.

-ƕapjan, wv. (188), in af-ƕ.

-ƕapnan, wv. (194), in af-ƕ.

ƕar, adv. (213, n. 1), where. [< stem of ƕas + loc. suff. -r. OE. hwær-, hwer- (s. -hun), beside hwæ̂r, hwâr, ME. hwer, wher, NE. where.]

ƕarbôn, wv. (190), to go about, walk; Mk. II, 14; w. faúr w. acc.; Mk. I, 16. [OE. hwearfian, ME. wharfen, to turn, wander about. Cp. ƕaírban.]

ƕarjis, interr. prn. (160), who? which? (of several). [< ƕar + suff. -ja-.]

ƕarjiz-uh, indef. prn. (147, n. 1; 165), every one, every; Lu. II, 3. II. Cor. V, 10.

ƕas (ƕaz-), prn. (159), (I) interrogativ, who?, what?, which?, what sort of? ƕê (instr.), wherewith, in what degree, by what, whereunto, (1) in dir. questions; Mt. VI, 31. Mk. I, 24. 27. II, 7. III, 33. IV, 30. 41. V, 7. 9. 30. 31. II. Cor. II, 16. Skeir. VII, a; w. a prn. in the gen. pl.; Mt. VI, 27; —ƕê managizô, what greater (or more)? Mt. V, 47.—Sumtimes = Gr. τί, Lt. quare, quomodo, why?; Mt. VI, 28. Mk. II, 16. 24. V, 35. 39. Lu. II, 48. 49; (2) in indir. questions; Mt. VI, 3. 25. Mk. II, 25. IV, 24. V, 14. (II) indef. (116, n. 2), any one, any thing; Mt. V, 23. 39. 41. Mk. IV, 23. II. Cor. II, 5. 10. III, 5. V, 17; w. an adj. (uzed as sb.) in the gen. sing.; Mk. IV, 22. [OE. hwâ, m. f., whæt, n., ME. hwa, hwo, who, m. f., hwæt, hwat, what, n., NE. who, what.]

ƕas-hun, indef. prn. (163), any one.

ƕassei (76, n. 1), f. (113), sharpness, severity. [< stem *ƕassa (in ƕassaba, adv., sharply) = stem of OE. hwæs, OHG. (h)was, MHG. was, adj., sharp. Stem ƕassa- < *ƕat-ta-< *ƕat (= OE. hwæt, ME. hwat, hwæt, sharp) + suff. -ta-.]

ƕaþ, adv. (213, n. 1), whither. [< stem of ƕas + suff. .]

ƕaþar, interr. prn. (124, n. 1. 4; 160), whether, which of two?; Mk. II, 9. [< stem of ƕas + suff. -þar. OE. hwæðer, which of two, ME. hweðer, wheðer, NE. whether.]

ƕaþar-uh, indef. prn. (166), each of two, each.

ƕaþrô, adv. (213, n. 1), whense, from whense. [< stem of ƕas- + -þrô.]

ƕaz-uh, indef. prn. (147, n. 1; 164), f. ƕôh, n. ƕah, each, every, (1) as sb.; Mt. V, 22. Lu. II, 23. (2) as attrib.; Lu. II, 41; = ƕ. saei, whoever, whosoever; Mt. V, 28. 31. 32.—See also sa-ƕ. and þis-ƕ. For [ƕaz-: ƕas, s. 78, c.]

ƕê, instr. of ƕas.

ƕêh, instr. of ƕazuh (164, n. 2), uzed as adv., at least, only.

ƕeila, f. (97), while, hour, time, season; Mk. II, 19.

ƕeilaƕaírbs, adj. (124), enduring but for a while, transitory. [-ƕaírbs < √ of ƕaírban.]

ƕeilô-hun, adv. (97, n. 2; 163, n. 1), for a while. [ƕeilô- is the stem of [hv]eila.]

ƕeits, adj. (124), white; Mt. V, 36. [OE. hwît, ME. whyte, hwit, NE. white.]

ƕêlauþs, interr. prn. (161), how[Pg 175] great, what? [< ƕê + -lauþs, adj., grown up, < √ of liudan.]

ƕileiks, interr. adj. and prn. (161), what, what sort of?, in dir. questions; Mk. IV, 30. [< ƕi- (161, n. 1) + -leiks. OE. hwilc (< *hwi-lîc), ME. hwilc, hwilch, which, NE. which.]

ƕô, f. of ƕas.

ƕôftuli (51, n. 2), f. (98), rejoicing, boasting, glory; II. Cor. I, 12. 14. V, 12. [< ƕôpan + the composit suff. -tul-jô-.]

ƕôpan, rv. (179), to boast, glory; II. Cor. V, 12.

ƕôtjan, wv. (188), to threten, rebuke, charge.—Cpd. ga-ƕ. [< ƕôta, f., thret, thretening. Cp. -ƕatjan, to sharpen, incite, < *ƕat; s. ƕassei.]

Iaírusalêm, pr. n. f., Jerusalem; dat. -êm; Lu. II, 22. 25. 43; acc. -êm; Lu. II, 41. 45. [< Ἱερουσαλήμ.]

Iaírusaúlyma, pr. n. f., Jerusalem; gen. -ôs; Lu. II, 38; dat. -ai; Mt. V, 35. Mk. III, 22; acc. -a; Lu. II, 42. [< Ἱεροσόλυμα.]

Iaírusaúlymeis, pr. n. in pl., Jerusalem; also the peple of Jerusalem; Mk. I, 5. [< Ἱεροσολυμίτης, inhabitant of Jerusalem (cp. Iaírusaúlymeitês in Jo. VII, 25).]

Iakôb (54), pr. n., Jacob. [< Ἰακώβ.]

Iakôbus, pr. n., James; gen. -aus; Mk. III, 17; or -is; Mk. V, 37; dat. -au; Mk. I, 29. III, 17; acc. -u; Mk. I, 19. III, 18. V, 37. [< Ἰάκωβος.]

Iarêd (6), pr. n., Jared. [< Ἰαρέδ.]

Iaúrdanês, pr. n., the river Jordan; dat. ; Mk. I, 5. 9; also nom. -us; gen. -aus; Mk. III, 8. [< Ἰορδάνης, Ἰόρδανος.]

ibai (iba), (1) interr. particl (216), in dir. questions, a negativ answer being expected, perhaps, but uzually remains untranslated in English; Mk. II, 19. IV, 21. II. Cor. III, 1; so w. auftô; II. Cor. I, 17. (2) conj. (218), lest, lest by any means; Mk. II, 21; ibai auftô, lest perhaps; Mk. II, 22. II. Cor. II, 7; iba ƕan, lest at any time; Mt. V, 25. [OE. *if (in gif; s. jabai), OHG. ibu, conj. (prop. instr. of iba, f., dout; cp. Kl. W., ob), beside oba, MHG. obe, ob, NHG. ob, if, whether.]

ibnassus, m. (105), evenness, equality. [< ibns + suff. -assus.]

ibns, adj. (124), even, flat. [< ib- (apparently = ib in ib-dalja, descent, ibuks, backwards) + suff. na-. OE. efn, ME. even, NE. even.]

iddja (73, n.), weak prt. (207), I went; Mk. I, 45. II, 13. 15. V, 24. 42. Lu. II, 3. 51.—Cpds. af-, at-, ga-, us-i. For citations, s. the respectiv cpds. of gaggan. [OE. êode, ME. eode, ᵹede, ᵹeode, NE. yede, yode, (obs.).]

idreiga, f. (97), repentence; Mk. I, 4.

idreigôn, wv. (190), to repent, do penance; Mk. I, 15. [< idreiga.]

Idumaia, pr. n. f. in dat., Idumea; Mk. III, 8.

Iêsus (1, n. 4), pr. n., Jesus (Christ); Mk. I, 9. 14. 17. 25. 41. 42. II, 5. 8. 17. 19. III, 7. IV, 1. V, 13. 20. 30. 36. Lu. II, 21. 43; gen. Iêsuis; Mk. I, 1. V, 22. II. Cor. I, 1. IV, 5; dat. Iêsua; Mk. II, 15. V, 15. 21; or Iêsu; II. Cor. I, 2; acc. Iêsu; Mk. V, 6. 27. Lu. II, 27. II. Cor. IV, 14; voc. Iêsu; Mk. I, 24. V, 7. [< Ἰησοῦς.]

iftuma, superl. adj. (139), the next. [< if + superl. suff. -tu-ma-n-.]

igqara (iggqara; 67, n. 1), pers. prn. 2nd pers. du. gen.; dat. acc. ig(g)qis; s. þu. [OE. gen. incer, dat. inc, acc. inc(it); ME. gen. incer, dat. acc. inc(k).]

igqis, acc. du. of þu.

ija, acc. sg. of si.

ik, pers. prn. 1st pers. nom. sing. (150), I, (1) emfatic, w. vs.; Mt.[Pg 176] V, 22. 28. 32. 34. 39. 44. Mk. I, 2. 7. 8. II. Cor. I, 23. II, 2; jah ik, and I, I also; Lu. II, 48. II. Cor. II, 10; gen. meina; dat. mis; Mk. I, 7. 17. II, 14. V, 7. 30. 31. II. Cor. I, 17. II, 1. 2. 12; acc. mik; Mk. I, 40. Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. I, 16. 19. II, 2. 5; dual nom. wit, we two; dat. ug(g)kis; acc. ug(g)kis, ugk; pl. nom. weis, we, (1) w. vs. (emfatic); Mt. VI, 12. II. Cor. I, 4. 6. IV, 11. 13. V, 16. 21; (2) jah weis, and we, we also; II. Cor. I, 6; weis allai; II. Cor. III, 18; or allai weis; II. Cor. V, 10; gen. unsara; dat. uns; Mt. VI, 11. 12. Mk. I, 24. Lu. II, 48. II. Cor. I, 8. 9. 11. 19. III, 2. 3. 5. IV, 12, V, 5. 12 (in B). 18. 19; or unsis; Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. IV, 7. 17. V, 5 and 12 (in A); acc. uns; Mt. VI, 13. Mk. I, 24. V, 12. II. Cor. I, 4. 5. 8. 10. 11. 14. 19. 20. 21. 22. II, 14. III, 1. 6. IV, 2. 5. V, 5. 11. 12. 14. 18. 20. 21; or unsis; Mk. V, 12. II. Cor. I, 21. IV, 14. V, 14. 18 (in A B). [OE. ic, ME. ic, ich, i, y, NE. I. See also meina, weis, unsara.]

im, anv. (204), 1st pers. sing. pres. indic.; s. wisan. [OE. eom, eam, am, ME. eom, æm, am, NE. am. The remaining forms of the prs. indic. and opt. (Goth. is, is-t; sijau, etc., OE. ear-t, is; sîe, etc.) ar from the same √.]

im, prn.; s. is.

imma, prn.; s. is.

in, prep. (217), (1) w. gen., on account of, for ... sake, about, thru, by; Mk. II, 27. III, 5. 9. IV, 17. Lu. II, 20. II. Cor. I, 6. II, 10. 12. III, 7. IV, 5. 11. 15; in þis, in-uh þis, on this account, for this cause; II. Cor. II, 8. IV, 16. V, 9; in þiz-ei, because, for the reason that; Mk. IV, 5. II. Cor. IV, 13. (2) w. dat., both concrete and abstr., and after vs. of motion and rest, (a) local, in, into, within, among, on, at, towards, to, before; Mt. V, 19. 20. 25. 28. 45. 48. VI, 1. 2. 5. 9. 10. 13. 18. 23. Mk. I, 2. 4. 9. 11. 13. 14. 15. 19. 20. 23. 29. 39. II, 1. 6. 8. 15. III, 3. IV, 1. 17. 28. 36. V, 1. 3. 5. 13. 14. 20. 27. 30. Lu. II, 3. 7. 8. 11. 12. 14. 16. 19. 21. 22. 24. 25. 27. 34. 38. 43. 44. 46. 49. 51. II. Cor. I, 8. 9. 11. 19. 20. 23. II, 3. 8. 14. 15. III, 2. 3. 7. 10. 14. IV, 3. 4. 11. 12. V, 1. 4. 6. 11. 19. Skeir. VII, b. d; (b) temporal, in, at, during, within, by, for; Mk. I, 9. II, 20. III, 4. IV, 35. II. Cor. I, 14; (c) in other relations of which sum may be regarded as belonging under (2), (a), chiefly in an abstr. sense, indicating a 'state' or 'condition', in, of, with; Mt. VI, 6. 13. 18. 29. Mk. I, 23. 30. V, 25. II. Cor. I, 4. 12. II, 1. III, 8. V, 17; or 'manner', in, with; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 29; or 'instr.', 'means'; Mk. I, 5. 8. IV, 2. 24. V, 13. 21. Lu. II, 27. II. Cor. I, 21. II, 12. 17. III, 7. 14. V, 19. Skeir. VII, c (the first); or 'reason', 'cause', because of, for; Mt. VI, 7. II. Cor. V, 2. in þammei (= þamma ei), because; II. Cor. II, 13; with regard to, according to, in, after; Mk. I, 11. 15. II. Cor. II, 3. 9. IV, 8. Skeir. VII, e. (the second). (3) w. acc., (a) of place, in, into, on, among, to, toward, down to, up to; Mt. V, 25. 29. 30. VI, 6. 26. 30. Mk. I, 12. 21. 45. II, 1. 22. 26. III, 1. 13. 20. 27. IV, 1. 7. 8. 18. V, 12. 13. 18. 38. Lu. II, 4. 15. 39. 41. 42. II. Cor. I, 16. II, 13. III, 13. 18; (b) of time, in, for; Mt. VI, 13. Lu. II, 1; (c) in other relations, expressing 'disposition', 'feeling', 'direction', or 'action towards', toward, against, to, unto, in; Mt. V, 22. Mk. V, 34. II. Cor. I, 5. 11. IV, 11.—Occurs[Pg 177] often in composition w. vs., sbs., and adjs. [OE. in, ME. in, inn, NE. in.]

ina, prn., s. is.

in-brannjan, wv. (187), to set on fire, set fire to, burn.

in-feinan, wv. (193), to be moved with compassion, to pity, w. du w. dat.; Mk. I, 41.

in-ga-leikôn, wv. (190), to change into the likeness of; II. Cor. III, 18.

in-kilþô, f. adj. (132, n. 2), with child; Lu. II, 5. [-kilþôn- < a sb. = OE. cild, n. (m.), ME. child, NE. child.]

inn, adv. (213, n. 2), in; Mk. V, 40.—Occurs in many cpds. [< in. OE. in(n), ME. NE. in, adv.]

inna, adv. (213, n. 2), within, in; II. Cor. III, 3. [< inn + -a. OE. ME. inne, NE. in, adv., coinciding with in = Goth. inn.]

innana, adv. (213, n. 2), within, inside. [< inna + -na. OE. innan, ME. innen, NE. in (coinciding with in = Goth.) inn, inna.]

inn-at-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to enter, enter into, go or cum into; Mk. IV, 19. V, 39.

inn-at-tiuhan, stv. (173), w. acc., to bring in; Lu. II, 27.

innaþrô, adv. (213, n. 2), from within, within, inwardly. [< inna + suff. -þrô.]

inn-gaggan, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), to go in, enter, w. in w. acc.; Mk. V, 18; inng. framis, to go on; Mk. I, 19.

innuma, superl. adj. (139), inner, innermost, inward; II. Cor. IV, 16. [< inn + suff. -u-ma-n. Cf. OE. ME. innem-est (= Goth. *innumist-s, a dubl superl.; cp. hindumists), NE. inmost (-ost for-est by influence of most; s. maists).]

ins, prn.; s. is.

in-saian (-saijan; 22, n. 1), rv. (182), to sow into, w. acc. and in w. dat.; Mk. IV, 15.

in-saíƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), to look upon, behold, w. du w. dat.; Mt. VI, 26.

in-sailjan, wv. (188), to let down by means of a rope, let down with cords; Mk. II, 4.

in-sandjan, wv. (188), to send into, send off or forth, send, (1) w. acc.; Mk. IV, 29; and faúra w. dat.; Mk. I, 2; or in w. acc. and a clause w. ei; Mk. V, 12; or inf. of purpose; Mk. III, 14. (2) without obj., w. du w. dat.; Mk. I, 2.

inuh, prep. w. acc. (217), without; Mt. V, 32. Mk. IV, 34. Skeir. VII, b. [Also inu. Cf. OHG. âno, MHG. ân, âne, NHG. ohne, prep., without.]

in-wait, prt. of inweitan.

in-weitan, stv. (172, n. 1; 197, n. 1), to wurship; Mk. V, 6.

in-winds, adj. (124), turnd aside; hense distorted from the right; perverse, unjust, unrighteous; Mt. V, 45. [-winds < √ of -windan.]

Iôdas (11, n. 2), pr. n., Juda. [< Ἰούδας.]

Iôhannês (61, n. 3), John; Mk. I, 4. 6. 14; gen. -is; Mk. II, 18; dat. ; Mk. I, 9. III, 17; or -ên; Mk. I, 29; acc. -ên; Mk. V, 37; or ; Mk. I, 19. [< Ἰωάννης.]

Iôsêf, pr. n., Josef; Lu. II, 4. 33. 43; acc. Iôsêf, pr. n., Josef; Lu. II, 16. [< Ἰωσήφ.]

is, pers. prn. 3d pers. sg. m. (152), nom., uzed alone and w. vs., for emfasis, he; Mk. I, 8. 45. II, 15. 25. III, 8. 13. IV, 27. 38. V, 4. 34. 40. Lu. II, 28. Skeir. VII, d; gen. is; Mt. V, 35. Mk. I, 7. 16. 19. 22. 28. II, 15. 16. 23. III, 5. 27. IV, 32. V, 27. 28. 31. Lu. II, 21. 33. 34. 41. 43. 47. 48. 51. II. Cor. II, 11. III, 7. Skeir. VII, a. c; dat. imma; Mt. V, 25. 39. 40. 41. Mk. I, 5. 13. 18. 26. 27. 30. 36. 37. 40-45. Lu. II, 24; acc. ina;[Pg 178] Mt. VI, 8. Mk. I, 12. 25. 26. 34. 37. 40. 43. Lu. II, 7. 45. II. Cor. V, 16; pl. nom. eis; Mk. III, 4. Skeir. VII, b; gen. izê; Mt. VI, 14. 15. Mk. I, 23. 39. II, 5. III, 5. IV, 15. V, 37. Skeir. VII, d; dat. im; Mt. VI, 1. 7. Mk. I, 31. 38. 44. III, 4. II. Cor. IV, 4. Skeir. VII, b; acc. ins; Mt. VI, 26. Mk. I, 20. 21. 22. Skeir. VII, b. c; f. sg. nom. si; gen. izôs; Mt. V, 28. Mk. I, 31. V, 29; dat. izai; Mt. V, 28. 31. Mk. V, 34. 41. 43. Lu. II, 6. 7; acc. ija; Mk. I, 30. V, 33; neut. sing. nom. ita; Mk. IV, 37; acc. ita; Mt. V, 29. Mk. IV, 16; pl. nom. ija; Lu. II, 50; dat. im; Lu. II, 42 (?). 49. 50. 51. [All but si < a pronominal stem of the 3d pers., i-.]

is, ist, anv. (204), 2nd and 3d pers. sing. prs. indic. of wisan.

