An Overview of Gfx



This document gives an overview of a graphics library for Oberon System 3 which focuses on abstract interfaces and powerful graphical constructs but nevertheless tries to preserve much of the efficiency granted by the graphical primitives found in the operating system. Although the library currently runs on Oberon System 3 only, its concepts are independent of underlying operating system and graphics engine. However, since Oberon is intentionally very simple and only has a small number of graphical primitives, a graphics library that concentrates on providing advanced graphical capabilities adds the most value from the perspective of a programmer and best complements the primitive but efficient routines in the system that are designed to fit the underlying hardware.

Although general purpose in principle, the library is mainly thought to serve applications for which powerful and flexible graphics support is crucial, e.g. vector graphics editors or viewers for graphical documents in standard formats. Its functionality is comparable to that of PostScript (a well known page description language, trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.), at least in the areas it tackles.


In the Gfx library, the central entity is called a context, defined as Gfx.Context. A context is an object providing a well-defined set of methods for rendering graphics. It keeps track of a graphics state consisting of a set of parameters. The graphics state defines the appearance of whatever is rendered. The context interface is abstract and is not associated with a specific output device. Only concrete extensions of the abstract context type are linked to output devices, which allows rendering graphics on real devices such as displays or printers but also supports rendering to bitmap images or the creation of textual descriptions of the displayed content, e.g. a page description that can be printed or exchanged over a network.

Since Gfx contexts are large and complex objects, we prefer to split their functionality into categories and introduce these categories one by one.


One of the main purposes of any graphics library is to provide functions for drawing basic geometrical shapes. The Gfx library therefore offers procedures for drawing lines, rectangles, circles and ellipses. While many drawings can indeed be modelled with only these shapes, other shapes such as arcs, splines, triangles and parallelograms are often necessary. For this reason, contexts offer a set of methods for describing arbitrary paths, where a path is defined as a sequence of subpaths and a subpath in turn is defined as a connected sequence of straight lines, ellipse arcs, and cubic Bézier curves.


  PROCEDURE DrawLine(ctxt: Context; x0, y0, x1, y1: REAL; mode: SET);
  PROCEDURE DrawArc(ctxt: Context; x, y, r, start, end: REAL; mode: SET);
  PROCEDURE DrawRect(ctxt: Context; x0, y0, x1, y1: REAL; mode: SET);
  PROCEDURE DrawCircle(ctxt: Context; x, y, r: REAL; mode: SET);
  PROCEDURE DrawEllipse(ctxt: Context; x, y, rx, ry: REAL; mode: SET);

These five procedures are provided as a convenience to programmers since they describe often used shapes in the domain of vector graphics. Nevertheless, they are not primitive in the sense that contexts directly render them. What happens instead is that they are decomposed into a sequence of calls that are described in the next few sections. The mode parameter is explained in detail in the following section.

Beginning and Ending Paths

    Record = 0; Fill = 1; Clip = 2; Stroke = 3; EvenOdd = 4;  (* drawing mode elements *)
    ContextDesc = RECORD
      mode: SET;  (* current drawing mode *)
      path: GfxPaths.Path;  (* current path in device coordinates *)
  PROCEDURE Begin(ctxt: Context; mode: SET);
  PROCEDURE End(ctxt);

When a new path is started, a mode parameter specifies how the path elements are to be interpreted.

If the mode contains the Record element, all path elements are stored in an explicit path structure. This path structure can then be transformed, its curved elements can be replaced by an approximation using straight lines, or its elements can be enumerated for further processing.

If the mode parameter contains the Fill element, the interior of the resulting path will be filled according to the current fill parameters, whereas the interior of the resulting path will be intersected with the current clip area and will replace it if the mode contains the Clip element (see section Clipping).

If the Stroke element is present in the mode parameter, an imaginary pen is led along the path and renders all path elements according to the current stroke parameters.

Finally, the EvenOdd element specifies which areas belong to the interior of a path. Checking whether a point lies within a path involves drawing an imaginary ray originating at the point in question and counting how often it intersects the path, every intersection counting as one if the path crosses the ray from right to left and as minus one otherwise. If EvenOdd is set, the point is inside if the resulting number is odd, otherwise it is inside if the resulting number is different from zero.

