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17.1 debug

Suppose you have written a function definition that is intended to return the sum of the numbers 1 through a given number. (This is the triangle function discussed earlier. See Example with Decrementing Counter, for a discussion.)

However, your function definition has a bug. You have mistyped 1= for 1-. Here is the broken definition:

(defun triangle-bugged (number)
  "Return sum of numbers 1 through NUMBER inclusive."
  (let ((total 0))
    (while (> number 0)
      (setq total (+ total number))
      (setq number (1= number)))      ; Error here.

If you are reading this in Info, you can evaluate this definition in the normal fashion. You will see triangle-bugged appear in the echo area.

Now evaluate the triangle-bugged function with an argument of 4:

(triangle-bugged 4)

In GNU Emacs version 21, you will create and enter a *Backtrace* buffer that says:

---------- Buffer: *Backtrace* ----------
Debugger entered--Lisp error: (void-function 1=)
  (1= number)
  (setq number (1= number))
  (while (> number 0) (setq total (+ total number))
        (setq number (1= number)))
  (let ((total 0)) (while (> number 0) (setq total ...)
    (setq number ...)) total)
  eval((triangle-bugged 4))
---------- Buffer: *Backtrace* ----------

(I have reformatted this example slightly; the debugger does not fold long lines. As usual, you can quit the debugger by typing q in the *Backtrace* buffer.)

In practice, for a bug as simple as this, the `Lisp error' line will tell you what you need to know to correct the definition. The function 1= is `void'.

In GNU Emacs 20 and before, you will see:

Symbol's function definition is void: 1=

which has the same meaning as the *Backtrace* buffer line in version 21.

However, suppose you are not quite certain what is going on? You can read the complete backtrace.

In this case, you need to run GNU Emacs 21, which automatically starts the debugger that puts you in the *Backtrace* buffer; or else, you need to start the debugger manually as described below.

Read the *Backtrace* buffer from the bottom up; it tells you what Emacs did that led to the error. Emacs made an interactive call to C-x C-e (eval-last-sexp), which led to the evaluation of the triangle-bugged expression. Each line above tells you what the Lisp interpreter evaluated next.

The third line from the top of the buffer is

(setq number (1= number))

Emacs tried to evaluate this expression; in order to do so, it tried to evaluate the inner expression shown on the second line from the top:

(1= number)

This is where the error occurred; as the top line says:

Debugger entered--Lisp error: (void-function 1=)

You can correct the mistake, re-evaluate the function definition, and then run your test again.