Iskariôtês, pr. n., Iscariot; acc. -ên; Mk. III, 19. [< Ἰσκαριώτης.]

Israêl, pr. n., Israel; gen. -is; Lu. II, 25. II. Cor. III, 7. 13; dat. -a; Lu. II, 32. [< Ἰσραήλ.]

Israêleitês, pr. n. (120, n. 2), Israelite. [< Ἰσραηλίτης.]

ist, 3d pers. prs. ind. of wisan.

ita, prn.; s. is.

itan, stv. (176, n. 3), to eat.—Cpd. fra-i. [OE. etan, ME. æte, ête, NE. eat.]

, conj. (218), continuativ and more or less adversativ; so always at the beginning of the sentence, (1) but; Mt. V, 19. 21. 22. 29. 32. 33. 37. 39. VI, 3. 6. 15. 17. 20. 23. 27. Mk. I, 8. 14. 30. 41. 45. II, 18. III, 4. IV, 10. 11. 34. V, 33. 34. 36. 40. Lu. II, 19. 40. II. Cor. I, 12. III, 6. IV, 5. 18. V, 11. 16. Skeir. VII, a. b. (2) and; Mt. VI, 24. (3) iþ, then, therefore; Mt. V, 19.

Iûdaia, pr. n., Judea; dat. -a; Mk. III, 7; acc. -an; Lu. II, 4; or -a; II. Cor. I, 16. [< Ἰουδαία.]

Iûdaia-land, pr. n., the cuntry of Judea; Mk. I, 5.

Iûdas or Jûdas, pr. n., Judas; acc. -an; Mk. III, 19. [< Ἰούδας.]

iup, adv. (213, n. 2), upwards, up. [Cf. OE. ûp, upp, ME. up, NE. up.]

iupa, adv. (213, n. 2), abuv, on high. [< iup + suff. -a.]

iupana, adv. (213, n. 2), from abuv, again. [< iup + suff. -a-na.]

iupaþrô, adv. (213, n. 2), from abuv. [< iupa + suff. -þrô.]

izai, izê, izô, izôs, prn.; s. is.

iz-ei (78, c; izê), rel. prn. (157, n. 3), he who, he that; II. Cor. I, 10. III, 6; f. sei (< si ei); Lu. II, 4. 5. 10; þana izei, him who; II. Cor. V, 21. sa izê, he who; Mt. V, 32.

izô, izôs; s. izai.

izwar, poss. prn. (124, n. 1. 4; 151), m.; izwara, f.; izwar, n., your, in our 'Selections' always w. a sb., (1) preceding and, (a) without the art.; Mt. V, 37. 44. 45. 48. Mt. VI, 1. 8. 14. 15. 21. 25. 26. 32. Mk. II, 8. II. Cor. I, 14. 24. II, 9. IV, 5. V, 11. (b) w. the art.; Mt. V, 47. (2) following; so always without the art.; Mt. V, 20. II. Cor. I, 6. 24. [< stem of izwara. OE. êower, ME. NE. your.]

izwara, izwis, pers. prn.; s. þu. [2nd pers. gen. and dat. acc., respectivly. OE. gen. êower, dat. êow, acc. (êowic), êow, ME. gen. ᵹure, dat. acc. ᵹou, ᵹow, > NE. you.]

izwizei (i. e. izwiz-ei), rel. prn.; s. þu-ei.

Ja, adv. (216), yes; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 17. 18. 19. 20. [OE. iâ, geâ, ME. ᵹea, ᵹe, NE. yea.]

jabai, conj. (218), if, whether, even if, altho, (1) w. prs. indic.; Mt. V, 46. 47. VI, 14. 15. 22. 23. Mk. III, 24. 25. IV, 26. V, 28. II. Cor.[Pg 179] II, 2. 10. III, 9. 11. IV, 3. V, 1. 17; untê jabai...aíþþau, for either ... or; Mt. VI, 24. (2) w. prs. opt.; Mt. V, 29. 30. 39. 41. Mk. IV, 23.—jabai swêþauh jah, if only, even tho; II. Cor. V, 3. (3) w. pret. indic.; Mk. III, 26. II. Cor. II, 5. III, 7. V, 16. [< pron. stem ja- (cp. Brgm., I, § 123) + -bai (for ibai?); cp. OE. gif (for ge-if), gief, ME. yif, yf, NE. if. S. also ibai.]

Jaeirus, pr. n., Jairus; Mk. V, 22. [< Ἰάειρος.]

jah (the h being often assimilated to a follg. sound; 62, n. 3), conj. (217), (1) and (καί); Mt. V, 18. 19. 20. 23. 24. 25. 29. 30. 32. 38. 41-45. 47 (the 1st). VI, 2. 4. 5. 6. 12 (the 1st). 13. 17-20. 25. 26. 28. Mk. I, 4-7. 9-13. 15-26. 27 (the 1st). 29 (the 1st)-38 (the 1st and 2nd). 39-45. II, 1-4. 6. 8. 9. 11-14. 15 (all but the 2nd)-25. 26 (the 1st and 2nd). 27. III, 1-8. 9. 11-19 (the 1st). 20-28. 31-34. IV, 1. 2. 4-9. 11. 12. 13. 15-21. 24. 25 (the 1st). 26. 27. 30. 32. 33. 35-41 (all but the 3d). V, 1-7. 9. 10. 12-26. 29-34. 37-43. Lu. II, 3. 7-10. 12. 13. 14. 15 (1st and 3d). 16. 18. 20. 21. 22. 24-28. 30. 33-40. 42-52. II. Cor. I, 1. 2. 3. 6. 10. 12. 15-22. II, 2. 3. 4. 7. 12. 14. 15. 16. III, 2. 13. IV, 7. 14 (the 2nd). 16. 17. V, 2. 6. 8. 12. 15. 18. 19. Skeir. VII, a (the 1st and 3d). b. c (the 3d). d. (2) also (καί); sumtimes it is merely emfatic: even, indeed, or may remain untranslated in E.; Mt. V, 39. 40. 46. 47 (the 2nd). VI, 10. 12 (the 2nd). 14. 21. 24. Mk. I, 27 (the 2nd). 38 (the 3d). II, 15 (the 2nd). 26 (the 3d). 28. III, 19 (the 2nd). IV, 25 (the 2nd). 41 (the 3d). Lu. II, 15 (the 2nd). II. Cor. I, 5. 7. 8. 11. 13. 14. II, 10. III, 6. IV, 6. 11. 13 (the 2nd). 14 (the 1st). V, 3. 4. 5. 11. Skeir. VII, a (the 2nd). c (the 1st and 2nd). (3) and, but (δέ); Mt. VI, 30.—in þizei jah, and therefore; II. Cor. IV, 13.—jah...jah, both ... and; II. Cor. V, 5 (But s. note). Cp. also Mk. III, 35. [OHG. joh (ahd gr., 25, n. 1), MHG. joch, and, also.]

jainar, adv. (213, n. 1), there; Mt. V, 23. 24. Mk. I, 35. 38. II, 6. III, 1. V, 11. Lu. II, 6. [< jains + loc. suff. -r.]

jaind, adv. (213, n. 1), there, thither. [< jains + loc. suff. -d. Cf. OE. geond, ME. yond, NE. yond (obs.), adv., yonder.]

jaindrê, adv. (213, n. 1), there, thither. [< jains + suff. -drê. ME. NE. yonder.]

jains (20, n. 4), dem. prn. (156), that, w. a sb., (1) without the art.; Mk. I, 9. II, 20. IV, 35. Lu. II, 1; jainis stadis, to the other side; Mk. IV, 35. (2) w. the art.; Mk. III, 24. 25; jainaim þaim ûta, to them (that ar) without; Mk. IV, 11. [OE. geon, ME. ᵹon, NE. yon.]

jainþrô, adv. (213, n. 1), thense; Mt. V, 26. Mk. I, 19. [< jains + suff. -þrô.]

jaþþê (62, n. 3), conj. (153, n. 2; 218), and if, jaþþê...jaþþê, either ... or, whether ... or; II. Cor. I, 6. V, 9. 10. 13. [< jah (þ for h; s. jah) + þê, instr. of þata; s. sa.]

jau, interr. adv. (216), whether, if.

jêr, n. (94), year; Mk. V, 25. 42. Lu. II, 36. 37. 41. Skeir. VII, d. [OE. geâr, gêr, ME. yêr, NE. year.]

jôta, m. (108), iota, jot; Mt. V, 18. [< ἰῶτα, iota.]

ju, adv. (214, n. 1), now, alredy; Mt. V, 28. Lu. II, 15. [OE. iû, giû, adv., alredy, onse, formerly.]

juggs (124), adj. (124), new, fresh; Mk. II, 22. yung; Lu. II, 24.—sa[Pg 180] jûhiza (15; 66, n. 1), compar. (135, n. 1), the yunger. [OE. geong, giung, ME. ᵹong, ᵹung, NE. yung.]

juk, n. (94), yoke, pair. [OE. geoc, gioc, n., ME. ᵹok, NE. yoke.]

jus, pers. prn. 2nd pers. pl.; s. þu. [Cf. OE. nom. gê, gen. êower, dat. êow, acc. êowic; ME. nom. yê, gen. your, dat. you, acc. you (prop. dat.), NE. nom. ye, you (prop. dat.), (gen. your, poss., s. izwara), dat. you, acc. you (prop. dat.).]

ju-þan, adv., alredy; Mk. IV, 37; juþan ni, no longer, no more; Mk. I, 4. 5. II, 2.

Kafarnaum, indecl. pr. n., Capernaum, in acc.; Mk. I, 21. II, 1. [< Καπερναούμ.]

kaisar, m. (91, n. 4; 119), Cesar; dat. -a; Lu. II, 1. [< καῖσαρ.]

Kajafa (52), pr. n., Cajaphas. [< Καϊαφάς.]

kalbô, f. (112), female calf, hefer. [OHG. chalba, kalba, MHG. kalbe, f. Its orig. stem appears in OE. cealf-ru, pl., but cealf, sing. (without the orig. s: z: r-suff.), ME. cælf, kalf, NE. calf.]

kalds, adj. (124), cold. [Orig. a ptc. (da- being suff.), < √ kal, in OE. ME. côle, w. abl., NE. cool, OE. ceald, ME. cald, cold, NE. cold.]

kalkinassus, m. (105), adultery, fornication; Mt. V, 32. [< kalk- (seen in kalk-jô, or kalk-i, harlot, whore) + suff. -in-assu-.]

Kananeitês, pr. n. m., Canaanite; Mk. III, 18. [< Κανανίτης.]

kann, kan(n)t; s. kunnan, prt.-prs.

kannjan, wv. (188), to make known.—Cpds. ga-, us-k. [Factit. of kunnan. OE. (ge-)cennan, ME. (i-) kenne, to make known, and (by influence of ON. kenna, to know) to know, NE. ken, to know, recognize.]

kara, f. (97; karist; 204, n. 3), care; kara wisan, to concern, w. acc.; Mk. IV, 38 (without ist). [OE. cearu, f., ME. care, care, grief, NE. care.]

karkara, f. (97; 119), prison; Mt. V, 25. [< Lt. carcer, m., prison.]

kas, gen. kasis, n. (94), vessel, picher, pot; II. Cor. IV, 7; in pl. also goods (so in the E. version; gerät in G.). Mk. III, 27. [OHG. char, MHG. kar, n., vessel, dish.]

kaupatjan, wv. (187, n. 1), to strike with the palm of the hand, to cuf, buffet.

Kaúrazein (57), pr. n., Chorazin. [< Χοραζείν.]

kaúrei, f. (113), weight, burden; II. Cor. IV, 17. [< kaúrus.]

Kaúrinþaíus, pr. n., a Corinthian; dat. pl. -aíum; II. Cor. superscr. (in B); or -ium (in A). [< Κορίνθιος.]

Kaúrinþô, pr. n., Corinth; dat. -ôn; II. Cor. I, 1. 23. [< Κόρινθος.]

kaúrjan, wv. (188), to press, burden, trubl, w. acc., in pass. the nom. (implied); II. Cor. I, 8. V, 4.—Cpd. ana-k. [< kaúrus.]

kaúrn, n. (94), corn, grain; Mk. IV, 28. [OE. corn, n., a grain, corn, ME. NE. corn.]

kaúrnô, n. (110), corn, grain of corn; Mk. IV, 31. [< kaúrn.]

kaúrus, adj. (131, n. 1), hevy, weighty, burdensum.

kawtsjô (39, n. 1), f. (112), security. [< Lt. cautio, security.]

Kêfas (6), pr. n., Cephas.

keinan, stv. (172, n. 2; 195, n. 2), to germinate, spring up, grow; Mk. IV, 27. [OE. cînan, ME. chine, to split, crack, burst, > NE. chink (w. k-suff.).]

kilþei, f. (113), womb. [S. inkilþô.]

kindins, m. (91), guvernor; k. wisan, to be guvernor, to guvern; Lu. II, 2.

kinnus, f. (105), cheek; Mt. V, 39. [OE. cin- (in composition), chin (but cheek in cin-bân, n., cheek-bone, cin[Pg 181]tôð, m., cheek-tooth), ME. chin, NE. chin.]

kintus, m. (105), farthing; Mt. V, 26. [Perhaps < a vulgar form of Lt. quintus, one fifth (of an 'as'); cp. MHG. quentîn (quintîn) one fourth (perhaps orig. one fifth of a 'lot' = about ½ ounce), < Vulgar Lt. quintînus < Lt. quintus, fifth.]

kiusan, stv. (173, n. 1), to test, prove, choose. [OE. cêosan, ME. chese, chose > NE. choose.]

kniu, n. (94, n. 1), knee; Mk. I, 40. [OE. cnêo, ME. kne, NE. knee.]

knôþs (74, n. 2), f. (103), race, stock. [OHG. chnôt, chnuat, f., race. Its stem, knô, = OE. cnô-, in cnôsl (w. suff. -sla-), race, kin.]

knussjan, wv., to kneel down; Mk. I, 40. [< *knussus, a kneeling, < stem knu-:kniw-, extended kniwa- > kniu.]

Krêks (8), m. (119), a Greek. [< Lt. Græcus.]

Krêta (6), pr. n., Crete. [< Κρήτη.]

kriustan, stv. (173, n. 1), to gnash.

-krôtôn (12, n. 1), wv. (190), in ga-k.

krusts, m. (101, n. 1), gnashing. [< kriustan.]

-kumbjan (54, n. 1), wv., in ana-, miþ-ana-k. [< Lt. -cumbere, in ac-c., to lie down, recline.]

kûmei, arise!; Mk. V, 41 [< κόυμι, arise!, < the Syrian.]

-kunds, adj. (124), denoting origin or kind, in aírþa-, guma-, himina-, qina-kunds. [Prop. an old ptc. < √ of kuni. OE. -cund (as in god-cund, divine), extended cynde, ME. kynde, kinde, natural, suitabl, kind, NE. kind.]

kuni, n. (93), kin, race, tribe; Lu. II, 36. [OE. cyn(n), n., ME. kin, kun, NE. kin.]

kunnan, prt.-prs. (199), to know, w. acc.; Mk. I, 34. IV, 11. 13. II. Cor. II, 4. (in pass. the nom.) III, 2. V, 16. 21. Skeir. VII, a; and an indir. question; Mk. I, 24; or bi w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 16.—Cpds. fra-, ga-k. [OE. cunnan; prs. sing. can, cǫn, ME. cunne, kunne, conne; prs. con, kan, can > NE. can.]

-kunnan, wv. (199, n. 1), in ana-, at-, ga-, uf-k. [< kunnan, abuv. OE. cunnian, ME. cunne, to try to find out, to try, test, NE. con (obs.), to consider, cun (Sc.).]

kunþa, prt. of kunnan, prt.-prs.

kunþi, n. (95), knowledge; II. Cor. II, 14. IV, 6. [< kunþs. OE. cŷð(ð), f. (?), ME. kith, MHG. künde, n., knowledge.]

-kunþjan; s. -swi-kunþjan.

kunþs, adj. (123; prop. pp.), known; II. Cor. III, 2; kunþa, sb. m. (107), acquaintance; Lu. II, 44. [< kunnan. OE. cûð (û < un), ME. cuth, adj., known, NE. -couth, in uncouth.]

kustus, m. (105), proof, trial, test; II. Cor. II, 9. [< kiusan + suff. -tu-. OE. cost (for cyst, s. ga-kusts), m., manner, ME. cost, cust, choice, quality, manner, OHG. chost, m., judgment, decision, > chostôn, MHG, NHG. kosten, to taste, try.]

Kyreinaíus, pr. n., Cyrenius; dat. -au; Lu. II, 2. [< Κυρήνιος.]

-Qaírnus (105), in asilu-qaírnus, milstone (lit. 'ass-mil', i. e. a mil turnd by an ass), mil. [OE. cweorn, cwyrn, f., mil, ME. cwern, quern, NE. quern, hand-mil.]

qaírrus, adj. (131), meek, gentl. [ON. kvær (stem *kverru-) beside kvirr (stem *kvirria-), stil, quiet, OHG. *churri, *cwirri, MHG. kürre, MG. kurre, kirre, NHG. kirre, adj., tame, familiar, submissiv.]

qam, prt. of qiman.

Qartus (59), pr. n., Quartus.

qaþ(-uh), prt. of qiþan (+ -uh).

[Pg 182]

qêmjau, qêmun, prt. of qiman.

qêns (qeins; 7, n. 2), f. (103), woman, wife; Mt. V, 31. 32. Lu. II, 5. [OE. cwên, f., ME. quene, wife, woman, queen, NE. queen. Cp. qinô.]

qêþun, prt. of qiþan.

qiman, stv. (175, n. 1), to cum, arrive, both lit. and trop.; Mt. VI, 10. Mk. I, 7. 9. III, 31. IV, 4. 15. 17. V, 22. 23. 33. II. Cor. II, 3; w. af w. dat.; Mk. III, 22. II. Cor. I, 16; at w. dat.; Mk. I, 40. II, 3. III, 8. II. Cor. I, 15. 16. II, 1; fram w. dat.; Mk. V, 35; hindar w. dat.; Mk. V, 1; in w. dat.; Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 14. 29. V, 1. Lu. II, 27. 51. II. Cor. I, 23. II, 12; nêƕa w. dat.; Mk. II, 4; us w. dat.; Mk. I, 11; duþê (therefore); Mk. I, 38; a final clause w. duþê ei; Mk. IV, 21; inf. of purpose; Mt. V, 17. Mk. I, 24. II, 17. V, 14; a ptc.; Mk. I, 14. 40. II, 3. V, 35. Lu. II, 16; an acc. of time; Lu. II, 44.—Cpds. ana-, fra-, ga-, us-q. [OE. cuman (< *cwuman < *queman), ME. cume, come, NE. cum.]

qina-kunds (88a), adj. (124), female.

qinô, f. (112), woman; Mt. V, 28. Mk. V, 25. 33. Skeir. VII, a. [OE. cwene, f., woman, lady, ME. quene, wife, woman, quean, NE. quean, OHG. quena, chone, MHG. kone, f., woman. Cp. qêns.]