Entering and Exiting a Subpath

    ContextDesc = RECORD
      cpx, cpy: REAL;  (* current point in user coordinates *)
  PROCEDURE MoveTo(ctxt: Context; x, y: REAL);
  PROCEDURE Close(ctxt: Context);

As mentioned above, a subpath is a connected sequence of curves. Calling MoveTo places an imaginary pen at the point which is located at position (x, y). This imaginary pen then follows all curves that are added to the path until it is lifted off the output plane again, which happens when MoveTo is called again, when the subpath is terminated with Close or Exit, or when the path is terminated with End. The current coordinates of the pen's tip are stored in the context's cpx and cpy fields.

If the subpath defines a closed contour, Close should be called. This automatically appends a line leading to the first point in the subpath if necessary. In addition, it guarantees that the correct line join style will be rendered at the point where the subpath is closed.

The reason for having subpaths in addition to paths is that paths can consist of several disconnected curve sequences. This is important for areas that have holes, e.g. a ring shape. The ring can be described as a path consisting of two concentric circular subpaths, one clockwise and the other counter-clockwise. If the current drawing mode includes the Fill element, only the interior area between these circles is filled, whereas the area of the hole in the center is not affected.

Gfx offers an alternative way of entering and exiting subpaths which is even more flexible than the one using MoveTo and Close:

  PROCEDURE Enter(ctxt: Context; x, y, dx, dy: REAL);
  PROCEDURE Exit(ctxt: Context; dx, dy: REAL);

A subpath can be entered at any point with Enter. In addition to the coordinates of the point where the subpath is entered, it expects a vector indicating the direction of any curve leading to the entry point (very likely the direction of the last line in a closed subpath). Calling Enter with a direction vector (0, 0) is equivalent to calling MoveTo.

Similarly, Exit expects as its parameter the direction of the curve following after the current point (very likely the direction of the first line of the subpath).

Using Enter and Exit is more flexible than using MoveTo and Close because closed subpaths can be rendered piecewise instead of all at once. However, using Enter and Exit requires that directions of adjacent lines at an entry or exit point are known in advance. More often than not these direction vectors are indeed already known or can be easily figured out, though, so that it becomes a matter of taste which method to use.

Subpath Elements

  PROCEDURE LineTo(ctxt: Context; x, y: REAL);
  PROCEDURE ArcTo(ctxt: Context; x, y, x0, y0, x1, y1, x2, y2: REAL);
  PROCEDURE BezierTo(ctxt: Context; x, y, x1, y1, x2, y2: REAL);

Once a subpath has been started with MoveTo or Enter, curve elements can be added to the current path. They all start drawing at the current point and end at the point given by (x, y).

When adding arcs to the path, several additional parameters are needed to describe the geometry of the ellipse that the arc is part of. The center of the ellipse is at (x0, y0). The interpretation of control points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is as follows: in the case of a (counter-clockwise) unit circle, (x0, y0) = (0, 0), (x1, y1) = (1, 0), and (x2, y2) = (0, 1). Any transformation applied to the unit circle is also applied to control points, i.e. their position in turn defines the transformation from the unit circle to the shape of the ellipse. The ellipse always goes through them and their counterparts on the opposite side of the ellipse center, and its direction at one control point is the same as that from the center to the other control point. This way of defining an ellipse is more flexible than just defining its half-axes by length, as is often done, since it handles ellipses that are not aligned with the coordinate system quite elegantly. If the current point or the end point are not on the ellipse, a straight line is drawn to or from the nearest point on it.

In the case of a (cubic) Bezier curve, the additional control points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) define the shape of the curve without lying on the curve themselves.

Special Procedures

    ContextDesc = RECORD
      path: GfxPaths.Path;  (* current path *)
      flatness: REAL;  (* current flatness tolerance in device coordinates *)
  PROCEDURE Flatten(ctxt: Context);
  PROCEDURE Outline(ctxt: Context);
  PROCEDURE Render(ctxt: Context);

Since some path operations are only possible or at least much easier to perform on sequences of straight lines, curved path elements may often have to be approximated with straight lines. Flatten visits all elements of the current path and replaces arcs and beziers by sequences of short lines. The maximal distance between the original curve and the approximation is no bigger than the current value of the flatness parameter stored in the context, which helps control the quality of the approximation.