-qiss (76, n. 1), f., in cpds. [< qiþan + suff. -ti (ss < þt). OE. -cwiss, in gecwiss, f., harmony.]

qistjan, wv. (188), to destroy, in fra-, us-q. [< stem *qis-ti, destruction, = OHG. quist, f., destruction.]

-qistnan, wv. (194), in fra-q. [Cp. qistjan.]

qiþan, stv. (176, n. 1), to say, speak, tel, name, call, (1) w. acc. of the th. said; Mk. I, 42 (in pass. the nom.). Lu. II, 21; (2) w. a dependent sentence or frase, (a) dir.; Mt. V, 27. 38. 43. VI, 31. Mk. I, 7. 24. 25. 27. III, 30. 33. 34. IV, 9. 26. 30. V, 7. 30. Lu. II, 13. 28. Skeir. VII, a; (b) w. þatei; Mt. V, 31. Mk. I, 11. 15. II, 12. III, 11. 21. 22. V, 23. 28. 35. (3) w. acc. and inf.; II. Cor. IV, 6. (4) w. dat. of the pers. addrest and, (a) an acc. of th.; Mk. V, 33; or a voc.; Mt. V, 22 (raka, indecl.); (b) a dir. obj. sentence; Mt. V, 18. 21. 26. 33. 44. VI, 2. 25. Mk. I, 17. 41. II, 9. 11. 19. 27. IV, 2 (and in w. dat.). 11. V, 8. Skeir. VII, d; (c) an obj. clause w. þatei; Mt. V, 20. 22. 28. 32. 33. VI, 5. 16. 29. Mk. III, 28; (d) a final clause w. ei; Mk. III, 9; (e) an inf.; Mt. V, 34. 39; (f) bi w. acc.; Mk. I, 30. (5) w. du w. dat. of the pers. addrest, and, (a) a dir. sentence; Mk. I, 38. 44. II, 5. 8. 10. 14. 16. 17. 18. 24. 25. III, 3. 4. 5. 23. 32. IV, 13. 21. 24. 35. 38. 39. 40. 41. V, 9. 19. 31. 34. 36. 39. 41. Lu. II, 10. 15. 34. 48. 49; (b) an obj. clause w. þatei; Mk. I, 37. 40. (6) w. swaswê and in w. dat.; Lu. II, 24.—Cpd. us-q. [OE. cweðan (prt. cwæð), ME. queðe (prt. quað, quoð), NE. (be-)queath (prt. quoth).]

qiþus, m. (105), womb; Lu. II, 23. [ON. kviðr, m., stomach.]

-qiujan (42), wv. (187), to quicken, in ga-q. [< qius. OE. cwicjan, ME. quike, to make alive, OHG. quicchan in ir-qu., MHG. erquicken, to cause to revive, to refresh, NHG. erquicken, to refresh.]

-qiunan (42, n. 3), wv. (194), in ga-q., to becum alive. [< qius.]

*qius, adj. (124, n. 3), quick, living, alive. [< stem qiwa-. Cf. OE. cwic (o-stem); cwicu and cucu (< stem in -u), NE. quick.]

qrammiþa, f. (97), moisture.

qums, m. (101, n. 1), a cuming, arrival. [< qiman. OE. cyme, m., ME. cume, kime, a cuming.]

[Pg 183]

Lag, prt. of ligan.

laggei, f. (113), length. [< laggs. OE. lengu (str., for *lengî, weak, by change of declension), f., ME. lenge, OHG. lengî (likewise str.), MHG. lenge, NHG. länge, f., length.]

laggs, adj. (124), long (said of time only); Mk. II, 19. [OE. lǫng, lang, ME. NE. long.]

lagjan, wv. (187), to lay, lay down, put, place, giv, w. acc. and ana w. acc.; Mk. V, 23. II. Cor. III, 13; to communicate, commit, w. acc. and in w. dat. (or acc.?); II. Cor. V, 19.—Cpd. ga-l. [Caus. of ligan. OE. lecᵹan, ME. legge, leie, NE. lay.]

laígaíôn, legion; Mk. V, 9. 15. [< λεγεών, legion.]

laikan, rv. (179), to leap, leap for joy. [OE. lâcan, to leap, play, ME. lake, to play.]

laíktjô (57), f. (always in the margin, in B, opposit the passage to be red in church); II. Cor. III, 4. V, 11. [< L. lectio, a reading.]

laílôt, prt. of lêtan.

laílôun, prt. of lauan.

lais (30), prt.-prs. (197), I know. [Cp. laisareis, laisjan.]

laisareis, m. (92), teacher, master; Mk. IV, 38. V, 35. Lu. II, 46. Skeir. VII, a. [< *laisa (= OE. lâr, f., a teaching, ME. lare, lore, NE. lore) < lais. OHG. lêrari, MHG. lêrære, lêrer, NHG. lehrer, teacher.]

laiseins, f. (103, n. 1), a teaching, doctrin; Mk. I, 22. 27. IV, 2. [< laisjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

laisjan (30), wv. (188; 197), to teach, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 1. (2) w. acc. of pers.; Mt. V, 19. Mk. I, 21. 22. II, 13; and acc. of th.; Mk. IV, 2. [Caus. of lais. OE. læ̂ran, to teach, ME. lere, to teach, lern, NE. lear (obs.). OHG. MHG. lêren, to teach, lern (rare), NHG. lehren, to teach.]

laistjan, wv. (188), to follow, follow after, w. afar w. dat.; Mk. I, 18. III, 7. [< laists (< lais + suff. -ti- = OE. lâst, m. o-stem, ME. last, lest, NE. last), m., foot-print, track. OE. læ̂stan, to perform (by following a track), stand by, ME. laste, leste, NE. last.]

Laíwweis, pr. n., Levi; acc. -i; Mk. II, 14. [< Λευίς.]

lamb, n. (94), lamb, sheep. [OE. ME. lǫmb, lamb, n., NE. lam.]

land, n. (94), land, cuntry, region; Mk. V, 1. 10, Lu. II, 8. (þata bisunjanê land, the cuntry round about; Lu. IV, 37); landis (215), gen. uzed adverbially, a portion of land, far away. [OE. lǫnd, land, n., ME. land, NE. land.]

lasiws (42, n. 1), adj. (124), feebl, weak. [< stem las-. Cf. OE. læ̂ssa, compar. adj., ME. lesse, NE. less.]

laþôn, wv. (190), to invite, call, w. acc.; Mk. II, 17. [OE. laðian, ME. laðie, OHG. ladôn, MHG. NHG. laden, to invite, summon.]

laþôns, f. (103, n. 1), a calling, invitation, consolation; Lu. II, 25. redemption; Lu. II, 38. [< laþôn.]

*lauan (22, n. 2; 26, n. 2), rv. (179, 4), to revile.

-laubjan (31), only in ga-, us-l. [< a sb. = OE. lêaf, f., ME. lêve, NE. leav, permission, (ge-)liefan, -lêfan, (< *-lêafian), ME. (i-, be-)lêve, NE. believ.]

laufs (56, n. 1), m. (91), leaf, the leavs, foliage. [OE. lêaf, n., ME. lêf, NE. leaf.]

laugnjan (31), wv. (188), to deny. [< -laugns (in ana-l.), adj., hidn. OE. lêgnian(?), lŷᵹnian, (< *lêagnian), ME. leine, laine, OHG. louginen, lougnen, MHG. löugenen, NHG. läugnen, to deny.]

lauhatjan, wv. (187, n. 1), to lighten.

lauhmuni (-moni; 14, n. 3), f., (98)[Pg 184] lightning. [< lauhmun- (+ suff. -jô) < √ of liuhaþ + suff. -mun-.]

Lauidja (26, n. 1), f. (97) pr. n.; in dat. -ai. [< Λωίς, dat. Λωίδι.]

laun, n. (94), pay, reward; Mt. VI, 1. [OE. lêan, n., ME. lean, OHG. MHG. lôn, m. n., NHG. lohn, m., pay, reward.]

laus (78, n. 2), adj. (124), empty. [< √ of liusan. OE. lêas, ME. lês, empty, free from, false, NE. -less, ON. lauss, free, > ME. los, NE. loose.]

lausa-waúrds (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), speaking loose words, talking vainly. [-waúrds < waúrd.]

laus-handus (88a, n. 1), adj. (131, n. 1), empty-handed.

lausjan, wv. (188), to loose, redeem, deliver, w. acc. and af w. dat.; Mt. VI, 13.—Cpd. ga-l. [< laus. OE. lŷsan, lêsan, ME. lese (NE. loose, ME. lose < los; s. laus), OHG. lôsen, MHG. lœsen, NHG. lösen, to loose.]

laus-qiþrs (88a, n. 1), adj. (124), with empty stomach, fasting.

-leiban (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), in bi-l. [OE. (be-)lîfan, OHG. (bi-)lîban, MHG. blîben, NHG. bleiben, to remain, stay.]

leihts, adj. (124), light; II. Cor. IV, 17. [OE. lîht, ME. liht, NE. light.]

leihts, m. (? 90), lightness; II. Cor. I, 17. [< leihts, adj.]

leiƕan, stv. (172), to lend; l. sis, to borrow; Mt, V, 42. [OE. lêon (< lîhǫn), to lend, OHG. lîhan, MHG. lîhen, NHG. leihen, to lend, also borrow.]

leik, n. (94), body; Mt. V, 29. 30. VI, 22. 23. 25. Mk. V, 29. II. Cor. IV, 10. V, 6. 8. 10; flesh; II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 11. V, 16. [OE. lîc, n., ME. lik, lich, NE. like (obs.), person, corpse, lich- (in lichgate, lichwake, etc.), Lich- (in Lichfield), OHG. lîh (hh), f. n., body, flesh, MHG. lîch, lîche, f., body, corpse, NHG. leiche, f., corpse, leich- (in leichdorn, corn on a toe, leichnam, corpse; s. -hamôn).]

-leikan, wv. (193), to please, in ga-l. [< -leiks. OE. lîcian, ME. like, NE. like (obs.), to please. The signification of the simpl v. seems due to the compound (s. galeikan).]

leikeins, adj. (124), bodily, fleshly; II. Cor. I, 12. III, 3. [< leik + suff. -eina-.]

-leikjan, wv. (188), in silda-l. [< -leiks.]

-leikôn, wv. (190), in in-ga-l. [< (ga-)leiks; s. galeikô.]

-leiks; s. galeikô.

leitils, adj. (124; 138), litl, short; Mt. VI, 30. Mk. I, 19. [Cf. OE. lŷtel, lîtel, ME. litel (infl. litl-), NE. litl.]

-leiþan, stv. (172, n. 1), to go, in af-, bi-, ga-, us-l. [OE. lîðan, ME. liðe, to go, > the OE. caus. læ̂dan, ME. lede, NE. lead.]

leiþu, n. (? 106; n. 1), a strong drink. [OE. lîð, m. (o-stem), potion, wine, OHG. lîd, MHG. lît, lîd-, n. m., a wine-like drink.]

lêkeis (leikeis, 7, n. 2), m. (92), fysician; Mk. II, 17. V, 26. [OE. læ̂ce, m., ME. lêche, NE. leech, fysician (now obs.), a blud-sucking wurm.]

lêtan (leitan, 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc., to let, suffer, permit, allow, leav; Mk. V, 19.—Cpds. af-, fra-l. [OE. læ̂tan, ME. lete, NE. let, to permit (let, to hinder, = Goth. latjan < lats, slothful, lazy).]

lêw, n. (94, n. 1), opportunity, occasion; II. Cor. V, 12. [Cf. OE. læ̂wa, m., betrayer; s. lêwjan.]

lêwjan, wv. (188), to betray.—Cpd. ga-l. [< lêw. OE. læ̂wan, ME. be-lewe, to betray.]

libains, f. (103, n. 1), life; II. Cor. II,[Pg 185] 16. IV, 11. 12. V, 4; world; Mk. IV, 19. [< liban + suff. -ai-ni-.]

liban, wv. (193), to liv; Mk. V, 23. II. Cor. I, 8. III, 3. IV, 11. V, 15 (the first); w. dat. of advantage; II. Cor. V, 15 (the second); w. miþ w. dat.; Lu. II, 36. [OE. libban, lifian, ME. libbe, livie, live, NE. liv.]

-lifnan, wv. (194), to remain, in af-l. [Cf. -leiban, pp. libans.]

ligan, stv. (176, n. 1), to lie, w. ana w. dat.; Mk. II, 4. II. Cor. III, 15; du w. dat.; Lu. II, 34; in w. dat.; Mk. I, 30. Lu. II, 16; þarei; Mk. V, 40. [OE. licgan, ME. ligge, lie, NE. lie.]

ligrs, m. (91), couch, bed; Mk. IV, 21. [< ligan + suff. -ra-. OE. leger, m., couch, ME. leir, NE. lair.]

-linnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to cease, in af-l. [OE. linnan, ME. linne, NE. lin (obs.; cpd. blin = *be-lin, OE. blinnan, ME. blinne), to cease.]

lisan, stv. (176, n. 1), to gather, collect, w. in w. acc.; Mt. VI, 26.—Cpd. ga-l. [OE. lesan, ME. lese, NE. lease, to glean, = G. lesen, to gather, read.]

lists (30), f. (? 103, n. 2), wile, craftiness. [< lis- (seen in lis-ans, pp. of lais) + suff. -ti-. OE. ME. list, skil, cunning, OHG. MHG. list, m. (f.), wisdom, craftiness, NHG. list, f., craft, cunning.]

liþus, m. (105), lim, member; Mt. V, 29. 30. [< √ of leiþan. OE. lioðu- (only in cpds.), m., lið, n. (o-stem), ME. lith, NE. (Scot.) lith, lim.]

liudan, stv. (173, n. 1), to grow, grow up; Mk. IV, 27. [OE. lêodan, to grow. Its √ appears also in OE. lêod, m. f., pl. lêode, ME. leode, lede, OHG. liut, m. n., pl. liuti, MHG. liute, NHG. leute, peple, men, servants.]

liufs (gen. liubis; 31; 56, n. 1), adj. (124, n. 2), beluvd, dear; Mk. I, 11. [OE. lêof, ME. lêf, NE. lief (poet.), OHG. liob, MHG. liep, lieb-, NHG. lieb, beluvd, dear.]

liugan (31), stv. (173, n. 1), to lie. [OE. lêogan, ME. lyᵹe, liᵹe, NE. lie.]

liugan, wv. (192, n. 1; 193), to marry, w. acc.; Mt. V, 32. [< liuga, f., marriage.]

liugn (31), n. (94), lie. [< liugan + suff. -na-.]

liugnja (31), m. (108), liar. [< liugn + suff. -jan-.]

liuhadei, f. (113 and n. 2), light, illumination; II. Cor. IV, 4 (-eins, partit. g., in A; -ein in B; s. note). 6. [< liuhaþ.]

liuhadeins, adj. (124), ful of light, shining, bright; Mt. VI, 22. [< liuhaþ + suff. -eina-.]

liuhaþ, gen. liuhadis, n. (94), light; Mt. VI, 23. Lu. II, 32. II. Cor. IV, 6. [< √ liuh + suff. -ada-.]

liuhtjan, wv. (188), to giv light, to light, shine; II. Cor. IV, 4. 6. [< *liuhts (< √ of liuhaþ + suff. -to-), adj. (= OE. lêoht, ME. licht, NE. light). OE. lŷhtan, ME. lihte, NE. light.]

-liusan, stv. (173, n. 1), in fra-l. [OE. (for-)lêosan, ME. (for-)lêse, NE. leese (obs.), to lose, pp. (for-)lorn.]

liuta, m. (108), dissembler, hypocrit; Mt. VI, 2. 5. 16. [Prop. weak form of the adj. liuts < √ of OE. lûtan, ME. lute, loute, NE. lout (obs.), to bend, bow, stoop. Cf. also OE. lyteg (w. suff. -eg), ME. luti, shrewd, cunning.]

lôfa, m. (108), the palm of the hand. [ON. lófi, Scot. loof, the palm of the hand.]

lubains (31), f. (103, n. 1), hope. [< *luban, to hope, (+ suff. -ai-ni-), < √ of liufs.]

lubja-leisei (30), f. (113), wichcraft. [< lubjaleis, adj., skild, < lubja- (= OE. lyb, f.?, poison; cf. also cêse-lib, ME. cheselep, NE. cheese[Pg 186]lep. The orig. meaning of lubja- was probably 'a strong essence, vegetabl juice') + -leis < √ of lais.]

-lubô (31), f. (111), in brôþru-(-a-?)lubô, brotherly luv. [< √ of liufs. OE. lufe (later lufu, a-declension), f., ME. lufe, luve, love, NE. luv.]

ludja, f. (97), face, countenance; Mt. VI, 17. [< √ of liudan + suff. -jô-.]

luftus, m. (105), air. [OE. lyft (i-stem), m. f. n., ME. luft, lift, NE. lift (Scot.), air.]

-lûkan (15), stv. (173, n. 2), to lock, in ga-, us-l. [OE. lûcan, ME. louke, luke, to lock. Its √ occurs w. abl. in -luks, m., an opening; cf. OE. loc, n., loca, m., ME. loke (> the vb. lokke, NE. lock), inclozure, lock, NE. lock.]

lukarn, n. (94), light, candl; Mt. VI, 22. Mk. IV, 21. [< Lt. lucerna, f., lamp, candl.]

lukarna-staþa, m. (108), candl-stick; Mk. IV, 21. [< stem of lukarn + -staþa < staþs, sted, place, < √ of standan + suff. -þi-.]

lûns (15, n. 1), f. (102), or lun, n. (94, n. 2), ransom.

-lusnan, wv. (194), in fra-l. [< pp. stem of liusan.]

lustôn, wv. (190), to desire, lust after, w. gen.; Mt. V, 28. [< lustus. OHG. lustôn, MHG. lusten, to desire, NHG. lüsten, MHG. lusten, lüsten, (OHG. lustjan, lusten, = OE. lystan, ME. liste, NE. list, to please, < lust, f., OE. lyst, f., desire).]

lustus, m. (105), lust, desire; Mk. IV, 19. [OE. lust (a-stem), m., ME. lust, NE. lust.]

Magan, prt.-prs. (201), to be abl, be abl to do, w. inf.; Mt. V, 36. VI, 24. 27. Mk. I, 40. 45. II, 4. 7. 19. III, 20. 23-27. IV, 32. 33. V, 4. II. Cor. I, 4. III, 7. [OE. *magan, prs. mæᵹ; prt. meahte (Goth. mahta), mihte, ME. prs. mai, may, prt. miht, NE. prs. may, prt. might.]

magaþei, f. (113), virginity; Lu. II, 36. [< magaþs.]

magaþs, f. (103), maid, virgin. [< stem mag-a- (s. magus, stem mag-u-) + suff. -þi-. OE. mægð, f., virgin, OHG. magad, virgin, MHG. maget, virgin, maid, female servant, NHG. magd, f., female servant.]

magula, m. (108), litl boy, lad; Skeir. VII, a. [< magus + dim. suff. -lan-.]

magus, m. (105), boy, child, servant; Lu. II, 43. 48. [< √ of magan. OE. magu (-o), m., sun, servant.]

mahta, prt. of magan.

mahteigs, adj. (124), mighty, strong. [< mahts + suff. -eiga-. OE. meahtig, mihtig, ME. mihty, NE. mighty.]

mahts (66, n. 1), f. (103), might, strength, power, virtue; Mt. VI, 13. Mk. V, 30. II. Cor. I, 8. IV, 7. Skeir. VII, a. c. [< √ of magan + suff. -ti-. OE. meaht, miht, ME. miht, NE. might.]

maidjan, wv. (188), to corrupt, deform, falsify; II. Cor. II, 17. [< -maiþs (in ga-maiþs; cp. ME. mad, NE. mad). OE. mæ̂dan, to deform, confuse, ME. mæde (madde), to confuse, derange, NE. mad (Shak.), to make mad.]

maíhstus, m. (105), dung, dung-hil. [< √ of OE. mîgan, ME. miᵹe, to urin. OHG. MHG. NHG. mist (for *mihst), m., manure.]

mais, adv. (212), more, rather; II. Cor. II, 7. V, 8; w. dat., more than; Mt. VI, 25; w. another compar.; Mt. VI, 26. Mk. V, 26. filu m., much more; Skeir. VII, d; und filu m., much more, so much the more; II. Cor. III, 9. 11; ƕaiwa m., how much more; Mt. VI, 30; ƕaiwa nei m., not much more; II. Cor. III, 8. [< ma- + adv. compar.[Pg 187] suff. -is. OE. mâ, ME. ma, mo, NE. mo(e) (obs.), more.]

maist, adv. (212, n. 3), most. S. maiza.

maitan, rv. (179), to cut, cut off, cut down.—Cpds. af-, bi-m. [OHG. meiȥan, MHG. meiȥen, to cut, hew. Cf. also G. meissel (w. l-suff.), m., chisel.]

maiþms, m. (91, n), gift. [< verbal stem maiþ- + suff. -ma-. OE. mâðum, ME. maðem, gift, trezure.]

maiza, compar. adj. (138), more, greater; filaus maizô, much more; Skeir. VII, b; superl. maists (138), greatest. [< stem ma- + suff. -iza. OE. mâra, superl. mâst, ME. mare, more, superl. most, NE. more, superl. most.]

Makaídonja (or i for , 11, n. 1), pr. n., Macedonia; dat. Makaídonjai (in B; i for in A); II. Cor. I, 16; acc. -a; II. Cor. I, 16. II, 13 (in A; i for in B). [< Μακεδονία.]

malan, stv. (177, n. 1), to grind in a mil. [OHG. malan, MHG. maln, NHG. mahlen, to grind.]

malô, f. (112), moth; Mt. VI, 19. 20. [Lit. 'grinding insect', < √ of malan.]

mammôna, m. (108), mammon, riches; Mt. VI, 24. [< μαμμωνᾶ(ς) < the Hebrew.]

managduþs, f. (103), abundance [< manags + suff. -du-þi-.]

managei, f. (111; 113), crowd, multitude, the peple; Mk. II, 4. III, 9. IV, 36. V, 27. 30. An adj., ptc., or prn., referring to m., uzually agrees w. it in gender and number; Mk. V, 31. Lu. II, 10. 31. 32. The v. either agrees w. m.; Mk. III, 20. Lu. II, 13. Skeir. VII, c; or m. stands in the sg. and the v. in the pl.; Mk. III, 32; so all, or filu, m., Mk. II, 13. III, 7. 8. IV, 1. V, 21. 24. [< manags. OE. menigu (orig. -î), f., ME. manye, NE. many (sb.; as, a great 'many').]

managnan, wv. (194), to increase, abound; II. Cor. IV, 15. [< manags.]

manags, adj. (124), often uzed as sb., much, many; Mk. I, 34. II, 2. 15. III, 10. IV, 2. 5. V, 9. 26. Lu. II, 34. 35. 36. II. Cor. I, 11. II, 4. III, 12. Skeir. VII, a. b; swa m., so many; Skeir. VII, b; swa m. swê, as many as; Mk. III, 11; swa m. swaswê, as many as; Mk. III, 28; swaleikai m. swaswê, many such as; Mk. IV, 33; ƕaiwa m., how many; II. Cor. I, 20.—compar. managiza (136), more, greater; Mt. V, 20. II. Cor. II, 6. 7. IV, 15; w. dat. (as abl.); Mt. V, 37; ƕê m., what (i. e. in what degree or manner) more; Mt. V, 47. [OE. manig, mǫnig, ME. mani, NE. many. Cp. managei.]

mana-maúrþrja (88a, n. 3), m. (108), man-slayer, murderer. [-maúrþrja < maúrþr + suff. -jan-.]

mana-sêþs (88a, n. 3; gen. -sêdais), f. (103), 'man-seed', peple, multitude; world; II. Cor. V, 19. [sêþs < √ of saian + suff. -þi- (-di-). OE. sæ̂d, m. n., ME. sêd, NE. seed.]

man-leika (88a, n. 3), m. (108), image. [Prop. weak adj. uzed as sb.; -leika < -leiks. OE. manlîca, m., ME. manliche, effigy, image.]

manna, m. (117), man; Mt, V, 19. VI, 1. 2. 5. 14. 15. 16. 18. Mk. I, 17. 23. II, 10. 27. 28. III, 1. 3. 5. 28. IV, 26. V, 2. 8. Lu. II, 14. 15. 25. 52. II. Cor. III, 2. IV, 2. 16. V, 11. Skeir. VII, b; ni m. or m. ni, no man, nobody; Mt. VI, 24. Mk. II, 21. 22. III, 27. V, 3. 4. 43. [< stem mann-. OE. mǫnna, manna, and mǫn(n), man(n), ME. man, NE. man.]

manna-hun, indef. prn. (163), always[Pg 188] in neg. sentences: ni m., no one; Mk. I, 44.

manwjan, wv. (188), to prepare, make redy, w. acc.; Mk. I, 3. 19. Lu. II, 31. Cpd. ga-m. [< manwus.]

manwuba, adv. (210), in rediness. [< manwus + adv. suff. -ba.]

manwus, adj. (131), redy.

marei, f. (113), sea; Mk. IV, 41; du marein, to the sea; Mk. III, 7; faúr, or faúra, marein, near the sea; Mk. I, 16. II, 13. V, 21; hindar marein, on the other side of the sea; Mk. V, 1. 21; in marein (dat.), in the sea; Mk. IV, 1 (the second), acc., to, or into the sea; Mk. I, 16. IV, 1 (the first). [OE. mere, m. (orig. n.), ME. mere, sea, lake, NE. mere, a pool or small lake, OHG. mari, meri, m. n., MHG. mere, NHG. meer, n., sea.]

Maria (Marja), pr. n., Mary; Lu. II, 19. dat. Mariin; Lu. II, 5. 34; acc. Marian; Lu. II, 16. [< Μαρία.]

marikreitus, m. (119), perl. [Coind < μαργαρίτης, perl. So, also, OE. meregreot < the Lt. margarita > ME. margarite, NE. margarite (obs.), perl.]

marka, f. (97), border, boundary, coast; Mk. V, 17. [OE. mearc, f., ME. merk, mark, NE. mark, border, boundary.]

Markus, pr. n., Mark; acc. -u; Mk. superscr. [< Μάρκος.]

martyr (39), m., martyr. [< μάρτυρ, witness.]

marzjan, wv. (188), to offend, w. acc.; Mt. V, 29. 30.—Cpd. ga-m. [OE. -merran, -myrran, in â-m., to provoke, offend, ME. merre, marre, NE. mar.]

matjan, wv. (188), to eat; (1) abs.; Mk. V, 43 (matjan as obj.). Skeir. VII, c. (2) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 25. 31. Mk. I, 6. II, 26. III, 20; miþ w. dat.; Mk. II, 16. [< mats.]

mats, m. (101), meat, food. S. also nahta-m. [OE. mete, m., ME. mete, NE. meat.]

Matþaius, pr. n., Matthew; acc. -u; Mk. III, 18.

maþl, n. (94, n. 2), assembly, market, market-place. [OE. mæðel, n., council, meeting.]

maudjan, wv. (188), to remind.—Cpd. ga-m.

maúrgins, m. (91, n. 1; 214), morn, morning. [OE. morgen, mergen, ME. morᵹen, morn (> morning, w. suff. -ing, NE. morning), morwe, NE. morn, morrow.]

maúrnan, wv. (194), to be anxious or trubld; Mt. VI, 27. 31; w. dat.; Mt. VI, 25. [OE. murnan, ME. murne, mourne, NE. mourn.]

maúrþr, n. (94), murder. [< √ maúr + suff. -þra-. OE. morðor (murðor), n., ME. morther, morder, NE. murder, murther (obs.).]

maúrþrjan, wv. (188), to murder, kil; Mt. V, 21. [< maúrþr. OE. myrðrian, ME. murd(e)re, NE. murder.]

mawi (42), f. (94), maid, maiden, damsel; Mk. V, 42. [< magw- = magu-, stem of magus.]

mawilô, f. (112), yung maiden, damsel; Mk. V, 41. [< mawi + suff. -lôn-. OE. mêowle (< *mewilô), yung maiden, maid.]

mêgs, m. (91, n. 1), sun-in-law. [OE. mæg, m., mæ̂i, mai, OHG. mâg, MHG. mâc (g-), NHG. mage, m., kinsman.]

meina, pers. prn. in gen.; s. ik. [OE. mîn, dat. mĕ; acc. mec, mĕ (prop. dat.); ME. gen. wanting; dat. acc. me; NE. dat. acc. me.]

meins, poss. prn. (151), (alone or) w. a following or preceding sb., w. or without the art.; Mk. I, 2. III, 33. 34. 35. V, 23. Lu. II, 30. 49. [< meina. OE. ME. mîn, mî, NE. mine, my.]

mêl, n. (94), (orig. point or mezure[Pg 189] of time or space), time (hour, season, in pl., writings, scriptures); Mk. I, 15. [OE. mæ̂l, n., time, mezure, (food taken at one time; hense) meal, ME. mêl, NE. meal.]

mêla, m. (108), mezure, bushel; Mk. IV, 21.

mêljan, wv. (187), to write, w. acc.; in pass. the nom. (implied); Lu. II, 3; and dat. of pers. (indir. obj.); II. Cor. I, 13.—Cpds. ana-, ga-m. [< mêl, pl. mêla, writings. OE. mæ̂lan, to mark, OHG. malôn, -ên, (of different conjugations), to mark, paint, MHG. mâlen, to paint, write, NHG. malen, to paint.]

mêna, m. (108), moon. [OE. mǫ̂na, m., ME. mone, NE. moon. Cf. mênôþs and Brgm., II, § 123, p. 393.]

mênôþs, m. (117), month. [OE. mǫ̂nað, ME. moneð, m., ME. month.]

mêriþa, f. (97), fame, report; Mk. I, 28. [< -mêrs. OE. mæ̂rðu, mæ̂rð, f., fame, glory.]

mêrjan, wv. (188; mêrjands, m.; 115), to make known, proclaim, noiz abroad, preach, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 7. 38. 39. III, 14. V, 20; w. in w. dat.; Mk. I, 39. (2) w. acc.; Mk. I, 4. 14. 45. II. Cor. IV, 5. (3) w. an obj. clause and in w. dat.; Mk. V, 20.—Cpds. waíla-, waja-m. [< -mêrs. OE. mæ̂ran, OHG. mâren, MHG. mæ̂ren, to make known, praise.]

*mêrs, adj. (130, n. 2), known, famous, in waíla-m., praisewurthy, of good report. [OE. mæ̂re, ME. mere, famous, OHG. mâri, famous, > mârî, f., mâri, n., rumor, fame, MHG. mæ̂re, n. f., tale, NHG. märe, f., news, tidings, report, > märchen (w. dimin. suff. -chen), n., tale, story, fable.]

mês (8), n. (94), table. [Cf. OE. mêse (gen. -an), f., table, perhaps < Lt. mensa (mêse < *mense), f., table.]

midjis, adj. (122, n. 1; 125), midl; Lu. II, 46. [OE. ME. mid(d), adj., midl, NE. mid- (as in midday, midnight, etc.).]

midjun-gards, m. (101), erth, world; Lu. II, 1. [Prop. 'midl-world', between heven and hel. midjun- < stem of midjis. OE. middaneard for middangeard, m., ME. middaneard, world.]

*miduma, f. (97; 139, n. 1), midst; Mk. III, 3. [Prop. superl. adj. uzed as sb., < mid- (cp. midjis) + superl. suff. -u-ma-n-. OE. meoduma.]

midumônds, m. (115), mediator. [Prop. prsp. of *midumôn < miduma.]

mik; s. ik, meina.

mikilduþs, f. (103), greatness. [< mikil- (< mikils) + suff. -duþi-.]

mikilei, f. (113), greatness. [< mikils.]

mikiljan, wv. (185), to magnify, glorify, praise, w. acc.; Mk. II, 12. Lu. II, 20. [< mikils.]

mikilnan, wv. (194), to becum great. [< mikils.]

mikils, adj. (138), great, much; Mt. V, 19. 35. Mk. IV, 32. 37. 39. 41. V, 42. Lu. II, 9. 10. Skeir. VII, a. b; strong, loud; Mk. I, 26. V, 7. [OE. micel, mycel, ME. mikel, mychel, muchel, NE. mickle (Sc.).]

mildiþa, f. (97), mildness, kindness. [< -milds (in friaþwa-, un-m.), adj., mild, kind, + suff. -i-þô-.]

milhma, m. (108), cloud.

miliþ, n. (94), huney; Mk. I, 6. [Cf. OE. mele-, mil-, huney, in mele-, mil-dêaw, m., ME. mildew, NE. mildew.]

miluks, f. (116), milk. [OE. meolc, f., ME. NE. milk.]

*mims (mimz; 78, n. 1), n. (94), flesh, meat.

minnists, superl. adj. (138), very small, least; Mt. V, 19. 26. Mk. IV, 31. [< stem minn- (< minw-;[Pg 190] cp. Brgm., I, § 180) + superl. suff. -ista-. OHG. minnist, MHG. minnest, NHG. mindest (the d from the compar.; cp. Kl. W., minder), least.]

minniza, compar. adj. (138), smaller, less. [< stem minn- (s. minnists) + compar. suff. -iza. OHG. minniro, MHG. minner, minre, NHG. minder (w. eufonic d), smaller, less.]

mins (minz; 78, n. 1), adv. (212, n. 1), less. [< minn- (s. minnist) + adv. compar. suff. -s for -is.]

mis; s. ik, meina.

*missa-dêþs (-dêds), f. (103), misdeed, trespass, sin; Mt. VI, 14. 15. II. Cor. V, 19. [miss(a)- = OE. ME. NE. mis- (not = mis-, as in mischief, < Lt. minus).]

missa-leiks, adj. (124), various, divers; Mk. I, 34.

missô, adv. (211, n. 1), reciprocally, one another, w. a pers. prn.; sis m.; Mk. I, 27. IV, 41. Lu. II, 15. [< missa- + adv. suff. .]

mitan, stv. (176), to mezure; Mk. IV, 24.—Cpd. us-m. [OE. metan, ME. mete, NE. mete.]

mitaþs, f. (116), mezure; Mk. IV, 24. [< mitan + suff. -a-þi-(-di-).]

mitôn, wv. (190), w. acc., to consider, reason upon, think over, think; Mk. II, 8; and refl. dat.; Mk. II, 8; to purpose, intend; II. Cor. I, 17. [Perhaps < a lost sb. OHG. meȥôn (< meȥ, n., mezure, way, manner), to mete, moderate.]

mitôns, f. (103, n. 1), consideration, thought; Lu. II, 35. [< mitôn + suff. -ô-ni-.]

miþ (mid; 74, n. 1), (1) prep. w. dat. (217), (a) denoting 'accumpaniment, community, connection', with, together with, among, amid; Mt. V, 25. 41. Mk. I, 13. 20. 29. 36. II, 16. 19. 25. 26. III, 6. 7. 14. IV, 10. 36. V, 18. 24. 40. Lu. II, 5. 13. 36. 51. II. Cor. I, 1. 21. IV, 14; (b) 'way' and manner'; Mk. III, 5. IV, 16. (2) adv., along (with). [Cf. OE. ME. mid, prep. and adv., with, along, NE. mid- (in midwife).]

miþ-ana-kumbjan (54, n. 1), wv. (188), to lie down together with, sit at table with; Mk. II, 15.

miþ-garda-waddjus (88a, n. 2), f. (105), partition wall, midl wall.

miþ-þan-ei, conj. (218), (lit. 'with that that'), when, while, as; Mk. IV, 4. Lu. II, 6. 27. 43. II. Cor. III, 15. 16.

miþ-wissei (30), f. (113), a 'knowing with', conscience; II. Cor. I, 12. IV, 2. V, 11. [< *miþwiss < miþ + -wiss (in un-wiss, not known, uncertain), prop. an old ptc. in-to-, < stv. witan (ss < tt < d-t). -wiss = OE. -wis, in ge-wis (ge = Goth. ga), adj., certain, ME. (i-) wiss, adj., certain, and adv., certainly, NE. ywis (obs.), certainly.]

mizdô, f. (112), reward; Mt. V, 46. VI, 2. 5. 16. [OE. meord, mêd (by lengthening of e + z to ê; cp. Brgm., I, § 538), ME. mede, mêde, NE. meed.]

môdags, adj. (124), wroth, angry; Mt. V, 22. [< môþs + suff. -aga-. OE. môdig (w. later suff. -ig, for orig. -eg = Goth. -ags. Cp. my remarks on this point in 'Transactions of the Wis. Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters', vol. VIII, p. 167), adj., proud, brave, ME. mody, NE. moody.]

*môjan (26), wv. (187), in af-m. [OHG. muo(j)an, MHG. müe(j)en, to trubl, make angry, NHG. mühen, to trubl.]

Môsês, pr. n., Moses; Mk. I, 44. II. Cor. III, 13 (in B). 15; Môsêz; II. Cor. III, 13 (in A); gen. Môsêzis; Lu. II, 22. II. Cor. III, 7. [< Μωσῆς.]

môta, f. (97), toll, custom; the place where customs ar paid, receipt of[Pg 191] custom; Mk. II, 14. [OHG. *muoȥa, MHG. muoȥe, NHG. (Bavarian) mŭess, toll, multure, (LG. mûta >) OHG. mûta, MHG. mûte, NHG. maut, f., toll, custom.]