Outline replaces the current path by a new path which outlines all areas that would be drawn to if the current path were stroked. This is of course only useful for reasonably thick lines. If the current line width is zero, Outline does not create an outlined path at all. However, if a dash pattern is in effect, the path is replaced by its dashed representation.

Render renders the current path using the current context attributes. This is useful if some attributes are not known in advance or if subpaths have to be modified after construction. The rendering mode can then be set to Record. When the path is complete, attributes can be set to the appropriate values or the path can be modified before calling Render to output the path. Note that the current path is always stored in device coordinates.

Stroke and Fill Attributes

    MaxDashPatSize = 16;
    (* state elements *)
    fillColPat = 0; strokeColPat = 1; lineWidth = 2; dashPat = 3;
    capStyle = 4; joinStyle = 5; styleLimit = 6;
    flatness = 7; font = 8; ctm = 9; clip = 10;
    strokeAttr = {strokeColPat..styleLimit}; attr = {fillColPat..font}; all = attr + {ctm, clip};
    ContextDesc = RECORD
      strokeCol, fillCol: GfxColors.Color;  (* current stroke and fill colors *)
      strokePat, fillPat: Pattern;  (* current stroke and fill pattern *)
      lineWidth: REAL;  (* current line and curve width *)
      dashPatOn, dashPatOff: ARRAY MaxDashPatSize OF REAL;  (* current dash pattern *)
      dashPatLen: LONGINT;  (* number of valid elements in dash pattern arrays *)
      dashPhase: REAL;  (* offset into pattern at first dash *)
      capStyle: CapStyle;  (* line cap style *)
      joinStyle: JoinStyle;  (* line join style *)
      styleLimit: REAL;  (* determines area that may be rendered to by styles *)
      flatness: REAL;  (* current flatness tolerance in device coordinates *)
    State = RECORD END;
    Black, White, Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, LGrey, MGrey, DGrey: Color;
    DefaultCap: CapStyle;
    DefaultJoin: JoinStyle;
  PROCEDURE SetStrokeColor(ctxt: Context; color: GfxColors.Color);
  PROCEDURE SetStrokePattern(ctxt: Context; pat: Pattern);
  PROCEDURE SetFillColor(ctxt: Context; color: GfxColors.Color);
  PROCEDURE SetFillPattern(ctxt: Context; pat: Pattern);
  PROCEDURE SetLineWidth(ctxt: Context; width: REAL);
  PROCEDURE SetDashPattern(ctxt: Context; VAR on, off: ARRAY OF REAL; len: LONGINT; phase: REAL);
  PROCEDURE SetCapStyle(ctxt: Context; style: CapStyle);
  PROCEDURE SetJoinStyle(ctxt: Context; style: JoinStyle);
  PROCEDURE SetStyleLimit(ctxt: Context; limit: REAL);
  PROCEDURE SetFlatness(ctxt: Context; flatness: REAL);
  PROCEDURE Save(ctxt: Context; elems: SET; VAR state: State);
  PROCEDURE Restore(ctxt: Context; state: State);
  PROCEDURE NewPattern(ctxt: Context; map: GfxMaps.Map; px, py: REAL): Pattern;

Context attributes have an effect on how paths are rendered. Whenever they are modified, they remain in their new state until they are changed again. It is good practice to save any previous value before modifying an attribute and later revert to the previous value unless you are sure that the old value will not be needed anymore. If many attributes have to be modified at once, the whole graphics state or parts of it can be saved with Save and later be restored with Restore. Note that attributes may only be changed as long as no path has been begun. While within a path, attribute values remain locked and cannot be changed, except for the current font and flatness values.

The color used for stroking a path or filling its interior can be set with SetStrokeColor and SetFillColor. Gfx maintains two distinct color attributes for stroking and filling because it can execute both at once for the same path. Colors are represented as RGB-triples. Frequently used colors are exported from Gfx as global variables.

In addition to solid color, a bitmap pattern may be used for stroking and filling paths. The pattern must first be instanced from the context with NewPattern by specifying an image and a pin-point, which is the point where the pattern is anchored. For pure alpha images, the current stroke and fill colors are used. A NIL pattern turns pattern mode off and returns to solid color.