-môtan, prt.-prs. (202), in ga-m. [OE. *môtan, prs. ind. môt, may; prt. môste, ME. prs. mot, môt, may, must, 2nd prs. most (OE. môst); prt. most(e) > NE. must.]

môtareis, m. (92), toll-taker, publican; Mt. V, 47. Mk. II, 15. 16. [< môta + suff. -arja-.]

-môtjan, wv., to meet, in ga-m. [< *môt (= OE. môt, n., ME. môt, meeting). OE. mêtan, ME. mete, NE. meet.]

môþs (gen. môdis; 74, n. 2), m. (91, n. 2), wrath, anger; Mk. III, 5. [OE. môd, n., mind, curage, pride, ME. môd, NE. mood.]

mûka-môdei (15), f. (113), meekness. [mûka- = ON. mjúkr > ME. meoc, meke, NE. meek.]

-mûljan (15), wv. (188), in faúr-m. [< mûla-, n., mouth, cf. OHG. mûla, f., MHG. mûl, mûle, n., mûle, f., NHG. maul, n., mouth.]

munan, prt.-prs. (200), to mean, suppose, think.—Cpd. ga-m. [OE. (ge-)munan, prs. ind. man, mǫn, prt. munde, ME. (i-) mune, prs. man, prt. munde, remember, think.]

munan, wv. (200, n. 1), to think, intend. [< muns. OE. mynnan, ME. mynne, munne, to remember.]

muns, m. (101), thought, mind, purpose; counsel, device; II. Cor. II, 11. [< stv. munan. OE. myne, memory, luv, ME. mune, mind, memory.]

Naen (6), pr. n., Nain. [Ναΐν.]

-nah, in bi-, ga-; s. -naúhan.

nahta-mats (88a, n. 3), m. (101), supper (lit. 'night-food'); Skeir. VII, b.

nahts, f. (116), night; gen. nahts, in the night, by night; Lu. II, 8; dat. sg. naht, by night; Mk. IV, 27; dat. pl. nahtam, by night; Mk. V, 5. Lu. II, 37. [OE. neaht, niht, ME. niht, NE. night.]

naiteins, f. (103, n. 1), blasfemy; Mk. II, 7. III, 28. [< -naitjan (in ga-n.), to blasfeme, + suff. -ei-ni-.]

naqaþs, gen. naqadis, adj. (124), naked; II. Cor. V, 3. [OE. nacod (w. an unlabialized guttural), ME. naked, NE. naked.]

namnjan, wv. (187), to name, call. [< stem of namô (for the mn, s. Brgm., I, § 215). OE. nemnan (beside namian, ME. name, NE. name), ME. nemne, OHG. MHG. nemmen, nennen, NHG. nennen, to name, call.]

namô, n. (110, n. 1), name; Mt. VI, 9. Mk. III, 16. 17. V, 9. 22. Lu. II, 21. 25. [OE. nǫma, nama, m., ME. nome, name, NE. name.]

naseins, f. (103, n. 1), salvation; Lu. II, 30. II. Cor. I, 6. [< nasjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

nasjan, wv. (185), to save; Mk. III, 4.—Cpd. ga-n. [Caus. of -nisan. OE. nerian, nergan, to save, OHG. ner(j)an, MHG. nerigen, nern, NHG. nähren, to nurish.]

nasjands, m. (115), the Savior; Lu. II, 11. [Prop. prsp. of nasjan. OE. nergend, m., savior.]

nati, n. (95), net; Mk. I, 16. 18. 19. [OE. net(t), n., ME. NE. net.]

Naþan (70), pr. n., Nathan. [< Ναθάν.]

Naúbaímbaír (54, n. 1), November. [< Lt. November.]

naudi-bandi (88a), f. (96), fetter, lit. 'need-band'; Mk. V, 3. 4. [naudi- < stem of nauþs.]

Naúêl (26, n. 1), pr. n. [< Νῶε.]

naúh, adv., stil, yet; Skeir. VII, c; ni naúh, not yet, not as yet; Mk. IV, 40. [< nu + -uh. OHG. MHG. noh, NHG. noch, yet, stil.]

[Pg 192]

-naúhan, prt.-prs. (201), in bi-, ga-n. [OE. -nugan, in 3d pers. sg. -neah (= Goth. -nah), in be-, ge-n., it suffices.]

naúh-þanuh, adv., stil, yet; Mk. V, 35.

naus, m. (101, n. 3), a ded man, corpse.

nauþjan, wv. (188), to force, press, compel, in ana-n. [< nauþs. OHG. nôtan, nôten, MHG. nôten, nœten, to urge, compel.]

nauþs, f. (103), need, necessity. [OE. nîed, nêad, nêd, f., ME. nede, nêd, NE. need.]

Nazaraiþ, indecl. pr. n., Nazareth; Mk. I, 9. Lu. II, 4. 39. 51. [< Ναζαρέτ.]

Nazôrênus, pr. n., one of Nazareth. voc. (onse in) -ai (Gr. infl.); Mk. I, 24. [< Ναζωρηνός.]

, adv. (216), no, nay; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 17. 18. 19. [Cf. ni.]

nêƕ (64), adv., near. [OE. nêah, nêh, ME. neih, neiᵹe, NE. nigh.]

nêƕa, adv. (216), near; uzed as prep. w. dat., near; Mk. II, 4. [< nêƕ.]

nêƕis, compar. adv. (212), nearer. [< stem of nêƕ + adv. compar. suff. -is.]

nêƕjan (sik), wv. (188), to draw near, approach.—Cpd. at-n. [< nêƕ. OHG. nâhan, nâhen, MHG. næhen, to bring near, beside nâhen, NHG. nahen, to approach, be near.]

nêƕundja, m. (108, neighbor; Mt. V, 43.) [< stem of nêƕ + suff. -und-jan-.]

nei, interr. particl, not?; II. Cor. III, 8. [< ni + ei.]

neiwan, stv. (172, n. 3), to hav a quarrel against.

ni, neg. part. (216), not, (1) joind to vs. (a) in declarativ sentences; Mt. V, 17. 18. 26. 34. 36. 39. VI, 1. 15. 18. 26. Mk. I, 7. 34. 45. II, 2. 12. 17. 18. 19. III, 9. 12. 20. 24. 25. 26. IV, 5. 6. 12. 13. 17. 22. 25. 27. 34. V, 19. 37. 39. Lu. II, 7. 26. 37. 43. 50. II. Cor. I, 8. 9. 23. II, 1. 3. 5. 11. 13. 17. III, 7. 10. 13. IV, 1. 2. 4. 16. V, 4. 16. 21. Skeir. VII, b. d; so also w. a pred. ptc.; Mk. II, 24. 26; or a prs. ptc.; Mk. II, 4. Lu. II, 45. II. Cor. IV, 18. V, 19; (b) in prohibitiv sentences; Mt. V, 7. 8. 17. 21. 27. 33. 42. VI, 2. 3. 5. 7. 13. 16. 19. 25. 31. Mk. V, 7. 36. Lu. II, 10. (2) joind to other words (sbs., adjs., ptcs. uzed as adjs., etc.), chiefly in antithesis and hypothetical sentences, and often w. other particls; Mt. V, 20. 30. VI, 15. 24. Mk. I, 22. II, 27. IV, 40. V, 26. II. Cor. I, 12. 13. 24. II, 4. 5. III, 3. 5. 6. IV, 5. 7. 8. 9. V, 3. 7. 12. 15. 16. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. [OE. ME. ne, NE. ne (obs.), adv., not. Also containd in no, neither, not, etc.]

niba, nibai (10, n. 2), conj. (218), except, but, if not, unless, save; (1) w. sbs.; Mk. II, 7. 26. V, 37. II. Cor. II, 2. (2) w. vbs.; Mt. V, 20. Mk. III, 27; nibai ƕan, lest at any time; Mk. IV, 12. [< ni + iba, ibai.]

nidwa, f. (97), rust; Mt. VI, 19. 20.

nih (20, n. 1; 62, n. 3), conj. (218), and not, not even; Mt. VI, 29; in a negativ sentence it merely intensifies the negation or is either copulativ or disjunctiv: ni..nih, not ... and not, not ... nor, (or not even, not as much as); Mt. VI, 20. 25. Mk. II, 2. III, 20. Skeir. VII, a; ni..nih..nih, not ... nor ... nor; Mt. VI, 26; nih..ak, not ... but; II. Cor. I, 19. Skeir. VII, a; nih þan..ak jah, for not ..., but also; Skeir. VII, c; ni..nih..ak, not ... nor ... but; II. Cor. IV, 2; nih allis ƕa..nih..ak, for nothing ... neither ... but; Mk. IV, 22; nih..nih, neither ... nor, not ... nor; Mt. VI, 20. 28; ni..allis ni ..nih..nih..nih, not at all,[Pg 193] neither ... nor ... nor ... neither; Mt. V, 34. 35. 36. [< ni + -h, i. e. -uh. OHG. nih-, in nih(h)ein, nechein, MHG. nehein, nechein, nekein, short hein, kein, NHG. kein, adj., not any, no.]

Nikaúdêmus (23, n. 1), pr. n., Nicodemus.

niman, stv. (170; 175), to take, accept, receiv, take away, w. acc.; Mt. V, 40. Mk. II, 9. 11. IV, 16. Skeir. VII, b.—Cpds. af-, and-, ga-, us-n. [OE. niman, ME. nime, to take, seiz, NE. nim (Shak.), to steal.]

-nisan, stv. (176, n. 1), in ga-n. [OE. gi-nesan, to be saved, OHG. gi-nesan, MHG. genesen, to remain alive, be saved, be deliverd (of a child), NHG. genesen, to recuver.]

niþan, stv. (176, n. 1), to help. [Its √ (w. abl.) appears in OHG. ginâda, f., mercy, grace, MHG. gnâde, genâde, NHG. gnade, f., grace, etc.]

niþjis, m. (92), kinsman, cuzin. [OE. nið-in pl. niððas, m., persons, men.]

niþjô, f. (112), female cuzin. [Extended < stem of niþjis.]

ni-u, interr. part. (216), in dir. questions, not? (= Lt. 'nonne'); Mt. V, 46. 47. VI, 25. 26. Mk. IV, 21. 38. Lu. II, 49; ni aiw, never?; Mk. II, 25.

-niujan, wv. (187), to renew, in ana-n. [< niujis.]

niuja-satiþs (88a, n. 1), pp. uzed as sb., m. (134), a novice. [satiþs < satjan.]

niujis, adj. (126), new, yung; Mk. I, 27. II, 21. 22. II. Cor. III, 6. V, 17. [OE. nîewe, nîwe, < nêowe (+ suff. -ja-), ME. niwe, new(e), NE. new.]

niu-klahei, f. (113), puerility, pusillanimity; Skeir. VII, a. [< niuklahs, adj., under age, childish; niu- = OE. nêo-we; s. niujis.]

niun, card. num. (141), nine. [OE. nigon (the g being intrusiv), nigen, ME. niᵹen (infl. niᵹene > the contracted) nine, NE. nine.]

niunda, ord. num. (146), ninth. [< niun. OE. nigoða (< *nigonða), ME. nieþe, nynt, NE. ninth (by influence of 'nine').]

niuntêhund, num. (143), ninety. [< niun + -têhund. Cp. Brgm., III, § 179.]

niutan, stv. (173, n. 1), to enjoy. [OE. nêotan, OHG. gi-nioȥan (= Goth. ga-n.), MHG. genieȥen, NHG. geniessen, to enjoy.]

-nôhjan, wv. (188), in ga-n. [< (ga)-nôhs.]

nôta, m. (108), hinder part of a ship, stern; Mk. IV, 38.

nu, (1) adv. (214, n. 1; 218), now, even now, just now; Lu. II, 29; uzed as sb.: fram þamma nu, henseforth; II. Cor. V, 16. (2) conj. (218: so never at the beginning of a sentence), now, then, therefore; Mt. V, 19. 23. 48. VI, 2. 8. 9. 22. 23. 31. II. Cor. I, 17. III, 12. IV, 12. 13. V, 6. 11. 20. [Cf. OE. nû, ME. nu, nou, NE. now.]

nuh, adv. (216; 218), occurring always in questions, now, then, therefore. [< nu + -h, i. e. -uh-.]

-numja (33), m., one who takes, in arbi-numja, heir. [< niman + suff. -jan-.]

nunu, conj. (218), now, then, therefore. [< nu + nu.]

nuta, m. (108), cacher, fisher; Mk. I, 17. [< niutan.]

Ô, interj. (219), o! oh!

ôgan (35), prt.-prs. (202), to fear, be afraid, (1) abs.; Mk. V, 15. 33. Lu. II, 10; ôgan agisa mikilamma (instr. dat.), to fear exceedingly; Lu. II, 9. (2) w. refl. dat. (sis) and a cognate acc. (agis mikil), to fear exceedingly; Mk. IV, 41. [< *agan; s. unagands.]

[Pg 194]

ôgjan (35), wv. (188), to terrify, frighten. [Caus. of ôgan.]

ôhtêdun, prt. of ôgan.

ôsanna (61), Hosannah. [< ὠσαννά, pray, help!, < the Hebrew.]

Paida (51), f. (97), coat; Mt. V, 40. [Prob. a foren w. (51, a). OE. pâd, f., OHG. pheit, MHG. pheit, pfeit, f., gown.]

paíntêkustê (13, n. 1), Pentecost. [< πεντηκοστή, fiftieth (i. e. the 50th day after the Passover.)]

Paítrus, pr. n., Peter; Mk. III, 16; acc. -u; Mk. V, 37. [< Πέτρος.]

paraskaíwê (39), f. (113), the day of the preparation. [< παρασκευή, f., preparation.]

paska, f. (97), (the feast of) the Passover; Lu. II, 41. [< πάσχα < the Hebrew.]

Paúntius (24, n. 5), pr. n., Pontius. [< Πόντιος.]

paúrpura, paúrpaúra (24, ns. 2. 5), f. (97), purpl. [< Lt. purpura.]

Pawlus, pr. n., Paul; II. Cor. I, 1. [< Παῦλος.]

peika-bagms (51), m. (91), date-palm.

Peilâtus (5, a), pr. n., Pilate. [< Πειλᾶτος.]

Phaeba (52), pr. n.

pistikeins (51), adj. (124), genuin, pure. [< πιστικός, faithful, honest, + Goth. suff. -eina-.]

plapja, f. (97, n. 1), street; Mt. VI, 5. [Occurs only onse, in gen. pl. plapjô, which is prob. an error, for *platjô < Lt. platea < Grk. πλατεῖα, a broad way, street.]

plats, m. (91, or 100? or plat, n., 94?), a piece of cloth, pach; Mk. II, 21. [< Old Slavonic platu, pach.]

plinsjan (51), wv. (188), to dance. [< Old Slavonic plesati, to dance.]

-praggan (51), rv. (178), in ana-p. [< Old Slavonic. Cf. Dutch prangen, to press.]

praitôriaún, n. (120, n. 2), Pretorium. [< πραιτώριον, Pretorium.]

praúfêteis, f. (92), profetess; Lu. II, 36. [< προφήτις, profetess.]

praúfêtus (praúfêtês), m. (105; 91), profet; dat. -au; Mk. I, 2; acc. pl. -uns; Mt. V, 17. [< προφητής, profet.]

puggs (51), m. (91; or pugg, n., purse.) [Borrowd <? Cf. OE. pung, m. (?), ME. pung, purse.]

pund (51), n. (94), pound. [< Lt. pondo, indecl. sb.; pound; cf. Lt. pondus, weight.]

Q. See K.

Radagaisus (21, n. 1), pr. n.

raginôn, wv. (190), to guvern, be guvernor; Lu. II, 2. [< ragin (= OE. regn-, in composition), n., judgment, decree, counsel, (> also ragineis (92), m., counselor). OE. regnjan, to plan, arrange.]

rahnjan, wv. (188), to reckon, count, w. acc. of th. and dat. of pers., to impute anything to; II. Cor. V, 19.

raíhtis, adv. conj. (218) uzed as an enclitic, for, however, indeed; Mk. IV, 4. [< raíhts + adv. compar. suff. -is; s. 212.]

raíhts, adj. (124), straight, right; Mk. I, 3. [Prop. an old ptc. in-to-, < √ of reiks. OE. riht, ME. ryght, riht, NE. right.]

-raisjan, wv. (188), to cause to rize, to raiz, in ur-r. [Caus. of -reisan. OE. ræ̂ran (r < z < s), ME. rere, NE. rear.]

raka (indecl.), raca; Mt. V, 22. [< ῥακά < Hebrew râkâ, wurthless fellow.]

-rakjan, wv. (188), to strech, in uf-r. [OHG. recchen, MHG. NHG. recken, Du. rekken, to strech, > NE. rack.]

rann, prt. of rinnan.

-rannjan (32), wv. (188), to cause to run, in ur-r. [Caus. of rinnan.[Pg 195] OHG. rennan, rennen, MHG. rennen, to cause to run (especially a horse), NHG. rennen (intr.), to run, race.]

rasta, f. (97), stage (of a jurney), mile; Mt. V, 41. [< √ ras, to stay (> also razn (w. suff. na), n., house) + suff. -tô-. OHG. rasta, MHG. raste, rast, f., rest, stage of a jurney, NHG. rast, f., rest, repose. Cf. OE. rest, ræst (w. suff. -ti-), ME. NE. rest.]

-raþjan (?), stv. (177, n. 2), in ga-r.

raþjô, f. (112), number, account. [< √ of -raþjan + suff. -jôn-. OHG. redia, reda, MHG. rede, f., account, speech, NHG. rede, f., speech. ra-þ- = E. -red; s. hund. (Cp. Brgm., I, § 214; II, § 300.)]

-raubôn, wv. (190), to rob, in bi-r. [OE. (bi-)rêafian, ME. (bi)reve, NE. (be-)reav.]

raupjan, wv. (188), to pluck, w. acc.; Mk. II, 23. [OHG. roufen, MHG. roufen, röufen, NHG. raufen, to pluck, pul.]

*rauþs (gen. raudis; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), red. [OE. rêad, ME. rêd, NE. red.]

Reccarêd (6, n. 2), pr. n.

-rêdan, rv. (181), (only in cpds.), to counsel, deliberate. [OE. ræ̂dan, ME. rede, reade, to advise, rule, NE. rede, read (Shak.), > OE. ræ̂d, m., ME. rede, reade, NE. (obs.) read, rede, advice, counsel, > OE. ræ̂dan (wv.), ME. rêde, to interpret, NE. read.]

reiki, n. (95), power, authority, rule. [< reiks, sb. OE. rîce (rîci), n., ME. riche, rike, reign, kingdom, NE. -ric (ME. -rich, OE. -rîce), in bishopric.]

reikinôn, wv. (190), to rule, guvern. [< reiks, sb.]

reiks, m. (117), ruler, prince. [Stem reik-, reika-, < Keltic rîg-, ruler. Cp. reiks, adj.]

reiks, adj. (130, n. 2), mighty, noble, honorabl; superl. (sa)reikista, (the) mightiest, prince; Mk. III, 22. [OE. rîce, powerful, mighty, of high rank, ME. riche, rice, powerful, also rich (by confusion w. the Fr. riche), NE. rich. Cp. reiks, sb.]

reiran, wv. (193), to trembl; Mk. V, 33.

-reisan, stv. (172, n. 1), to rize, in ur-r. [OE. rîsan, ME. rise, NE. rize.]

rignjan, wv. (188), to rain; Mt. V, 45. [< rign, n. (= OE. regn, m., ME. rein, NE. rain). OE. regnian, ME. reine, NE. rain.]

rikan, stv. (176, n. 1), to heap up, collect. [Its √ appears (w. abl.) in OE. raca, m. (or racu, f.?), ME. rake, NE. rake, an instrument for scraping erth.]

riqis, riqiz (78, n. 1), n. (94), darkness; Mt. VI, 23. II. Cor. IV, 6. [ON. rökkr, n., darkness.]

riqizeins, adj. (124), dark, darkend; Mt. VI, 23. [< riqis + suff. -eina-.]

rinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to run; Mk. V, 6; w. in w. acc.; Mk. V, 13.—Cpds. ga-, ur-r. [OE. rinnan, uzually irnan, eornan, iernan, ME. rinne, renne, rynne, eorne, NE. run.]

rinnô (32), f. (112), brook. [< rinnan. OHG. rinnâ, f., aqueduct, MHG. rinne, f., aqueduct, gutter, NHG. rinne, f., gutter.]

*riureis (127; or riurs?; 130 and n. 2), adj., temporal, mortal; II. Cor. IV, 11. 18. [ON. ryrr, adj., small, poor.]

rôdjan, wv., (188), to speak, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 34. V, 35. II. Cor. IV, 13; so w. dat. of pers.; Mk. IV, 34; or bi w. acc., and in w. dat.; Lu. II, 38; or us w. dat., and in andwaírþja w. gen.; II. Cor. II, 17; or du w. dat. of pers.; Lu. II, 20. (2) w. acc. of th. (in pass. the nom.; s. also below); Mk. II, 7. V, 36; and bi w. acc.; Lu. II, 33. (3) w. acc. of th. and dat. of the[Pg 196] pers. addrest; Mk. II, 2; or du w. dat. of the pers. addrest; Lu. II, 17. 18. 50; and instr. dat.; Mk. IV, 33. [OE. rêdan, ME. rede, to speak.]

Rûma (15, n. 2), pr. n., Rome. [< Ῥώμη.]

Rûmôneis (15, n. 2), pr. n., Romans. [< Ῥωμαῖοι.]

-rûmnan (78, n. 4), wv. (194), in ur-r. [< rûms.]

rûms (15), m. (? 91), room, place; Lu. II, 7. [OE. rûm, n., ME. roum, NE. room. Cp. Brgm. I, § 59.]

rûna (15), f. (97), mystery, counsel; Mk. IV, 11. [OE. rûn, f., mystery, counsel, rûne, ME. roune, NE. roun (obs.; rûne < the Scand.).]

runs (32; 49), m. (101, ns. 1. 2), a running, issue; Mk. V, 25. [< rinnan. OE. ryne, m., a running, course, ME. rune, NE. run.]

Sa, m., , f.; þata, n. (153), (1) dem. prn. (for οὕτος, ἐκείνος, etc.), this, that, (for αὐτός) he, she, it, -self—(S. my Gothic Syntax, § 63 et seq.)—, (a) uzed alone; Mt. V, 30. 32. 37. VI, 8. 26. 29. 32. Mk. I, 19. 25. 27. 31. 42. II, 7. 8. 21. III, 35. IV, 4. 7. 18. 20. 30. 41. V, 12. 23. 32. 43. Lu. II, 6. 12. 34. II. Cor. I, 12. 17. II, 16. V, 2. 5. 15. Skeir. VII, a. d. For in þis inuh þis, s. in, (1); (b) w. sbs. or adjs. (follg. or prec.); Mt. V, 19. Mk. IV, 13. Lu. II, 15. 17. 19. 25. 38. 51. II. Cor. I, 15. III, 10. IV, 1. 4. 7.—þata silbô, this same thing; II. Cor. II, 1. 3; (c) w. a rel. prn.; Mt. V, 32. Mk. V, 15. Lu. II, 33. II. Cor. V, 21. Skeir. VII, d. (2) art. (for ὁ, ἡ, τό), the, (a) w. sbs. (unmodified; cp. b, β, and e, β, below), (α) appellativs; Mt. V, 20. 25. 47. VI, 2. 23. Mk. I, 10. 13. 15. 20. 22. 29. 31. 34. 42. 45. II, 4. 5. 6. 9. 10. 16. 20. 21. 22. 28. III, 9. IV, 7. 15. 16. 17. 19. 20. 27. 28. 33. 36. 39. V, 4. 8. 11-14. 22. 29. 31. 35. 36. 38-42. Lu. II, 7. Skeir. VII, b. c; (β) pr. ns. (where the E. often omits it, especially when the pr. n. occurs alone); Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 16. III, 6. 17. Lu. II, 7. 10. 13. 15. 17. 20. 25. 27. 40. 43. 50. II. Cor. I, 4. 11. 12. III, 16. IV, 1. 2. 7. V, 1. 4. 5. 8. 17; (b) w. adjs. (poss. prns. or is), (α) alone (chiefly uzed as sbs.; so, sumtimes, w. other adjs. or ptcs.); Mt. V, 21. 33. 37. 39. 47. Mk. III, 27. V, 15. 16. II. Cor. II, 6. 7. III, 10. IV, 15. 17. V, 10. 17; (β) w. sbs. (the art. prec. the adj. and its sb.); Mt. V, 26. 35. Mk. I, 24. II, 21 (sc. plat). Lu. I, 8. II. Cor. I, 6. III, 13. 18. IV, 13. V, 1. Skeir. VII, d. (the art. standing between the sb. and its adj.) Mt. V, 19. 29. VI, 11. Mk. I, 11. 26. 27. II, 22. IV, 20. V, 7. 13. Lu. II, 26. II. Cor. I, 6. (or between the adj. and its sb.) Mk. V, 33. Lu. II, 19. (the art. standing before the sb. and its adj.) Mk. II, 9. III, 5. 9. 27. V, 34. Lu. II, 41. 48. II. Cor. I, 18. III, 5. (the art. prec. the first of two qualifying adjs.) Skeir. VII, d; (c) w. nums., (α) alone; Mk. IV, 10; (β) attributivly; Skeir. VII, b; (d) w. advs. or adv. (prep.) frases, (α) without sb.: Mk. I, 7. 19. 36. 38. II, 25. 26. IV, 10. 11. 15. 16. 18. 31. V, 40. II. Cor. I, 4. 20. V, 2. 16; (β) w. other words; Mt. V, 45. 48. VI, 1. 23. Mk. I, 38. IV, 19. 31. V, 4. II. Cor. III, 10. IV, 16; (e) w. a ptc. (chiefly uzed as sb.; so sumtimes w. an adj.), (α) without sb.; Mt. V, 40. 44. 46. Mk. I, 32. II, 17. III, 22. 34. IV, 3. 14. 16. 20. 24. V, 14. 32. Lu. II, 18. 21. 38. 47. II. Cor. I, 1. 20. II, 2. 14. 15. III, 11. 13.[Pg 197] IV, 3. 4. 13. 14. 18. V, 4. 12. 18; (β) w. sbs. or adjs. uzed as sbs. (the art. preceding the sb. and its ptc.) Mk. V, 30. 33. 36. Lu. II, 16. (and another art. before the ptc.) Mk. III, 3. II. Cor. I, 1. (or the ptc. and its sb.) Skeir. VII, d. (the art. standing between the sb. and its ptc.) Mk. III, 22. IV, 15. Lu. II, 15. 21. II. Cor. I, 1. 8. 9. III, 7; (f) w. a sb. or prn. in the gen., a sb. being easily understood; Mt. V, 46. VI, 7. Mk. I, 19. II, 14. III, 17. 18. Lu. II, 49; (g) a n. art. may precede any word or words and even a hole sentence uzed substantivly (cp. b, α, and d, abuv); II. Cor. I, 17. 20. II, 6. [This prn. refers to two Indo-Germanic stems, so-: sâ- and to-d. The former is found in sa, , and in OE. sĕ (chiefly art., but occasionally and orig. dem. prn.), m., ME. se. See also si and þata.]

sabbatô (indecl.) or sabbatus, m. (120, n. 1), the Sabbath; Mk. II, 27; dat. sg. ; Mk. II, 28; gen. pl. ; Mk. I, 21. II, 23. 27. III, 2. [< σάββατον < Hebrew shabbáth, rest, sabbath-day.]

sa-ei, rel. prn. (157) m.; f. sôei, sei (157, 3); n. þatei (for *þataei); that, who, whosoever, (1) for ὅς; Mt. VI, 8. Mk. I, 2. 7. 44. II, 4. 24. 26. III, 13. 17. 19. IV, 9. 16. 24. 31. V, 3. 33. 41. Lu. II, 11. 15. 20. 25. 31. 50. II. Cor. I, 4. 6. 10. 13. 17. 19. II, 3. 4. 10. IV, 4. V, 4. 10. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. d. (2) for ὅς ἄν (w. subj.), w. prs. indic.; Mt. V, 21. 22. Mk. III, 35. IV, 25; w. prs. opt.; Mk. IV, 22. (3) for ὅστις; Mk. IV, 20. Lu. II, 4. 10. (4) for the Gr. art. (w. prs. ptc.), w. prs. or prt. indic. or opt.; Mt. VI, 4. 18. Lu. II, 33. II. Cor. I, 4. II, 2; (w. aor. ptc.) w. prt. indic.; Mk. V, 16. 18. Lu. II, 17. II. Cor. IV, 6. V, 5. (w. sb.), w. prs. opt.; Mt. VI, 12.—When a rel. clause contains two vs., both may occur in the indic. mood, or the first stands in the indic. and the second in the opt.; Mt. V, 19.—The rel. saei is sumtimes preceded by the dem. (art.) sa; see sa, (1), (c).—It is uzually assimilated to the case of its antecedent; Lu. II, 20.—For its function as a conj., s. afar; in, (1) and (2), (c); þaírh; und; also þammei, þizei, and þatei.

saggws, m. (101), song, singing. [< siggwan. OE. sǫng, m., ME. songe, sang, NE. song.]

sa-h, dem. prn. (154) m.; f. sôh; n. þatuh (for þata-uh), and this, and that, and he; this, that, the same; he; who, which, (1) referring to a prec. rel. clause; Mt. V, 19. (2) follg. sum other antecedent; Lu. II, 38; so often as a connectiv before accessory clauses; Lu. II, 36. 37.—sah occurs frequently with þan; Mk. III, 11. Lu. II, 2. 37. II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 15. [< sa + uh.]

sa-ƕaz-uh, indef. rel. prn. (164, n. 1); s. þisƕazuh.

sai, interj. (204, n. 2; 219), see! behold! lo!; Mk. I, 2. II, 24. III, 32. 34. IV, 3. V, 22. Lu. II, 10. 34. 48. II. Cor. V, 17; suns sai, immediately; Mk. I, 12. [< sa + -i (a mutilated form of -ei), prop. a dem. particl attacht for emfasis.]

saian (saijan; 22 and n. 1), rv. (182), to sow, (1) abs.; Mt. VI, 26. Mk. IV, 4. (2) w. acc. (nom. in pass.); Mk. IV, 14. 15 (nom. implied). 32. (3) w. instr. dat. (fraiwa); Mk. IV, 3.—Followd by ana w. dat.; Mk. IV, 16. 20; or acc.; Mk. IV, 31; in w. acc.; Mk. IV, 18; —prs. ptc. (uzed as sb.) saiands, sower; Mk. IV, 3. 14.—Cpd. in-s. [OE. sâwan; (cp. waian), ME. sowe, NE. sow.]

[Pg 198]

saíhs, card. num. (141), six. [OE. seox, six, ME. NE. six.]

saíhsta, ord. num. (146), sixth. [< saíhs. OE. sixta, ME. sixte, NE. sixth (the th by influence of the numerals w. regular th).]

saíƕan (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), to see, look, behold, take heed, take heed to, (1) abs.; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 18. Mk. IV, 12. (2) w. acc.; Mt. V, 28. Mk. IV, 24. V, 22. 32. Lu. II, 15. 26. 30; and a ptc. in acc.; Mk. V, 31. (3) w. faírraþrô (afar, afar off); Mk. V, 6. (4) w. du w. inf.; Mt. V, 28. (5) w. an indir. question; Mk. IV, 24. V, 14. (6) w. a clause introduced by ei; Mk. I, 44.—Cpds. at-, bi-, ga-, in-, þaírh-, us-s. [OE. sêon (< *sehwǫn), ME. see, NE. see.]

-sailjan, wv. (188), to cord, in in-s. [< *sail (= OE. sâl, m., ME. sôl, OHG. MHG. NHG. seil, n., rope, cord). OE. sæ̂lan, to fasten with a cord.]

sáir (20, n. 2), n. (94), sorrow, travail. [Prop. n. adj. uzed as sb. (m. *sairs = OE. sâr, ME. sore, NE. sore, painful, >) OE. sâr, n., pain, ME. sore, NE. sore.]

saiwala, f. (97), soul, life; Mt. VI, 25. Mk. III, 4. Lu. II, 35. [OE. sâwol, sâul, f., ME. sawle, soule, NE. soul.]

saiws, m. (101, n. 1), sea, lake, marsh. [OE. sæ̂ (infl. also sæ̂w-), m. f., sea, lake, ME. sê, NE. sea.]

sakan, stv. (177, n. 1), to strive, quarrel, rebuke.—Cpds. and-, ga-s. [OE. sacan, ME. -sake (in cpds.), to strive, contend. Cp. frisahts and sakjô.]

sakjô (35), f. (112), strife. [< sakan + suff. -jôn-. Cf. OE. sæc(c), f. (jâ-stem), strife, contest; sacu, f. (â-stem), strife, hostility, ME. sake, strife, litigation, gilt, cause, (for ... sake =) NE. (for ...) sake.]

sakkus (58, n. 1), m. (105), sack, sackcloth. [< Lt. saccus (or) < Grk. σάκκος < Hebrew saq, sackcloth, sack for corn.]

salbôn, wv. (189), to salv, anoint; w. acc.; Mt. VI, 17. II. Cor. I, 21. [< *salba (= OE. sealf, f., ME. salfe, salve, NE. salv, sb.). OE. sealfian, ME. salfe, salve, NE. salv, vb.]

salbôns, f. (103, n. 1), salv, ointment. [< salbôn + suff. -ô-ni-.]

saltan, rv. (179, n. 1), to salt. [OE. sealtan, OHG. salzan, MHG. salzen, (NHG. salzen, wv., but pp. gesalzen), rv., to salt. Cf. OE. sealt, ME. salt, n. (also adj.), NE. salt > ME. salte, NE. salt, wv.]

sama, adj. prn. (132, n. 3; 156), same, the same, (1) without sb., and with the art.; Mt. V, 46. 47. Skeir. VII, d. (2) w. a sb., and with the art.; Lu. II, 8. II. Cor. I, 6. III, 14. IV, 13. [ON. samr, adj., > ME. same, NE. same. Cf. OE. sǫme, same, adv.: swâ s., just as.]

sama-fraþjis, adj. (126), like-minded.

sama-lauþs (74, n. 1), adj. (124), of the same size or quantity, as much. [-lauþs < √ of liudan.]

sama-leikô, adv., equally, likewise; Mk. IV, 16. Skeir. VII, c. [< sama-leiks = OHG. samolîh, samelîh, MHG. same-, seme-, sem-lîch, alike, agreeing together. For -leiks, s. galeikô.]

samaþ, adv. (213, n. 2), to the same place, together. [< sama + suff. . OE. sǫmod, samod, ME. samed, OHG. samet, MHG. NHG. samt, adv., together, and prep., together with.]

sandjan (74, n. 3), wv. (187), to send.—Cpds. in-, us-s. [Causal of *sinþan, to go. OE. sendan, ME. sende, NE. send.]

Satana, pr. n., Satan; Mk. III, 26; or Satanas; Mk. III, 23. IV, 15;[Pg 199] dat. -in; Mk. I, 13. II. Cor. II, 11; acc. -an; Mk. III, 23. [< Σατανᾶς < Hebrew sátán, enemy.]

satjan, wv. (187), to set, place, put; Mk. IV, 21.—Cpds. af-, at-, ga-, faúra-ga-s. [Causal of sitan. OE. settan, ME. sette, NE. set.]

saþs, gen. sadis (74, n. 3), adj. (124), sated, ful; s. waírþan, to be fild; Skeir. VII, d. [Prop. an old ptc. in-to-. OE. sæd, ME. sad, sed, NE. sad (obs.) satiated.]

saúhts (58, n. 2), f. (103), sickness, disease; Mk. I, 34. III, 15. [< √ of siuks + suff. -ti-. OE. suht (?), f., ME. suht, disease, ilnes, OHG. MHG. suht, NHG. sucht, f., disease, malady.]

sauil (26), n. (94), sun; Mk. I, 32.

Saúlaúmôn, pr. n., Solomon; Mt. VI, 29. [< Σολομών.]

-sauljan (24, n. 1), wv. (188), to soil, in bi-s. [Cp. OE. sylian (< sol, orig. *sul-, n., mire), ME. sulie, NE. sully.]

-saulnan (24, n. 1), wv. (194), in bi-s.

Saúr (24, n. 5), pr. n., a Syrian; dat. pl. -im; Lu. II, 2. [< Σύρος.]

saúrga, f. (97), care; Mk. IV, 19. sorrow, grief; II. Cor. II, 1. 3. 7. [OE. sorh, sorg, f., ME. sorwe, NE. sorrow.]

saúrgan, wv. (193), to sorrow, be grievd; II. Cor. II, 4; w. bi w. acc., to be anxious about, take thought for; Mt. VI, 28. [< saúrga. OE. sorgian (transferd to the Second Conjugation), ME. sorwe, NE. sorrow.]

sauþs, m. (101), sacrifice. [ON. sauðr, m., sheep, prop. an animal to be immolated, a victim, < √ of sjóða (prt. sauð) = OE. sêoðan (prt. sêað), ME. sethe, NE. seeth.]

sei, f. prn. (157, n. 3); s. saei.

Seidôna, pr. n. f., Sidon; acc. -a; Mk. III, 8. [< Σιδών.]