Stroked curves may also be dashed, which means that only some parts of the curve are rendered while others are left out according to a repeating pattern. A dash pattern is defined by two sequences of numbers. For each dash, the number in the first sequence denotes the length of a visible part, whereas the corresponding number in the second sequence denotes the length of the following invisible part. Furthermore, a phase parameter defines where within the pattern to start when entering a subpath. Dashed curves should be turned off again by calling SetDashPattern with a pattern length of zero rather than with a dash pattern that has zero distance between dashes.

By default curves have a width of one pixel, but the current line width can be changed. Setting the line width to zero renders curves with as few pixels as possible, depending on the resolution of the rendering device. When line width is significantly over one pixel, the question of how to render line caps and line joins arises. Gfx provides the most common ones as predefined constants: butt caps (default), round caps, and square caps for line caps and miter joins (default), round joins, and bevel joins for line joins. If no precautions are taken, miter joins may extend far away from the original corner point. Gfx introduces a context attribute called styleLimit to counter this effect. A style must not draw pixels whose distance from the original curve is larger than 1/2 * lineWidth * styleLimit. Miter joins are replaced by bevel joins if they would extend beyond that limit.

As already mentioned, curved segments are often approximated with straight lines. The flatness attribute controls the quality of the approximation. Its default value is one, making the maximal error tolerated in approximations at most one pixel. Contrary to all other attributes, the flatness is measured in device pixels, not in the user coordinate system.

Coordinate Systems and Transformations

As outlined in the previous sections, an application controlling a context may not know on which device its output will finally appear. Since pixel resolution usually varies from one output device to another, device pixel coordinates are not a suitable means for specifying device independent coordinates. Instead, when a context is initialized, a default coordinate system is established which has is origin at the lower left corner of the area that can be rendered to. The units of the default coordinate system correspond to those of the Oberon display, where one unit is approximately 1/91 inch.

Whenever point coordinates are passed to the graphics library, e.g. when drawing path segments, the current transformation is applied to them. Initially the current transformation maps a point in the default coordinate system to the corresponding point in the coordinate system of the underlying output device, but the current transformation can be changed anytime, even within paths. Many attributes of the context are also affected by the current transformation, including dash pattern, line width, font size and orientation, etc.

The current transformation is represented in the context as a 3-by-2 matrix, so that a point (x, y) in the current context coordinate system is mapped to a point (x', y') in the following way:

x' = m00*x + m10*y + m20
y' = m01*x + m11*y + m21

This way of representing the current transformation not only allows to arbitrarily scale and translate the coordinate system but also to rotate and shear it.

    ContextDesc = RECORD
      ctm: GfxMatrix.Matrix;  (* current transformation matrix *)
      cam: GfxMatrix.Matrix;  (* current attribute matrix *)
  PROCEDURE ResetCTM(ctxt: Context);
  PROCEDURE SetCTM(ctxt: Context; VAR mat: GfxTrafos.Matrix);
  PROCEDURE Translate(ctxt: Context; dx, dy: REAL);
  PROCEDURE Scale(ctxt: Context; sx, sy: REAL);
  PROCEDURE ScaleAt(ctxt: Context; sx, sy, x, y: REAL);
  PROCEDURE Rotate(ctxt: Context; sin, cos: REAL);
  PROCEDURE RotateAt(ctxt: Context; sin, cos, x, y: REAL);
  PROCEDURE Concat(ctxt: Context; VAR mat: GfxTrafos.Matrix);

ResetCTM initializes the current transformation matrix (CTM) to its default state, which maps points specified in Oberon display units to device coordinates. SetCTM sets the CTM to a specific value. This should only be used for restoring a value that has temporarily been modified, otherwise results are no longer guaranteed to have equal size and orientation on all output devices.

The remaining procedures for modifying the CTM all combine their arguments with the CTM such that the transformation they describe is applied to a point before all other transformations in the CTM are applied to it. Translate moves the origin of the coordinate system by (dx, dy), Scale scales x coordinates by sx and y coordinates by sy, ScaleAt moves the origin to (x, y) before scaling and back afterwards, Rotate rotates counter-clockwise by the angle whose sine and cosine are given, RotateAt moves the origin to (x, y) before rotating and back afterwards, and Concat combines its argument with the CTM.