Seimôn, Seimônus, pr. n., Simon; Mk. I, 36; gen. -is; Mk. I, 16. 29. 30; dat. -a; Mk. III, 16; acc. -a (Gr. infl.); Mk. III, 18; or -u; Mk. I, 16. [< Σίμων.]

seina, refl. prn. gen.; dat. sis, acc. sik, uzed for all genders and numbers, (I) alone, (1) where the Gr. has no corresponding prn., (a) m., (α) sing.; Mt. V, 42. VI, 29; (β) pl. Mk. II, 6. IV, 12. 41. Lu. II, 20. 43; (b) fem., (α) sg.; Mk. III, 20; (β) pl.; Mk. IV, 1. V, 21; (c) n., (α) sg. (not found in our 'Selections.') (β) pl.; Lu. II, 39. 45; (2) for ἑαυτῴ, αὑτῴ, αὐτῴ, etc., (a) m., (α) sg., Mk. II, 26. III, 14. 25. 34. V, 4. 5. 30. 37. 40. II. Cor. V, 19. Skeir. VII, a; (β) pl.; Mk. II, 8. 19. IV, 17. II. Cor. V, 15. (II) w. silba, m., (α) sg.: sis silbin, sik silban, himself; Mk. III, 26. V, 30; (β) pl.: sis silbam, (sik silbans), themselvs; II. Cor. V, 15. (III) w. missô: seina missô, one another; sis missô, one another; m. pl.; Mk. I, 27. IV, 41. Lu. II, 15. [Wanting in E., but see under seins.] OHG. gen. sg. (only m. n.) sîn; dat. wanting; acc. sih (sg. and pl.), MHG. gen. sg. sîn, acc. sg. and pl. sich, NHG. gen. sg. sein (poet.); dat. acc. sich (for all genders and numbers).

seins, poss. prn. (151), uzed for all genders and numbers, his, theirs, their, etc., (1) alone, referring to a f. in sg.; Mk. V, 26. (2) w. a sb., referring, (a) to a m. in sg.; Mt. V, 22. 28. 32. 45. VI, 27. 29. Mk. I, 6. 41. III, 7. 9. IV, 2. 3. 34. Lu. II, 3. 28. II. Cor. II, 14. Skeir. VII, c. d; (b) to a m. in pl.; Mt. VI, 2. 5. 7. 16. Mk. I, 5. 20. II, 6. V, 17. Lu. II, 8. 39; (c) to a f. in sg.; Lu. II, 7. 19. 36. 51. [< stem of seina. OE. sîn (referring to all genders and numbers;) OHG. sîn[Pg 200] (referring to a m. or n. sg. only), MHG. sîn, NHG. sein, his, its.]

seiteina (17, n. 2).

seiþus, adj. (131), late. [Cf. -seiþs (s. þanaseiþs).]

sêls, adj. (130), good, kind. [OE. sæ̂l, ME. sel, adj., good, >-sæ̂lig, ME. seli, happy, blessed, (NE. silly), OHG. sâlig, MHG. sæ̂lec (-g-), NHG. selig, adj., happy, blessed.]

sêtun, prt. of sitan.

si, pers. prn.; s. is. [Cf. OE. sêo (< si + the fem. ending-u), ME. sche, NE. she. (Cp. Brgm., II, § 110.)]

sibja, f. (97, n. 1), relationship. [OE. sib(b), f., ME. sib, sibbe, NE. sib (obs., but dial.), relationship, frendship, luv, peace.]

-sibjôn, wv. (190), in ga-s. [< stem of sibja. OE. ge-sibbian, wv., to appease, please.]

sibun, indecl. num. (141), seven; Lu. II, 36. [OE. seofon, ME. seven, NE. seven.]

sibuntêhund, num. (143), seventy. [< sibun + têhund. Cp. Brgm., III, § 179.]

sidôn, wv. (190), to practis. [< sidus. OHG. (gi-)sitôn, to do, prepare.]

sidus, m. (105), custom, manner. [OE. siodu, m., custom, manner, morality, ME. side-, in side-ful, adj., modest, OHG. situ, m., MHG. site, m., f. (rare), NHG. sitte, f., custom, manner.]

siggwan (68), stv. (174, n. 1), (1) abs., to sing. (2) w. acc. (nom. in pass.), to read (aloud); II. Cor. III, 15.—Cpd. us-s. [OE. singan, ME. singe, NE. sing.]

sigis, n. (94), victory. [OE. sigor, m. (from stem in -iz; hense orig. n.), beside sige, m. (as if < sigi-z; cp. Brgm., II, § 132, Rem. 2), ME. siᵹe, victory, OHG. sigi, -u, m., MHG. sige, sic (-g-), NHG. sieg, m., victory.]

Sigis-mêres (6, n. 2), pr. n.

sigqan (siggqan), stv. (174, n. 1), to sink.—Cpd. ga-s. [OE. sincan (intr.), ME. sinke, NE. sink (tr. and intr.).]

sigljan, wv. (188), to seal, w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 22. [< Lt. sigillare, to seal.]

sigljô, n. (110), seal. [< sigljan.]

sihu? (20, n. 1), acc. n. (106), victory. [Cf. sigis.]

sijau, siju, sijum, etc., v. (204).

sik, refl. prn.; s. seina.

-silan, wv. (193), in ana-s. [Cognate with, or < Lt. silere, to be silent.]

silba, prn. (132, n. 3; 156), self, (1) uzed alone; II. Cor. I, 4. 9. (2) w. a poss. prn., where it stands in the gen. (like Lt. ipsius w. a poss. prn.); Lu. II, 35. (3) w. a pers. prn.; Mk. I, 44. III, 26. V, 30. II. Cor. I, 9. III, 1. 5. IV, 2. 5. V, 12. 15. (4) w. a dem. prn.; as, þata silbô, this very thing; II. Cor. II, 1. 3. (5) w. a sb. Mk. IV, 28. [OE. seolf, self, ME. seolf, self (infl. -v-), NE. self.]

Silbânus (5, a; 54, n. 1), pr. n., Silvanus; acc. -u; II. Cor. I, 19. [< Σιλουανός.]

silba-wiljis, adj. (92, n. 4), of one's own accord. [-wiljis < wiljan.]

silda-leikjan, wv. (188), to be astonisht, be amazed, to wonder, marvel; Mk. I, 27. V, 20. Lu. II, 48; w. ana w. dat.; Lu. II, 33; bi w. acc.; Lu. II, 18. [< sildaleiks (= OE. sellîc, for seld-lîc, ME. sellich), adj., strange, wonderful, marvelous, < silda- (OE. seld, adj., rare, strange, ME. selde, pl., few; cp. OE. seldan, ME. selde, prop. dat. of seld) + -leiks.]

silubr, n. (94), silver, muney. [OE. seolfor, siolfur, ME. seolver, silver, NE. silver.]

simlê, adv. (214, n. 1), onse, formerly. [OE. simle, symle, ME. simle, adv., ever, always.]

[Pg 201]

sinaps, m. (91; or sinap, n.? 94), mustard; Mk. IV, 31. [< σίναπι, n., mustard.]

sineigs (10, n. 5), adj. (138 and 139), old, elder. [< *sina- (s. sinteins), adj., old, + suff. -eiga-.]

sinteinô, adv., ever, always, continually; Mk. V, 5. II. Cor. IV, 10. 11. V, 6. [< sinteins + suff. .]

sinteins, adj. (124), daily; Mt. VI, 11. [< sin- (for sina-; s. sineigs), ever, + -teina-; sin- = OE. sin-in sin-niht, f., eternal night; sin-grêne, ME. sin-, sen-grene, NE. sengreen, the houseleek, lit. 'evergreen'.]

sipôneis, m. (92), pupil, disciple; Mk. II, 15. 16. 18. 23. 24. III, 7. 9. IV, 34. V, 31. Skeir. VII, d.

sipônjan, wv. (187; 188), to be a disciple. [< sipôneis.]

sis, prn.; s. seina.

sitan, stv. (176, n. 1), to sit; Mk. II, 6. V, 15; w. at w. dat.; Mk. II, 14; bi w. acc.; Mk. III, 32. 34; in w. dat.; Lu. II, 46.—Cpds. bi-, ga-s. [OE. sittan (< *sittjan; the j occurs in the prs. tense only; prt. sæt, etc.), ME. sitte, NE. sit.]

siujan, wv. (187), to sew; Mk. II, 21. [< a lost sb. OE. siowian, seowian, ME. sewe, NE. sew.]

siukan, stv. (173, n. 1), to be sick, be il, be weak.

siuks, adj. (124), sick, il, diseast, weak. [OE. sêoc, ME. sêk, sek, sic, NE. sick.]

siuns (42, n. 3), f. (103), the sense of sight, sight; II. Cor. V, 7. [< saíƕan + suff. -ni-; cp. Brgm., I, § 441.]

siuþ = sijuþ; s. sijau.

skaban, stv. (177, n. 1), to shave. [OE. sceafan, scafan, ME. schave, NE. shave.]

skadus, m. (105), shade, shadow; Mk. IV, 32. [OE. sceadu (follg. a- or wa-stems, but orig. < stem in -u-), f., ME. schadowe, schade, NE. shadow, shade.]

-skadweins (14, n. 1), f. (103, n. 1), a shading, in ga-sk. [< skadwjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

-skadwjan (14, n. 1), wv. (188), to cast a shade or shadow, in ufar-sk. [< skadus. OE. sceadwian, ME. schadowe, NE. shadow.]

skaidan, rv. (179), to sever, separate, put asunder. [OE. sc(e)âdan, ME. shede, wv., NE. shed, to part, pour, spil.]

-skaidnan, wv. (194), to becum parted, in ga-sk. [< skaidan.]

skalkinôn, wv. (190), to serv, do service; Mt. VI, 24. [< skalks.]

skalks, m. (91), servant; Lu. II, 29. II. Cor. IV, 5. [OE. scealc, m., ME. schalk (= NE. -shal, in marshal < French < G.), OHG. scalch, servant, MHG. schalc, servant, bondman, NHG. schalk, m., wag, rogue.]

skaman, wv. (193), always w. sik, to be ashamed, w. inf.; II. Cor. I, 8. [< *skama, f. (= OE. sceomu, sceamu, ME. schame, NE. shame). OE. sceǫmian (of the Second, orig. Third Class), sceamian, ME. schame, NE. shame.]

-skapjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to shape, make, in ga-sk. [OE. scieppan (< scieppjan; ie < ea < a), scyppan, ME. scheppe, schape, stv., schapie, wv., NE. shape.]

skattja (80), m. (108), muney-changer. [< skatts + suff. -jan-.]

skatts (69, n. 1), m. (91), muney, coin. [OE. sceat(t), scat, m., ME. scat, OHG. scaz, m., coin, muney, MHG. schaz (-tz-), NHG. schatz, m., trezure, sweet-hart.]

skaþjan, stv. (177, n. 2), to do scath, do wrong. [OE. sceððan, sceaðan, str. and wv., to harm, > sceðð, n., sceaða, m., ME. scathe, NE. scath, harm.]

skauda-raips, m. (91; or -raip, n.?[Pg 202] 94), shoe-lachet; Mk. I, 7. [Lit. a string for fastening a cuver, < skauda- (cp. MHG. NHG. schôte, f., husk, pod) + -raips = OE. râp, m., ME. rôp, NE. rope.]

skauns, adj. (130, n. 2), beutiful. [Lit. wurth seeing, noticeabl (cp. Brgm., § 95; also us-skaus and the follg. w.), OE. scêone (for *scêane) > scîene, scêne, ME. schene, adj., NE. sheen, adj. (beutiful, fair; poet.) and sb.]

-skawjan (42, n. 2), wv. (188), to behold, see, in us-sk. [< -skaus; s. us-skaus.]

skeinan, stv. (172, n. 1), to shine; II. Cor. IV, 6.—Cpd. bi-sk. [OE. scînan, ME. schine, NE. shine.]

skeireins, f. (103), a making clear, explanation, interpretation. [< skeirjan + suff. -ei-ni-.]

-skeirjan, wv. (188), to make clear, in ga-sk. [< skeirs.]

skeirs (78, n. 2), adj. (129, n. 1), clear, evident, plain. [< √ of skein-an. OE. scîr, ME. shire, bright, clear, pure; cp. ON. skærr, sheer, bright, > ME. schere, NE. sheer.]

skêwjan, wv. (188), to go, walk; Mk. II, 23. [Cf. ON. skæva, to go, stride along.]

skip, n. (94), ship, boat; Mk. I, 19. 20. III, 9. IV, 1. 36. 37. V, 2. 18. 21. [OE. scip, n., ME. schip, NE. ship.]

-skiuban (56, n. 1), stv. (173, n. 1), to shuv, push, in af-sk. [OE. scûfan (irreg. only in the pres., but later also scêofan), ME. shuve, (NE. shuv < ME. (schowwyn =) schove, OE. scofian, to shuv), OHG. scioban, MHG. schieben, NHG. schieben, to shuv.]

skôhs, m. (91?), shoe; Mk. I, 7. [OE. sceôh, scôh, m., ME. shô, NE. shoe.]

-skreitan, stv. (172, n. 1), to shred, tear, rend (tr.), in dis-sk. [OS. scrîtan, to tear. Cp. Swiss schrîssen, to pull, tear.]

-skritnan, wv. (194), to rend (intr.), in dis-sk. [< -skreitan.]

skuggwa (68), m. (108), mirror. [< √ of skaus, which is containd also in OE. scûwa, m., shade, and in OHG. scûchar, mirror.]

skula, m. adj. (132), gilty; sb. (108), detter; Mt. VI, 12; sk. wisan w. acc. of th.: þatei skulans sijaima, that for which we ow, our dets; Mt. VI, 12; the crime being indicated by the gen.: to be gilty of, be in danger of; Mk. III, 29; the punishment being indicated by the dat.; Mt. V, 21. 22; or in w. acc.; Mt. V, 22. [< skulan. OE. (ge-)scola, OHG. scolo, MHG. schol, ge-schol, m., detter.]

skulan, prt.-prs. (200), (1) w. inf., to be about to be, to be one's duty, to be obliged, ow, shal, must; Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. II, 3. V, 10. (2) skuld ist, it behoovs, it is lawful; Mk. II, 24. III, 4. 26. [OE. sculan, prs. indic. sceal, prt. sceolde, ME. schal, prt. scholde, schulde, NE. shal, should.]

skûra (15), f. (97), shower; sk. windis, storm of wind; Mk. IV, 37. [Cf. OE. scûr, m., ME. shur, schowre, NE. shower.]

slahan, stv. (177, n. 1), to strike, beat, smite. [OE. slêan < *slahǫn < *slahan, to strike, slay, ME. slê (= slæ̂), NE. slay.]

slahs, m. (101), stroke, stripe; plague; Mk. V, 29. 34. [< slahan. OE. slege, m., ME. sleᵹe, blow; OHG. slag (a-stem; in comp. also i-stem: slegi-), MHG. slac (-g-), NHG. schlag, m., blow, stroke.]

-slauþjan, wv. (188), to cause to slide, in af-s.

-slauþnan, wv. (194), in af-s. [Correlativ to -slauþjan.]

[Pg 203]

slawan, wv. (193), to be silent, hold one's peace.—Cpd. ga-s.

slêpan (78, n. 3), rv. (179), to sleep, fall asleep, be asleep; Mk. IV, 27. V, 39; w. ana w. dat.; Mk. IV, 38. [OE. slæ̂pan (st. and wv.), ME. slepe (st. and wv.), NE. sleep (wv.), OHG. slâfan, MHG. slâfen, NHG. schlafen, stv., to sleep.]

slêps, m. (91, n. 2), sleep. [< slêpan. OE. slæ̂p, m., ME. slep(e), NE. sleep.]

-slindan, stv. (174, n. 1), to devour, in fra-s. [OHG. (far)-slintan, MHG. ver-slinden, NHG. verschlingen (ng for nd by influence of schlingen, to wind, twist), to devour.]

sliupan, stv. (173, n. 1), to slip. [OE. slûpan (for *slêopan; cp. -skiuban), ME. (æt)-slupe, OHG. sliofan, MHG. sliefen, NHG. schliefen, to slip. Cp. also E. slip.]

smakka (58, n. 1), m. (108), fig. [A foren word. Cp. Old Bulgarian smoky, fig.]

smals, adj. (124), small, litl. [OE. smæl, ME. smal, NE. small.]

-smeitan, stv. (172, n. 1), in ga-s. [OE. smîtan, to strike, be-s., to soil, pollute, ME. smite, to strike, be-s., to soil, pollute, NE. smite.]

snaga, m. (108), garment; Mk. II, 21.

snaiws, m. (91, n. 1), snow. [OE. snâ(w), m., ME. snow, NE. snow.]

sneiþan, stv. (172, n. 1), to cut, reap; Mt. VI, 26. [OE. snîðan, ME. sniðe, OHG. snîdan, MHG. snîden, NHG. schneiden, to cut.]

sniumjan, wv. (188), to hasten, make haste; Lu. II, 16. [< an adj. = OHG. sniumi, quick, fast (sniumo, adv., = OE. snêome, snîome, adv., quickly, immediately), < √ of sniwan.]

sniumundôs, compar. adv. (212, n. 2), more quickly. [< sniumundô, adv., quickly, (< adj. stem sniumunda- + adv. suff. ) + compar. suff. -is, < sniumun- (+ suff. -da-) < √ of sniwan + suff. -mun-.]

sniwan, stv. (176, n. 2), to hasten, go. [Cf. ON. snúa, stv., to turn; and OE. sneowan, wv., to hasten.]

snutrs, adj. (124), wise. [< stem snut- + suff. -ra-. OE. snot(t)or, snoter, ME. snoter, adj., wise, prudent.]

sôh, f. of sah.

sôkjan (35), wv. (186), to seek, seek for, ask for, desire, long for, (1) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 32. Mk. I, 37. III, 32. Lu. II, 44. 45. 48. 49. IV, 42. (2) w. miþ w. dat., to question with; Mk. I, 27. [OE. sêkan, ME. seke, (bi)seche, NE. seek, beseech. Cp. sakan.]

sôkns (35), f. (103), serch, inquiry, question. [< √ of sôkjan + suff. -ni-. OE. sôcen (w. suff. -na-), f., ME. soken, a seeking, inquiry.]

spaíkulâtur (5, a; 24, n. 2), m., spy, executioner. [< Lt. speculator, spy.]

sparwa, m. (108), sparrow. [OE. spearwa, ME. spar(o)we, NE. sparrow.]

spaúrds, f. (116), stadium, furlong, race-course. [OHG. spurt, f. (?), a stadium.]

spêdumists, superl. adj. (139, n. 1), the last. [< stem *spêduma(n)- (< spêþs + suff. -u-ma-n-) + suff. -ista; spêþs = OHG. spâti, MHG. spæ̂te, NHG. spät, adj., late.]

speiwan, stv. (172, n. 1), to spit. [OE. spîwan, ME. spiwe, OHG. spîwan, spîan, MHG. spîen, NHG. speien, to spit. Cp. also OE. spiwian, speowan, ME. spewe, NE. spew.]

spilda, f. (97), (writing-) tablet; II. Cor. III, 3. [Cf. OE. speld, n., ME. speld, splinter, chip.]

spillôn, wv. (189), to tel a tale, tel, narrate; Mk. V, 16; to bring (good)[Pg 204] tidings; Lu. II, 10. [< spill (= OE. spell, n., a saying, narrativ, story, ME. spell, speech, preaching, NE. spel, an incantation). OE. spellian, ME. spelle, NE. spel.]

spinnan, stv. (174, n. 1), to spin; Mt. VI, 28. [OE. spinnan, ME. spynne, NE. spin.]

sprautô, adv. (211, n. 1), quickly, soon; Mt. V, 25.

stafs (56, n. 1), m. (101), element, rudiment. [OE. stæf, m., ME. staf, twig, staff, letter, NE. staff.]

staiga, f. (97), path, way, highway; Mk. I, 3. [< steigan. OHG. steiga, MHG. steige, f., an ascending road, NHG. steige, f., stile, staircase.]

stainahs, adj. (124), stony; Mk. IV, 5. 16. [< stains + suff. -ha (:ga). OHG. steinag, -ac, MHG. steinec (-g-), NHG. steinig, adj., stony.]

staineins, adj. (124), of stone, stony; II. Cor. III, 3. [< stains + suff. -eina-. OE. stæ̂nen, ME. stenen, OHG. steinîn, MHG. steinen, NHG. steinen (uzually steinern, w. dubl suff. -er-n), of stone.]

stains, m. (91), stone, rock; Mk. V, 5. II. Cor. III, 7.—Also uzed as a pr. n., Peter; Skeir. VII, a. [OE. stân, m., ME. stôn, NE. stone.]

staírnô, f. (112), star. [OE. steorra (rr < rn), m., ME. sterre, NE. star, OHG. sterno, sterro, MHG. sterne, sterre, also stern, a-stem, m., NHG. stern, m., star.]