While graphical context attributes cannot be changed within a path, the current transformation may be modified anytime, even within subpaths. When a path is begun, the contents of the CTM are therefore copied into the current attribute matrix (CAM), which is used for transforming graphical context attributes


    ContextDesc = RECORD
      cpx, cpy: REAL;  (* current point *)
      font: GfxFonts.Font;  (* current font *)
  PROCEDURE SetFont(ctxt: Context; font: GfxFonts.Font);
  PROCEDURE SetFontName(ctxt: Context; fontname: ARRAY OF CHAR; size: INTEGER);
  PROCEDURE GetStringWidth(ctxt: Context; str: ARRAY OF CHAR; VAR dx, dy: REAL);
  PROCEDURE ShowAt(ctxt: Context; x, y: REAL; str: ARRAY OF CHAR);
  PROCEDURE Show(ctxt: Context; str: ARRAY OF CHAR);
  PROCEDURE DrawStringAt(ctxt: Context; x, y: REAL; str: ARRAY OF CHAR);
  PROCEDURE DrawString(ctxt: Context; str: ARRAY OF CHAR);

SetFont and SetFontName are for changing the current font of the context.

Show and ShowAt may only be called while inside a path. They append character outlines to the current path and advance the current point. Character shapes may therefore be stroked or used for clipping, but only if the necessary outline font files are installed, otherwise an undefined outline path in the form of a rectangle will be used. However, if the mode is set to Fill, Gfx does not even look at character outlines and uses precomputed raster fonts from corresponding raster font files.

DrawString and DrawStringAt are convenience procedures which begin a path in mode, call Show and ShowAt, respectively, to display the string, and end the path. They obviously cannot be called while inside a path and use the current fill attributes for rendering individual characters.

GetStringWidth returns the distance that the current point would be moved if the specified string were rendered. dy is usually zero but can have other values if the current font has been rotated or sheared.

The fact that contexts work in a device independent manner makes it difficult to use Oberon raster fonts directly because Oberon raster font files have both their resolution and their point size hardcoded into their name (e.g. "Oberon10b.Pr3.Fnt" contains raster data for the Oberon family in bold style at size ten for use on a 300 dpi printer). Even if the extension is replaced by the one corresponding to the current output device, the problem remains that the point size may not be the appropriate one because the CTM might have been scaled. An additional abstraction for representing fonts is therefore needed, which is encapsulated in module GfxFonts.

    Font = POINTER TO FontDesc;
    FontDesc = RECORD
      name: FontName;  (* e.g. "Oberon-Bold" *)
      ptsize: INTEGER;	(* point size *)
      mat: GfxMatrix.Matrix;  (* font matrix *)
      xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax: INTEGER;  (* union of character bounding boxes *)
      rfont: Fonts.Font;  (* Oberon raster font (if available) *)
      niceMaps: BOOLEAN;  (* true if returned maps look better than just filled outlines *)
    Default: Font;
  PROCEDURE Open(name: ARRAY OF CHAR; ptsize: INTEGER; mat: GfxMatrix.Matrix): Font;
  PROCEDURE OpenSize(name: ARRAY OF CHAR; ptsize: INTEGER): Font;
  PROCEDURE GetWidth(font: Font; ch: CHAR; VAR dx, dy: REAL);
  PROCEDURE GetMap(font: Font; ch: CHAR; VAR x, y, dx, dy: REAL; VAR map: Images.Image);
  PROCEDURE GetOutline(font: Font; ch: CHAR; x, y: REAL; path: GfxPaths.Path);
  PROCEDURE GetStringWidth(font: Font; str: ARRAY OF CHAR; VAR dx, dy: REAL);

Fonts are defined by their name, which consists of family and style (e.g. "Oberon-Bold"), a point size, and an instance matrix. The instance matrix is usually an identity matrix scaled to the resolution of a specific output device. The Oberon display is represented by an identity matrix, in which case OpenSize can be used. However, other affine transformations are possible as well, resulting in arbitrarily scaled, rotated, and sheared characters. Translations are ignored.

Once a font has been opened, image bitmaps and outline paths may be retrieved for single characters. Since devices such as the Oberon display include optimized code for rendering Oberon raster fonts, the rfont field contains a link to the corresponding Oberon font if a suitable one exists.

GfxFonts is able to read Oberon raster font and files and metafonts (containing outlines). Besides, a plugin mechanism for extending the number of known font formats is supported. Currently there is a plugin called GfxOType for using TrueType fonts within Gfx, which depends on the OpenType package for Oberon System 3, and a plugin called GfxPKFonts for accessing TeX's pk fonts. Plugins must be registered in Oberon.Text, as described in Gfx.Tool.


  PROCEDURE DrawImageAt(ctxt: Context; x, y: REAL; img: Images.Image; VAR filter: GfxImages.Filter);

Images are rendered with their lower left corner at a given point with DrawImageAt. The CTM is applied to the image. If the CTM has not been modified by the programmer, one image pixel corresponds to one display pixel, i.e. images are assumed to be in default Oberon display units. If the image has to be scaled or rotated, the quality and speed of the transformation are controlled with a filter parameter.


  ClipArea = POINTER TO ClipAreaDesc;
  ClipAreaDesc = RECORD END;
  PROCEDURE ResetClip(ctxt: Context);
  PROCEDURE GetClipRect(ctxt: Context; VAR llx, lly, urx, ury: REAL);
  PROCEDURE GetClip(ctxt: Context): ClipArea;
  PROCEDURE SetClip(ctxt: Context; clip: ClipArea);

Each context manages a clip area. Output is restricted to the interior of this area, i.e. all attempts to render outside its bounds are ignored. If the Clip element is included in the mode when beginning a path, the current clip area will be intersected with the interior of the path when the path ends. All subsequent rendering operations then only affect the interior of the new clip area until the clip area is reset or a previously saved area is restored.

Raster Device Contexts

    Region = POINTER TO RegionDesc;
    RegionDesc = RECORD (GfxRegions.RegionDesc)
    Context = POINTER TO ContextDesc;
    ContextDesc = RECORD (GfxContexts.ContextDesc)
      clipReg: Region;  (* interior of clip path *)
      pathReg: GfxRegions.Region;  (* interior of current path *)
      dot: PROCEDURE(rc: Context; x, y: LONGINT);  (* current dot procedure *)
      rect: PROCEDURE(rc: Context; lx, ly, rx, uy: LONGINT);  (* current rect procedure *)

Raster contexts are a context extension designed for dealing with raster devices. Their main property is that they perform scan conversion of path elements and call their dot or rect method to render homogeneous areas. Several modules rendering to concrete devices are based on GfxRaster contexts: GfxDisplay for rendering to the Oberon display, GfxBuffer for rendering into image bitmaps, GfxPrinter for using the Oberon printer.

PostScript Contexts

Even if certain Oberon printer drivers are capable of producing PostScript descriptions, the results are often not satisfactory, not necessarily because of quality but because huge files are created which take a long time to transmit and print. Module GfxPS therefore implements a special context extension that maps context methods to corresponding PostScript operations and writes them to a file.

    Context = POINTER TO ContextDesc;
    ContextDesc = RECORD (GfxContexts.ContextDesc)
      psfile: Files.File;  (* output file *)
      out: Files.Rider;  (* rider on output file *)
      width, height: REAL;  (* paper size in default coordinates *)
      left, bot, right, top: REAL;  (* borders in default coordinates *)
      level2, landscape, eps: BOOLEAN;
      res: LONGINT;  (* device resolution *)
  PROCEDURE Init(psc: Context; level2, landscape: BOOLEAN; width, height, left, right, bot, top: REAL; res: LONGINT);
  PROCEDURE InitEPS(psc: Context; level2: BOOLEAN; res: LONGINT);
  PROCEDURE Open(psc: Context; file: Files.File);
  PROCEDURE ShowPage(psc: Context);
  PROCEDURE Close(psc: Context);

The difference between Init and InitEPS is that InitEPS initializes the context such that ShowPage has no effect and that no document structuring comments referring to page numbering are produced. In addition, InitEPS does not restrict output to the given media size and does not provide a landscape option.

Once initialized, the context can be opened on a supplied file with Open. A prolog ( containing several procedures and data structures common to all produced output files is first written to the file. After opening a context, all context procedures are converted to PostScript code and appended to the file.

When printing whole documents, ShowPage should be called whenever a page has been fully rendered, resulting in some code and comments being appended to the file and a new blank page being readied for output.

Once all pages have been generated, Close must be called to add some finishing code and comments and to register the file.

Erich Oswald Mar 2000