-staldan, rv. (179), in ga-st.

standan, stv. (177, n. 3), to stand, stand firm; Mk. III, 24. 25; w. in w. dat.; Mt. VI, 5; w. ûta; Mk. III, 31.—Cpds. af-, and-, at-, ga-, twis-, us-st. [A nasalized form < √ stat extended < sta. OE. stǫndan, standan, ME. stande, NE. stand. The orig. √ is seen in OHG. MHG. stân, stên, NHG. stehen, stv., to stand; and in staþs.]

staþs, gen. stadis (74 and notes), m. (101), sted, place; Mk. I, 35. 45. II. Cor. II, 14. Skeir. VII, b; an inn; Lu. II, 7; —jainis stadis (215), unto the other side (of the lake); Mk. IV, 35. [< √ of standan + suff. -þi-. OE. stede, m., ME. stede, NE. sted (insted = in sted).]

*staþs, gen. staþis, m. (? 91, n. 2), shore, land; Mk. IV, 1. [< √ of standan + suff. -þa- or -þi- (?). OE. stæð, n., bank, shore, ME. staðe, NE. staith.]

staua (26), f. (97), judgment; Mt. V, 21. 22. [< √ stâw: stôw; cp. stôjan.]

staua (26), m. (108), judge; Mt. V, 25. [< staua, f., + suff. -an-.]

staua-stôls, m. (91), judgment-seat; II. Cor. V, 10.

-staúrran, wv. (193), in and-st. [< a lost adj. (cp. OE. styrne, = Goth. *staúr-ni-, ME. sterne, NE. stern). OHG. storrên, MHG. storren, to be rigid, stand forth stif.]

stautan, rv. (179, n. 1), w. acc. and bi w. acc., to strike, smite; Mt. V, 39. [OHG. stôȥan, MHG. stôȥen, NHG. stossen, to thrust, push.]

steigan, stv. (172, n. 1), to mount, climb up.—Cpds. ufar-, us-st. [OE. stîgan, ME. stie, styᵹe, NE. sty, to mount, ascend.]

stibna, f. (97), voice; Mk. I, 3. 11. 26. V, 7. [OE. stefn, f., ME. steven, voice, NE. steven (obs.), an outcry.]

-stiggan, stv. (174, n. 1), to sting, in us-st. [OE. stingan, ME. stinge, NE. sting.]

stigqan (gg; 67, n. 1), stv. (174, n. 1), to thrust, strike. [ON. stökkva (for *stekkva), to jump, leap.]

stilan, stv. (175, n. 1), to steal; Mt. VI, 20. [OE. stelan, ME. stele, NE. steal.]

stiur (78, n. 2), m. (91, n. 4), steer, calf. [OE. stêor, m., ME. stêr, NE. steer.]

[Pg 205]

stiwiti, n. (95), endurance, patience; II. Cor. I, 6.

-stôdjan, wv. (188), only in the cpds. ana-, du-st. [< √ of standan.]

stôjan (26), wv. (186, n. 2), to judge, in ga-st. [< staua (cp. Brgm., I, § 179). OHG. stôwan, stouwan (prt. stôwida), MHG. stouwen, to scold, accuse.]

stôls, m. (91), stool, seat, throne; Mt. V, 34. [< √ of standan + suff. -la. OE. stôl, m., ME. stôl, NE. stool.]

straujan (42), wv. (187), to strew, spred. [< a sb. = OE. strêa(w), North. strê, n., ME. strâ(we), NE. straw. OE. strêge, strêawian, ME. streᵹe, strewe, NE. strew.]

striks, m. (91 or 100?), stroke, title; Mt. V, 18. [< √ of *streikan (= OE. strîcan, to move, go, ME. strike, NE. strike). OHG. strih, MHG. NHG. strich, m., stroke, line.]

stubjus, m. (105), dust. [OHG. stuppe, MHG. (ge)stüppe, (ge)stuppe, NHG. gestüpp, n., dust.]

-suljan, wv. (188), in ga-s. [< √ of OE. syll, f., ME. sille, NE. sil; and of Goth. suljô (prob. not < Lt. solea).]

suman, adv. (214, n. 1), onse, in times past. [< stem of sums.]

sums, indef. prn. (162), (1) alone, sum one, pl. sum; II. Cor. III, 1. (2) adj., certain, sum. (3) w. partit. gen., certain, sum; Mk. II, 6. V, 25.—sums..sums-uþ þan, the one ... the other; II. Cor. II, 16; sum raíhtis..anþaruþ-þan..jah sum, sum ... other ... and sum; Mk. IV, 4-8.—bi-sumata, in part; II. Cor. I, 14. II, 5. [OE. ME. sum, NE. sum.]

sundrô, adv., asunder, alone, privately; Mk. IV, 10. 34. [Cf. OE. sundor, ME. sunder, adv., especially, apart, OHG. suntar, MHG. sunder, adv., separately, especially; conj., but, rather; prep., without, NHG. sonder, prep., without.]

sunja, f. (97, n. 1), truth; Mk. V, 33. II. Cor. IV, 2; acc. sg. is uzed adverbially (215). [< sunjis.]

sunjaba, adv. (210), truly, verily. [< sunjis + suff. -ba.]

Sunjai-friþas (88a, n. 2), pr. n.

sunjis, adj. (126), tru. [stem sunja- for *sundja-< *sund- (< √ of im, sijau; s. wisan) = OE. sôð (for sǫnð), ME. sôth, NE. sooth.]

sunjôn, wv. (190), to verify, excuse. [< sunja.]

sunnô, f. (112), n. (? 110, n. 2), sun; Mt. V, 45. Mk. IV, 6. [OE. sunne, f., ME. sunne, NE. sun.]

suns, adv., soon, at onse, suddenly, immediately; Mk. I, 10. 12. 18. 20. 21. 28-31. 42. 43. II, 2. 8. 12. IV, 5. 15. 16. 29. V, 2. 13. 42. [Prop. compar. adv., < *sunis (cp. mins) < stem suna- + adv. compar. suffix -is. Cf. OE. sǫ̂na, ME. sone, NE. soon.]

suns-aiw, adv., soon, immediately, straightway; Mk. III, 6. V, 29. 30. 36.

suns-ei, conj. (218), as soon as, when.

sunus, m. (104), sun; Mt. V, 45. Mk. I, 1. 11. II, 10. 19. 28. III, 11. 17. 28. V, 7. Lu. II, 7. II. Cor. I, 19. [OE. sunu, m., ME. sune, sone, NE. sun.]

suts (15, n. 1), adj. (130), sweet, suitabl, patient. [OE. swête (jo-stem), ME. swete, NE. sweet.]

swa, adv., so, (1) alone; Mt. V, 19. VI, 9. 30. Mk. II, 7. 8. 12. IV, 40. Lu. II, 48. (2) correlativ: swaswê..swa jah, as ... so also; II. Cor. I, 5; swa..swaswê, so ... as; Mk. IV, 26. (3) w. an adj. or adv.; Skeir. VII, a. b. c. (4) swa swê, w. an adj. or adv. between them: swa filu swê, as much as; Skeir. VII, c; swa lagga ƕeila swê, as long as; Mk. II, 19; swa managai[Pg 206] swê, as many as; Mk. III, 10; swa managôs swê, Mk. III, 28. [OE. swâ, ME. swa, swo, so, NE. so.]

swa-ei, conj. (218), so that, that, therefore, (1) w. prs. indic.; Mk. II, 28. (2) w. prt. indic.; Mk. I, 27. Skeir. VII, c. (3) w. prt. opt.; II. Cor. III, 7. (4) w. acc. and inf.; II. Cor. II, 7.—wherefore, therefore; II. Cor. IV, 12. V, 16. 17.

-swaggwjan, wv. (188), to cause to swing, in af-sw. [Caus. of *swiggwan (= OE. swingan, ME. swinge, NE. swing). OE. swengan, ME. swenge, NE. swinge (for *swenge, as singe for *senge).]

swaíhra, m. (108), father-in-law. [Cf. OE. swêor (< sweohor < *swehur, a-stem), m., father-in-law, OHG. swehur, m., father-in-law, later also brother-in-law, MHG. sweher, NHG. schwäher, m., father-in-law.]

swaíhrô, f. (112), mother-in-law; Mk. I, 30. [Extended < stem *swaíhrô-. Cf. OE. sweger, f., OHG. swigar, MHG. swiger, NHG. schwieger (rare; uzually schwiegermutter), f., mother-in-law.]

-swaírban, stv. (174, n. 1), to wipe, in bi-sw. [OE. sweorfan, to rub, file, polish, ME. swerve, NE. swerv, to turn aside.]

swa-lauþs, adj. (161), so great, so much, such. [For -lauþs, s. sama-lauþs.]

swa-leiks, adj. (161), (1) alone; so w. the art., such a one; II. Cor. II, 6. 7. (2) w. a sb., without the art., such; Mk. IV, 33. II. Cor. I, 10. III, 4. [OE. swelc, swilc, < swâ-lîc, ME. swiche, swuch, NE. such.]

swamms (swams; 48; 80, n. 1), m. (91), spunge. [OE. swam, m., fungus, OHG. MHG. swam (mm), NHG. schwamm, m., spunge, fungus.]

swaran, stv. (177, n. 1), to swear, w. bi w. dat.; Mt. V, 34. 35. 36.—Cpds. bi-, ufar-s. [OE. swerian (the i, = j, occurs in the prs. tense only; prt. swore, pp. sworen), ME. swere, NE. swear.]

swarê, adv., without a cause, in vain; Mt. V, 22.

swartis (in A) or swartizl (in B), n. (? 94), that which is black, ink; II. Cor. III, 3. [< swarts + suff. -iz- (-zla- = NHG. -sal, -sel).]

swarts, adj. (124), black; Mt. V, 36. [OE. sweart, ME. NE. swart.]

swa-swê, (1) adv., as, just as, as it wer, in like manner as, like, (a) uzed alone; Mt. V, 48. VI, 2. 5. 7. 12. 16. Mk. I, 22. II. Cor. II, 17. III, 5. Mk. I, 22. IV, 33. Lu. II, 20. 23. II. Cor. I, 5. 14. II, 17. III, 5. 13. 18. IV, 1; swaswê jah, even as, as also; II. Cor. I, 14; swaswê qiþan ist, as (= according to that which) is said; Lu. II, 24; (b) correlativ: swaswê..jah, as ... (so) also; II. Cor. I, 7. (2) conj. (218), so that, insomuch that, (a) w. prt. ind.; Mk. I, 45. II, 2. 12. III, 10. 20. IV, 32. 37; (b) w. prt. opt.; II. Cor. I, 8; (c) w. acc. and inf.; Mk. IV, 1.

swê, (1) adv., (a) in comparison, as, just as, like; Mt. VI, 29. Mk. I, 2. 10. 22. IV, 27. 31. II. Cor. II, 17. III, 1. V, 20. Skeir. VII, b; —analeikô swê, in like manner; Skeir. VII, a; swê..jah; Mt. VI, 10; (b) before numerals, about; Mk. V, 13. (2) conj. (218; temporal), as, when; Mk. IV, 36.

swêgnjan, wv. (188), to rejoice, triumf. [< a lost adj. or sb. *swêgna- < sweg- (cf. OE. swôgan, to sound, rustl; swêg, m., sound) + suff. -na-.]

sweiban (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), to cease. [Cf. OHG. (gi)-swiftôn, to be stil, be quiet; MHG. swiften (= OHG. *swiftjan), to silence,[Pg 207] appease, stil; NHG. be-schwichtigen (prop. Low G., w. ch for f), to silence, appease, stil.]

swein, n. (94), swine, pig; Mk. V, 11-14. 16. [Orig. adj., < *sû (= OE. sû, f., ME. sowe, NE. sow) + suff. -îna-. OE. swîn, n., hog, (wild) boar, (pl. swine), ME. swin, NE. swine.]

swêrs (78, n. 2), adj. (124), hevy, weighty; hense, grave, honord. [OE. swæ̂r, adj., hevy, difficult, OHG. swâri, MHG. swæ̂re, adj., hevy, grave, noble, NHG. schwer, adj., hevy, difficult, grievous.]

swês, adj. (124, n. 1), one's own; II. Cor. V, 10 (see note). [< swê- (allied to sei-na) + suff. -sa-. OE. swæ̂s, adj., one's own, domestic, intimate.]

swê-þáuh, adv. and conj. (218), yet, indeed, however; jabai sw. jah (s. jabai); II. Cor. V, 3; untê sw., for indeed, II. Cor. V, 19.

-swikunþjan, wv. (188), in ga-sw. [< swikunþs.]

swikunþs, adj. (124), evident, manifest, open; II. Cor. V, 11; sw. waírþan, to becum or be made manifest, appear; Mk. IV, 22. II. Cor. IV, 11. [< the pref. swi- (allied to swês) + kunþs.]

swiltan, stv. (174, n. 1), to die.—Cpd. ga-sw. [OE. sweltan, to die, ME. swelte, to faint, die, > the freq. sweltere, to faint away, NE. swelter, to be overcum with heat.]

swinþnan, wv. (194), to grow strong; Lu. II, 40. [< swinþs.]

swinþs, adj. (124), strong; Mk. III, 27. hole, helthy; Mk. II, 17.—Compar. swinþôza, mightier; Mk. I, 7. [OE. swîð (< *swinð), ME. swiþ, strong, OHG. *swind (in pr. ns.), MHG. swint (d-), strong, quick, NHG. schwind (obs., but dial.), ge-schwind, quick.]

swistar, f. (114), sister; Mk. III, 32. 35. [OE. sweostor, swustor, ME. suster and sister (by influence of ON. systir), NE. sister.]

swôgatjan, wv. (188), to sigh, groan; II. Cor. V, 2. 4. [Intensiv v. < swôg- in (OE. swôgan, ME. swowe > swoᵹne, swoune, NE. swoon) -swôgjan, to sigh; -atjan = OE. -ettan, NHG. -ezzen.]

swumfsl (80), n. (94), swimming-bath, pool. [For swumsl (so in MS., an amended form of swumslf. But the f is merely eufonic) < swimman (+ suff. -sla) = OE. swimman, ME. swimme, NE. swim.]

Symaíôn (39), pr. n., Simeon; Lu. II, 25. 34. [< Συμεών.]

synagôga-faþs, gen. -fadis, m. (101), ruler of a synagog; Mk. V, 22. 35. 36. 38. [< synagôgê + -faþs (only in cpds.), chief, master; s. brûþ-faþs.]

synagôgê (39), f., synagog; (gen. -ais;) dat. (-ai; or) -ein; Mk. I, 29 (-ên for -ein; 17, n. 1); or (Gr. infl.); Mk. I, 23; acc. (-ein; or) -ên (Gr. infl.); Mk. I, 21. III, 1; dat. pl. -im; Mk. I, 39. [< συναγωγή, congregation.]

Syria, pr. n., Syria; gen. -ais; Lu. II, 2. [< Συρία.]

Tagl, n. (94), a singl hair, hair; Mt. V, 36. Mk. I, 6. [OE. tæᵹ(e)l, m., ME. tayl, NE. tail.]

tagr, n. (94), tear; II. Cor. II, 4. [OE. têar, teagor (< *taur, for *tahur), m., drop, tear, ME. tere, têr, NE. tear.]

tahjan, wv. (188), to tear, rend, w. acc.; Mk. I, 26.

taíhswa, f. (prop. str. adj.; Mk. XVI, 5. Col. III, 1), the right hand. [< taíhsws.]

taíhsws, adj. (124; uzually weak; 132; so also without the art.; cp. prec. word), right (not left); Mt. V, 29. 30. 39.—taíhswô (sc. han[Pg 208]dus), the right hand; Mt. VI, 3. [OHG. zeso (infl. zesw-), MHG. zese (infl. zesw-, zesew-), adj., right.]

taíhun, card. num. (141), ten. [OE. tên (< *teen for *tehen), têo (North.), ME. ten, NE. ten (-teen; s. fimf).]

taíhunda, ord. num. (146), the tenth. [< taíhun + suff. -da.] [OE. têoða (for *têonða), ME. tenþe (by influence of ten), NE. tenth.]

taíhun-têhund and -taíhund, card. num. (143; cp. 148), a hundred.

taiknjan, wv. (188), to betoken, point, show.—Cpd. us-t. [< taikns. OE. tâcnian, ME. tokne, to show, betoken, signify, NE. token (Shak.), to foretel, betoken, to make known.]

taikns, f. (103), token; sign, wonder, miracl; Lu. II, 12. 34. [< taik- (= OE. tâc-in *tâcian, to show, = tæ̂can, ME. teche, teache, NE. teach) + suff. -ni-. OE. tâcen (w. suff. -no-), n., token, mark, wonder, ME. tokne, NE. token.]

tainjô, f. (112), a basket of twigs, basket; Skeir. VII, c. d. [< tains + suff. -jôn-. OHG. zein(n)â, f., MHG. zeine, f. m., a basket of twigs.]

tains, m. (91), twig, branch. [OE. tân, m., twig, rod, staf, ON. teinn > ME. tein, staff.]

taíran, stv. (175, n. 1), only in dis-, ga-t. [OE. teran, ME. tere, NE. tear.]

taítôk, prt. of têkan.

taleiþa, f. (97), damsel; Mk. V, 41. [< ταλιθά < the Chaldean.]

talzjan, wv. (188), to teach, instruct.—talzjands, m. (prop. prsp.; 115), teacher. [< -tals (in un-tals, indocil, disobedient) < √ tal seen in OE. talu, number, narrativ, speech, ME. tale, NE. tale.]

-tamjan (33), wv. (187), to tame, in ga-t. [< an adj. = OE. tam, ME. tame, NE. tame; <